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ture, the sciences, philosophy, good arts, and sacred theolc for all times to endure, of one master, three public pro sors, and sixty fellows and scholars, to be called “ Tryn College, within the towne and Universitie of Cambridge, Kynge Henry the Eighth's Foundation."
The “Charter of dotation” of Trinity College bears date of Dec. 24, of the same year; and from this Charter appears to what extent Henry VIII. himself added to revenues and possessions of the old foundations, when he uni them into one College. John Redman, the master of Kin Hall, is found named in the “Charter of foundation" as the fi Master of Trinity College. It does not, however, appear fry that document, that any provision on the new foundation w made for Francis Mallet, D.D., the master of Michael-hou or for the masters of Phiswick's Hostel and Oving's Inn.
ever to the purchase of books for the College Library. In the time of Dr Barrow amount was £50 a year, in 1651 it was £229.
In the Mastership of Dr Barrow, 1673-1677, and chiefly by his munificence a exertions in raising subscriptions from the members of the College, the building the College Library was commenced, and about that time the northern and southe sides of Neville's Court were completed by the munificence of two restored fellou Sir Thomas Sclater, and Dr Humphrey Babington. The building was finished the mastership of Dr North, the successor of Dr Barrow.
Queen Mary commenced the building of the present college chapel ont site of the chapel of King's Hall, but died before it was half built. It was finish in the early part of the reign of her successor queen Elizabeth. On Dr Bentley beit appointed master, Mr Bernard Smith, a celebrated organ-builder, promised to mal him a noble organ for the college chapel. The roof of the chapel being then decaye and the building dilapidated, Bentley resolved on a complete reparation of th building, so as to fit it for the reception of the new organ. The arrangement an superintendence of the work was committed to Professor Cotes.
In the years 1717 and 1718, the college-walks were formed on a piece of groun called the back green, and the avenues of lime-trees were planted by the direx tion of Dr Bentley. The cost bestowed upon the walks, though amounting to £500, and that too without order of the seniority, was allowed without giving rise ti any murmur or discontent.
A great addition was made to the collegiate buildings in the years 1823—25. The Mayor and Corporation of the town conveyed to the Master and Fellows of Trinity College some pieces of ground adjacent to the place commonly called Garret's Hostel; and a new court, containing 112 sets of rooms, was erected. The cost of the building was £50,444, of which £12,358 was supplied by voluntary contributions (including £1000 from His Majesty King George IV. and £2000 from the corporate funds of the College), and £37,000 was borrowed from the Exchequer Loan Office. This debt was paid off to the Exchequer Office in 1841, by means of borrowing £9000 from the “Compounder's Fund,” to be repaid to that fund, with interest, in 20 years.
The origin and cause of the foundation of Trinity College is thus described by Fuller :
"There was a general decay of students, no college having more scholars therein than hardly those of the foundation, no volunteers at all, and only persons pressed in a manner by their places to reside. Indeed, on the fall of abbeys fell the hearts of all scholars, fearing the ruin of learning. And these their jealousies they humbly represented in a bemoaning letter to King Henry the Eighth. He comforted them with his gracious return, and to confute their suspicion of the decay of Colleges, acquainted them with his resolution to erect a most magnificent one with all speedy conveniency. Whereupon he seized Michael-house into his hands (whose yearly rents, at old and fasy rates, then amounted to £144. 3s. 1d.), and King's Hall, the best landed foundation in the University. Also he took Fishwick's Hostel, a house unendowed, and allowed the Gonvillians (still (1655] grumbling thereat, as not sufficient compensation), £3 a year in lieu thereof, till he should give them better satisfaction. Of these three he compounded one fair college, dedicating it to the Holy and undivided Trinity, and endowing it with plentiful revenues.”
Queen Mary, on her accession to the throne of England, became a munificent benefactress to the College, and augmented greatly its endowments. By what considerations the Queen was induced to patronize the new foundation of her father is thus stated by Fuller :
“Queen Mary, calling her chief clergy together, consulted with them about public prayers to be made for the soul of King Henry her father, conceiving his case not so desperate, but capable of benefit thereby. They possessed her of the impossibility thereof, and that his Holiness would never consent such honour should be done to one dying so notorious a schismatic. But they advised her, in expression of her private affection to her father's memory, to add to Trinity College (as the best monument he had left); whereon (chiefly at the instance of Bishop Christopherson) she bestowed £376. 10s. 3d. of yearly revenue.”
This revenue was appropriated for the maintenance of
twenty scholars above the number of the original foundat ten choristers with their master, four chaplains, thirteen p scholars (sizatores), and two sub-sizars.
Queen Elizabeth, in the second year of her reign, gav body of Statutes by which the government of the College vested in the Master and the eight senior Fellows. The Statu were revised in the seventh year of the reign of Her Maje Queen Victoria, and by her Letters Patent, the Statutes revised, are those by which the College is governed, and affairs administered.
It is remarked by bishop Monk, that the earlier years 'Trinity College “ were somewhat clouded by the struggles 1 tween the popish and reformed churches; but upon the accessi of Elizabeth, the foundation was completed, and placed upon present liberal footing; giving ample encouragement to t pursuit both of ornamental and useful knowledge, and openii the emoluments of the College as rewards to the merit of t] students in the most unrestricted manner. Accordingly, v find that Trinity College rose at once from the infancy to tl maturity of its fame: and from that epoch to the civil troubl in the reign of Charles I. a period of little more than eight years, it flourished in a manner unexampled in the history academical institutions. During the reigns of Elizabeth an James I., a period when extraordinary attention was shewn to merit in ecclesiastical appointments, a greater number of bishop proceeded from this than from any other society; and it wa: observed about the beginning of the 17th century, that Trinity College might claim at the same time the two archbishops of Canterbury and York, and no less than seven other principal prelates on the English bench. So greatly did theological learning flourish here, that when the present translation of the Bible was executed by order of king James I. no fewer than six of the translators were found among the resident fellows of Trinity College. In elegant literature it claims an equal celebrity. So high was its reputation during this period of which we have been speaking, that fellows of this Society were chosen to fill the headships of the majority of other colleges in the University."
The civil troubles in the time of Charles I. brought ruin and confusion upon Trinity College as well as on other societies: but the Restoration did not bring back the same prosperity or the same spirit that had been banished by the evil times, nor could the College recover the paramount station shich it had so long maintained. Dr John Pearson and Dr Iseae Barrow, two of the brightest characters which grace the period of Charles II. were successively masters. Above all, the presence and example of Sir Isaac Newton* might have been expected to sustain the spirit of a college, the scene of all his great discoveries, where he continued many years a resident fellow. In spite of these advantages, the College was observed to decline in numbers and celebrity in the latter years of the seventeenth century ; and it happened that at that time, the list of its fellows was more destitute of distinguished names than at any preceding or subsequent period.
The principal causes of this state of affairs, may be found in a relaxation of discipline and a departure from that principle of Trinity College, namely—admission to the founder's bounty, only upon the score of merit.
This practice experienced an interruption in the times of civil discord, when fellows were appointed by the nomination of parliamentary commissioners, and subsequently of the Protector. After the Restoration, Charles II. being probably urged to assume the same patronage as had been exercised by the usurper, frequently sent to Trinity College royal mandates for elections to fellowships; which the Society, though plainly contrary to their statutes, were constrained to obey. In the short reign of James II. this exercise of arbitrary power was carried still further, every vacancy among the fellowships + being filled by mandatory letters from the king. Although the College was delivered by the Revolution from future invasions of its privileges, yet some of the intruded fellows having obtained
* To the Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, edited by the Res. J. Edleston, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, is prefixed a synoptical view of the Philosopher's life, and a variety of interesting details illustrative of his history.
† There is a slight oversight in this expression, the words—"excepting at the first election in September, 1685," should have been added, as the election was quite regular in that year.
office by their seniority, and not being indebted to indust or learning for their own preferment, wanted both ability a disposition to encourage those qualifications in others.
Soon after the death of his queen, King William III. w induced to appoint in the year 1696, a commission of bishops to recommend fit persons for high preferments whi were in the royal patronage. On the mastership of Trini College becoming vacant, the commissioners recommend Dr Bentley to fill that important office, as no better reme for restoring the character of the College could be devise than the appointment of a master possessed of talents, energ and reputation, and well-known as a most able critic al controversialist. On the first of February, 1700, Dr Bentl was installed master, having first taken the oath to preser unbroken the statutes of the College, and to consult the con mon benefit rather than his own private interests. Bentle had no previous connexion with the College, having been edi cated at St John's College; and besides not having been residei for some years in the university, he was wholly unacquainte with the spirit and feelings of the place, Bentley regarde with contempt the fellows over whom he was called to preside and the preferment itself he seems to have valued chiefly o account of its income, and as a step in the ladder of advance ment. There were besides certain defects in his characte which made him a person not to be safely trusted with autho rity, and these very soon shewed themselves. In his administration he was actuated by too arbitrary a spirit to brook any restraint upon his authority, and would never suffer the statutes, customs, or even the interests of the College, to stand in the way of any favourite project. His plan was to strengthen and perpetuate his power by securing to himself all appointments and all patronage whatsoever. By an unworthy manæuvre he managed to get himself appointed Regius Professor of Divinity. He unscrupulously applied vexatious annoyances to force the seniors to submit to his wishes, and by his unwarrantable conduct, embroiled the College in troubles for many years, and at a damage to the college-chest for legal expenses of not less than £4000. The proceedings of Dr Bentley produced their natural effect upon the minds