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0. Form and margin of Leaf. Inflorescence. Linnean Class.
Linnean Class, and the Orders in it to which the species of this
Genus might be referred.
R. Distinction between the two genera on his paper. 2. Name the Orders to which the plants A to R belong, and arrange them under the eight groups referred to in the following scheme: Class 1. Dicotyledones. Div. 1. Angiospermæ. Sect. 1. Thalamifloræ... Group I.
2. Calycifloræ...... II.
4. Incompletæ ..... IV.
VIII. 3. Describe the fresh specimens S, T, U, &c. in regard to as many of the following particulars as they happen to exhibit.
(6) Flower. (1) Numerical relations of the parts of each whorl, (2) results from cohesion of similar parts, (3) results from adhesion of dissimilar parts (Insertions).
(c) Fruit. (1) Character, (2) Placentation.
(d) Seed. (1) Character, (2) Reasons for determining the character of the Embryo, if too minute for ready inspection. (e) Position in Linnean system.
Most important characteristics of the Natural Order. 4. Contrast the structure of the Fruit, Seed and Embryo of Coniferæ with those of Cupuliferæ.
5. Compare the Tendrils of the Common Pea with those of the Vine, naming the organs of which each respectively are modifications.
6. Describe the growth of some Monocotyledon, stating peculiarities in the germination of its Embryo, organization of stem and leaf, construction of flower and structure of seed.
7. Group the chief vegetable organic compounds under the two heads Nitrogenous and Non-nitrogenous.
8. Name the Inorganic constituents of the Ashes of Plants, and put a cross (+) against those you do not consider essential to vegetation.
1. ENUNCIATE the law of symmetry in the cubic system, and in the two kinds of hemihedral forms. Mention the number and situation of the planes by which the latter are divided symmetrically. How many faces have each of the varieties of simple forms in this system ?
2. Pick out of the collection of models of crystals those which belong to the pyramidal and rhombohedral systems, arranging the pyramidal crystals according to the number of simple forms of which they are combinations; and separating the dirhombohedral combinations from the rest of the models of crystals of the rhombohedral system. Define a zone, and point out the zones that occur in V.
3. Find the angle between normals to the marked faces of crystal H with Carangeot's goniometer; and of crystal K with Wollaston's goniometer.
4. Name the crystals in which it has been shewn that a change of temperature alters the angle between certain faces, and give an account of the observations by which this change of angle is established.
5. Which of the crystals represented by the niodels K, L, M, &c. have two optic axes, one optic axis, or none? Describe the situation of the optic axis, or axes, as well as you can, in each of the two latter cases.
6. Name the minerals of which A, B, C, &c. are models. Point out the inaccuracies of the models P, Q, R.
7. Describe the scale of hardness, and the method of applying it; and give an account of the experiments of Grailich and Pekárek on the hardness of the faces of different simple forms of calcite, and in different directions on the same face.
8. Name the crystalline systems to which the following substances belong, pointing out those which are dimorphous:-Sulphur, selenium, mercury, tin, antimony, carbon, silicon, boron. With what substance is boron isomorphous according to the observations of Q. Sella ?
9. Draw figures of the two ends of a crystal of tourmaline, shewing the faces by which the analogous and antilogous poles may be determined.
10. Give either the names or the chemical formulæ of the minerals that are isomorphous with aragonite, and mention the chemical tests by which they may be distinguished from each other. What change is produced in aragonite by heating it to redness? Do living animals ever secrete aragonite ?
11. Enumerate the simple substances occurring as minerals, that can be volatilized by the heat of a spirit-lamp.
12. What are the essential constituents of pyromorphite, galena, brookite, phenakite, libethenite, malachite, spinelle? To what systems do the crystals of these numerals belong? Name the minerals with which any of them are isomorphous.
13. Name the minerals marked A, B, C, &c. State the systems of crystallization to which they belong respectively. Point out the existence and situation of the cleavages, where indications of cleavage are observable. Mention the cases in which hemihedral forins occur.
14. Of what minerals are syenite, granite, and trachyte composed ? How is the presence of such dense bodies as the metals in the crust of the earth accounted for? Explain the occurrence of minerals containing water in rocks of igneous origin.
15. Name the reagents with which the substances 1, 2, 3, &c. have been heated or fused.
MIXED QUESTIONS. 1. DESCRIBE the locomotive organization of an Echinus, and the mode in which its function is performed.
2. ` Trace by a series of forms the connection of the Crinoidea with the Echinidæ.
3. Define the term “homogangliate” as applied by Owen. Give, with examples, the orders of insects according to some competent authority. To which do you refer the earwig, cockroach, glow-worm, gnat, and ant? What relation do common working ants bear to the flying ants ?
4. In the siphoniferous conchifera how are the siphons related to the rest of their structure? What purpose do they serve, and how is that attained ? Illustrate by some examples.
5. Which reptiles have no teeth? Describe (by means of some par. ticular case) the ordinary structure and attachment of the teeth of reptiles : and mention any remarkable exceptions as to these points in recent or fossil reptiles.
6. Give a short account of the different modes of reproduction in ani. mals, with examples, and a comparison with those of plants.
7. The several parts of a flower are said to be homologous with leaves : explain this, and give an account of the evidence in favour of this theory.
8. How are plants affected by the atmosphere? Shew how they help to maintain an equilibrium in its constitution. Plants are said to store up the heat of the sun: explain this.
9. Describe the structure of bark, and the functions which its parts seem to perform. Explain the common mode of grafting.
10. Name the fossils A, B, C, ... , and the formations to which they severally belong.
11. What are valleys of elevation, and how are they supposed to be produced?
12. Give the “ series" into which British Palæozoic rocks are divided, and explain the grounds of the divisions.
13. What is Mallet's theory of earthquake-movement, and how supported?
14. What is the chemical constitution of an alum? Explain the forma. tion of alum from alum-shale as at Whitby.
15. Name some of the principal ores of silver, and the geological situa. tions in which they occur. Describe and explain the process of separating the silver by amalgamation.
16. In what respects do gypsum and karstenite (anhydrite) resemble and differ from each other? Draw a figure of a crystal of gypsum. How would you describe its cleavage ?
17. What is understood by a natural system of classification? Explain the difficulty of introducing a complete system of classification of this sort in mineralogy
18. Explain the changes which take place in ordinary vinous fermentation; and mention the conditions which appear essential to it. The term alcohol is sometimes used generically, explain what is meant by it.
19. Describe and explain the process of making soap.
Prebious Examination .
PALEY'S EVIDENCES.-(A.) 1. Give the substance of Paley's remarks on Hume's statement that it is contrary to experience that a miracle should be true, but not contrary to experience that testimony should be false.
2. Give verbatim Paley's first proposition.
3. Quote passages from the New Testament which represent Christ as foretelling the persecution of his followers, adding Paley's observations upon them.
4. Recite the testimony of St Clement of Rome relative to the sufferings of the Apostles. When did he live?
5. What inference does Paley draw from the claim to miraculous powers made by ages which followed the promulgation of Christianity?
6. What remarks does Paley make on the existence of early MSS. and versions of the New Testament? To what age is the Alexandrian MS. assigned ?
7. Contrast the accounts of the miracles of Ignatius Loyola with those of Christ's miracles.
8. Give the substance of Paley's remarks on the Lord's prayer.
9. 'Herod had sent forth and laid hold upon John and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife ; for he had married her.' Mark vi. Illustrate this passage from Josephus.