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1854. The present Society consists of the Master, four Foundation Fellows, besides thirteen Bye-fellows, all of whom, with two exceptions, are equally unrestricted as to counties. The election of the fellows is made wholly according to the merit of the candidates and in conformity with the statutes. All the fellows are required to enter into holy orders within three years after their election, if it should please the Master. The statutes provide with respect to candidates for fellowships, that "Nemo pro Socio eligibilis habeatur qui a Magistro ac æquali parte suffragiorum sociorum non approbetur, qui antea examinatus non fuerit, qui Regis auctoritatem post Christum supremam ex conscientia non agnoverit, qui canonicas Scripturas Patribus ac Conciliis humanis omnibus non anteposuerit, denique qui Idololatriam ac cultum superstitiosum cum corporali juramento ante admissionem non abjuraverit."
The gross income of the College from various sources, together with the rents of rooms and fixed college payments, in the year 1851 amounted to about £4130. The payments made out of this sum for stipends, the establishment expenses of the college, and fixed allowances to the bye-fellows, made up about £2440, leaving £1690 to be divided into six portionstwo for the master, and one for each of the four foundation fellows.
In addition to his dividend and the allowance from the Peckard benefaction, each foundation fellow has his rooms rentfree, and an allowance of some £28 per annum for commons, the master receiving twice that sum on the same account.
The scholars on the different foundations are elected by the master and fellows, after an examination in classical literature, and a given subject in divinity, which takes place in the Lent Term. The Statutes direct that in every election those who are learned and poor are to be preferred, and especially those who intend to enter into Holy Orders, and a married man is not excluded from holding a scholarship. No provision was made by the founder for the maintenance of any scholars.
The number of sizars admitted is at present limited to four, and the appointment is claimed by the master. The sizars have their commons free, and receive a certain small payment
each term, which varies with the number of noblemen or fe low-commoners on the boards; and are eligible to scholarshi and exhibitions as other students.
"Certain small sums were left under wills at different tim for the assistance of sizars, as well as poor scholars, but me of them appear to have been lost to the College some way other."
Prizes of books of the value of £2. 12s. 61. are given each of the most distinguished proficients of the three years, the general College Examination in classics and mathemati which takes place at the division of the Easter Term.
A Prize is given of two guineas to the best reader of t lessons in the College-chapel.
The Ecclesiastical Patronage of the College consists of th right of presentation to seven church-livings.
FOUNDED 1546, A.D.
Virtus vera nobilitas.
HENRY VIII. by Letters Patent dated the 19th December, in the thirty-eighth year of his reign, to the glory and honour of Almighty God, and the Holy and undivided Trinity, for the amplification and establishment of the Christian and true religion, the extirpation of heresy and false opinion, the increase and continuance of divine learning and all kinds of good letters, the knowledge of the tongues, the education of youth in piety, virtue, learning and science, the relief of the poor and destitute, the prosperity of the Church of Christ, and the common good and happiness of his kingdom and subjects,-founded and established on the site and precincts of the late Hall and College, commonly called the King's Hall, and of a certain late College of St Michael, commonly called Michael-house, and also of a certain house called Phiswick's Hostel, and of another house called Oving's Inn*; and of one lane lying and being between
* Edward II. by letters patent in the 17th year of his reign, A. D. 1324, to the honour of God, and in augmentation of divine learning, granted and licence gave to his beloved clerk and liege, Hervie Aungier of Stanton in Suffolk, chancellor of the Exchequer, that he might institute and found for all time to endure, in a certain messuage, with the appurtenances in Cambridge, what he had acquired to himself in fee, a certain House of scholars, chaplains, and others, under the name of the House of Scholars of St Michael in Cambridge, to be ruled by a certain master of the same House, according to the ordinance of him the said Hervie. And that the said Hervie might give and assign the messuage aforesaid, with the appurtenances, to the aforesaid Master and Scholars: and that he might give and assign to them the advowson of the church of St Michael in Cambridge, with the appurtenances, and to their successors for ever, so that they might appropriate the same, and hold it appropriated, in aid of their sustentation.
Hervie de Stanton, by a charter dated Thursday before the Feast of St Michael, 1324, founded the House of St Michael, and granted and assigned to the Master and Scholars and their successors, a place of habitation in his messuage, situate in the parish of St Michael, in the street called Milne Street, which he had purchased of Master Roger, the son of the Lord Guy Buttetourte, for ever. By the same charter he made ordinances and statutes for the government of the College: all the scholars were to be priests, or at least in Holy Orders, within a year from the time of their admission. During the reign of Edward II. another licence was granted to Hervie de Stanton to purchase houses for the purpose of enlarging his College.
Hervie de Stanton died at York in 1337, and his body was brought in great state to Cambridge, and was buried in the midst of his scholars, according to his request, in the great chancel of St Michael's Church.
Michael-house on one side, and Phiswick's Hostel on the oth and leading towards the south from the corners of Micha house and Phiswick's Hostel to the gate of King's Hall, a
After his death, John Illeigh, rector of Icklington and Barrington, one of executors, in 1345, gave the manor of Icklington, and endowed a priest and t scholars; and Sir Alexander Waltham, nephew and heir of the founder, also one his executors, gave benefactions to augment the endowments. The members Michael House gradually increased both its buildings and possessions. Amc other benefactors about this time, Henry de Granby, the Master, in 1391, withi king's licence, bought the Hostel of St Margaret, on the east side of Milne Stre In the reign of Henry VI. several pieces of common land were added to the Colle for increasing its buildings. John Fisher, master about 1500, spent £100 buildings and repairs; and his successor, John Fathede, bought much land in t name of the College. Subsequently and before 1541, Michael-house was augment by the addition of Newmarket Hostel.
Francis Mallet, D.D. Master, and the Scholars of Michael House, on the 26 October, 1546, 38 Henry VIII. surrendered this house with all its possessions to tl king, which produced a revenue then rated at £144. 3s. Id.
Edward II. maintained in the University 32 scholars, who were called the King Scholars, but they do not appear to have had any separate or peculiar habitatio there during his reign.
Edward III. by Letters Patent, dated at the Tower of London, the 7th Octobe in the 11th year of his reign, A.D. 1337, to the honour of God, &c. St Mary th Virgin and all Saints, and for the soul of the Lord Edward, his father, late king o England, of famous memory, (who in tender consideration that 32 scholars should in the University of Cambridge have leisure for study, provided them with necessarie for that purpose) also for himself, and his queen Philippa, and of his children and progenitors, ordained, erected, and established for all time to endure, a certain Col lege of 32 scholars, continually studying in the University aforesaid, whom he willed to dwell together in his mansion near the Hospital of St John, in the parish of the church of All Saints, Cambridge, which he had purchased of Robert de Croyland, and that mansion to be called the Hall of the King's Scholars of Cambridge.
The revenue of the House was then £103. 8s. 4d. of which £53. 6s. 8d. was to be paid from the king's exchequer, the original endowment of Edward II. for his 32 scholars; £7. 10s. 8d. by the Abbey of Waltham; £22. 11s. by the burgesses of Scarborough, and £20 by the sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire. The New Hall thus built and endowed was soon found too small for the scholars who assembled there. In 1340, Edward III. granted to the keeper and scholars of his Hall, various tenements and places which he had purchased for augmenting the accommodation of the students, who are stated to have been 36 in number in the close roll of the 13th year of Edward III.
Richard II. gave to the scholars of King's Hall their statutes, and continued to them his grandfather's donations. He also gave them £20 from the manor of Chesterton, and £33. 6s. 8d. out of the revenues of the Abbey of Sautrey, instead of the £53. 6s. 8d. which they had previously received from the exchequer. He also added £70 from the pensions of the abbeys, and gave them 85 marks from the Carthusian convent of St Anne, near Coventry. Henry IV. revised and increased the statutes Henry VI. among other benefactions, gave the conduit to King's Hall. He also gave the advowson of Chesterton, and conferred other benefactions on the
thence leading towards the west unto the river then running near King's Hall, with their appurtenances situate and being in the town and University of Cambridge,―a College of litera
Hall, by means of which great additions were made to their buildings. King's Hall, in ancient times, was the largest foundation in Cambridge, and Dr Caius in his History, states, that King's Hall, for the gravity and wisdom of its fellows, was the orament of the University.
On the 29th October, A.D. 1546, 38 Henry VIII. John Redman, master, and the scholars of King's Hall, surrendered their House and all its possessions to the king, the annual revenue of which amounted to £214. Os. 3d.
William Phiswick, bedell of the University of Cambridge, by his will, bearing date the 4th of the calends of April (29 March), 1384, 7 Rich. II., left his habitation called Phiswick's Hostel, in the parish of St Michael, to Joan his wife and Juliana Bedelle, for their lives, and after their deaths he gave and left his aforesaid habitation, to the College of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called Gonville Hall, being in the same parish, and he charged Master Kirby and Juliana Bedelle to enfeoff the master of the College and two of the fellows to the profit and advantage of the said College. Richard II. by Letters Patent, dated 12th February,' 1393-4, in the 17th year of his reign, licensed Juliana Bedelle to make the proposed grant to the keeper and scholars of the Hall of the Annunciation.
On the 20th March, 1466-7, the 7th year of Edward IV. Edward Story, keeper of the House of St Michael and the scholars of the same, granted to Master Thomas Bolayn, clerk, keeper of the Hall of the Annunciation, a messuage or hostel, called St Margaret's Hostel, then enclosed with walls, in the parish of St Michael, between Phiswick's Hostel on the south front, and a void piece of ground pertaining to King's Hall on the north part, one head abutting on their tenement called the Angel, and the other on the king's highway towards the west; which messuage William Colville, keeper of the House of St Michael, and the scholars of the same, had of the gift of Henry Granby and John Wessenham, bedell, in the 20th year of Richard II. John Sturmyn, Master of Gonville Hall, and the fellows of the same, on the 29th October, 1546, the 38th year of Henry VIII. surrendered to the king their hostel or house, called Phiswick's Hostel, within the Town and University of Cambridge.
Gerrard's, or as it was commonly called, Garret's Hostel, stood on the south side of Michael-house, and also at the end of Findsilver Lane, as also Oving's Inn, called by Parker, Hovingi Hospitium. Dr John Caius states that Oving's Inn took its name from John Oving, clerk, who bought the grounds, then a vacant place, whereon this inn was afterwards seated, of the first prioress of St Rhadegund's, A.D. 1316.
It was sometime after the foundation of Trinity College before any attempts were made to change the face of the old buildings, which remained long a great and irregular mass of houses and gardens. Thomas Neville, D.D. the eighth Master of the College, from 1593 to 1615, was a munificent benefactor of the College. By his motion and encouragement, the College was enabled to carry through the costly design of altering and enlarging the old court into its present form,-one large open square, and building the Hall, towards which he lent them £3000 for seven years, and afterwards at his own charge built the greater part of two sides of a new court behind the Hall, now called Neville's Court.
In 1670, John Hackett, D.D. formerly fellow of the College, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, raised at an expence of £1200, on the site of Garret's Hostel, the building called "Bishop's Hostel," and designed the annual rents to be appropriated for