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will have budded and be dressed, and when God will give to his flock pastors according to his own heart who will not feed themselves, but the flock of the Lord, and when at last envy, which usually finds pleasure only in persecuting the living, will leave the dead at rest. *
The second tedious and troublesome labyrinth into which I was drawn, were my irenetical labours, that is, my various en. deavours and exertions to put an end, if it should please God, to the various pernicious, nay nearly destructive controversies of Christians about articles of faith, and to unite the different parties. I have not yet published any of these writings, but a time will come when they will appear, and when they will be allowed to appear.
There is at present such a time, as that when Elijah lodged in a cave in Mount Horeb, not venturing to go out of it (1 Kings xix.); for a tempest roared and shook the mountains and rent the rocks before the Lord ; and an earthquake and fire came; but the Lord was neither in the tempest, nor in the earthquake, nor in the fire.
But a time will come, when Elijah will hear the still small voice and will be allowed to go forth out of his cave, and hear the word of the Lord, and speak again to him and to his people. At present every one thinks his Babylon to be exceedingly beautiful and imagines that she is without cog. troversy Jerusalem herself, and demands that all others shall yield to her; but she herself is not to yield one hair-breadth to any one,
(To be continued.)
* It seems that by the exertions which are now made in various countries to introduce an improved system of instruction, God would fulfil the hope which his aged servant here expresses. Those who have some knowledge of Pestalozzi's system of instruction, will be pleased to hear that one section of this part of his didactical works treats expressly of this subject : “ How our schools ought to be organized according to the pattern of the first school of God in Paradise, in which God caused Adam to look at and denominate all things?"—Note by the Translator,
+ I am sorry to say, that, as far as I have been able to ascertain, none of these, doubtless invaluable writings bas ever been published, Note by the Translator.,
STATE OF SOCIETY IN GLASGOW.
From Lumsden's Enumeration of the Iohabitants of Scotland.
From 1500 to 1550,-Prior to this time, the inhabitants of this city and neighbourhood were governed by churchmen, who kept them in such a state of ignorance and superstition, as was truly deplorable Towards the end of this period the principles of the glorious reformation began to be acknowledged, when it pleased God to raise up powerful agents in Edinburgh and Glasgow, in the persons of Knox and Melville.
From 1550 to 1600.—During this period the reformation took place. The great body of the people, however, still retained their fierce and sanguinary disposition, this is strikingly marked in their being constantly armed, even their ministers were accoutered in the pulpit. The number of murders, cases of incest,' and other criminal acts which were turned over to the censures of the church, but too plainly point out the depraved character of the people.
From 1600 to 1650,- The distinguishing character of the people during this division of time, is marked by malignity of disposition. Their belief in, and treatment of witches, second sight, &c. afford strong symptoms of superstition, grounded on ignorance; and the profanation of the Sabbath, by working and rioting on that day, display gross profanity.
From 1650 to 1700.-During the beginning of this period and the latter end of the former, the people who had become more civilized, and paid more attention to moral and religious duties, were dreadfully harrassed and persecuted by an intolerant go. vernment, who seemed determined to enforce a form of religion which was inimical to the people. The abdication of James II. and with him the exclusion of the Stuart family, brought about the happy revolution which put an end to the religious troubles.
From 1700 to 1750.- The union with England, which took place in the beginuing of this period, opened up a spirit for trade in this city, formerly unknown. The increase of population
and trade, naturally brought wealth and prosperity, notwithstanding the untoward effects of disease, famine, desolating: fires, and the rebellions which took place in the years 1715 and 1745.
From 1750 to 1823.—Towards the beginning of this period, the trade and commerce of the town was in the hands of a few enterprising individuals, who had entered deeply into the Virginia trade; these persons were looked up to by their fellow-citizens, as a superior class of beings. This order of things remained till the commencement of the American war, when the trade and wealth of the place began to be more generally diffused, through the medium of the colonies. During the reign of the Virginians, the Glasgow aristocracy had a privileged walk at the Cross, which they trod in long scarlet cloaks and bushy wigs; and such was the state of society at this time, that when a plebeian happened to quarrel with one of the chiefs.it was certain ruin, for the quarrel soon became general. At this period, when any of the most respectable master tradesmen of the city had occasion to speak to a tobacco lord, it was usual to walk to and fro on the opposite side of the street, till he was furtunate enough to meet the eye of his employer, for it would have been presumption to have interrupted him on promenade. Such was the practice of the C-g-, the S-i-s, the G--8, the D—m-s, and others; and from this servility, the Langs, the Ferries, the Martins, the Claytons and others, who, at that time were at the head of their professions, and had done muchi to improve the mechanical trade of the place, were not exempt.
During the first and middle part of this period, profane swearing was considered as a gentlemanlike qualification, and dissipation at dinner parties was dignified with the appellation of hospitality and friendship; and he who did not send his guest from his house in a state of intoxication, was considered un. worthy of genteel society. In the latter part of this division of time, the state of society has undergone a thorough change; the trade and commerce of the town is now diffused over a great proportion of the enterprising inhabitants, and since the opening
of the publie coffee-house in 1781, the great distinction of rank has disappeared, and a rational amalgamation taken its place; wealth is not now the only criterion of respect, for persons in the middle walk of life, who conduct themselves with propriety, and render themselves useful, hare a higher place assigned them in the community than at any former period of the history of the town. The mode of conducting entertainments is now greatly improven; every man drinks what he pleases, after which he usually retires to the drawing room; drunkenness and dissipation at dinner parties are now happily wknown, and profane swearing is considered as ungentlemanlike and highly reprehensible; this has been carried so far, that swearing in good society is seldom or never heard. The bible and missionary societies which have been instituted during this period, have done much to break down every thing like distinction among individuals professing different religious opinions.
The inhabitants of this city are justly characterised as chari. table and humane, and on all proper occasions, the feelings of compassion and the energies of active benevolence are never awanting. Although this character is general to the population, it is not universal; for in this community there are many persons who act as if they lived only for themselves, and desire to know nothing but what may be conducive to their own particular interest or pecuniary advantage.
The members of the community whose circumstances have placed them above the rank of a labouring artizan, may be classed into three divisions.
The first in order, but last in respect, are those, who, though wealthy, or at least easy in their circumstances, lend a deafear to the tale of woe, and who neither contribute their time nor their means to the relief of the wretched.
The second are those who give none of their time to the pube lic, and whose charities are in a manner extorted through the influence of respectable applicants, or the favour of public opinion; than this class, who may be considered as the drones of society, there are none more ready to find fault with the admi.
nistrators of the municipal or charitable concerns of the place, and are ever ready to grasp at that patronage which so justly belongs to those who give so much of their valuable time to the general concerns of the community, without fee or reward.
The third class are those who voluntarily contribute their time and their money to the service of the community, in the various departments of usefulness. Through the providence of God, this class has, of late years, greatly increased in numbers and respectability of character and worldly estate, which, taken in connexion with other circumstances, have tended, in no small degree, to the increase of morality, religion, and active benevolence, in this great community.
As a summary of the whole. A careful perusal of the foregoing historical scraps, embracing a period of more than five hundred years, will satisfy every unprejudiced reader, that his religious and political privileges are far superior to that of his forefathers. The laws are now equally and mildly administered; every man's house is his castle, property is protected, and liberty of conscience is such, that he may worship God according to the dictates of his own mind, no man to make him afraid : the unrestricted possession of these inestimable blessings should tend greatly to prevent discontent, and mitigate sufferings in times of distress.
MINISTERS IN AMERICA. Mr. Bristed's Estimate of the number of Ministers in Ame.. rica is as follows:Methodist, travelling preachers,
1000 local preachers,
1300 Episcopal Church,
300 All other denominations,