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lectual and moral improvement of this nation, allow us with spea cial confidence to rely on your experience and opinion, your counsels, and your aid. Fully persuaded as we are that no interest separate from, or opposite to, that which we seek in the sacred cause will ever be embraced in your designs, it shall be our steady aim to afford every facility in our power for the promotion of your most extended usefulness in these islands of the sea, whose salvation we would unitedly seek. • Thine are we David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse, peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers, for thy God helpeth thee.'-—' Lift up thine eyes and look around on the fields, for they are white already to the har. vest;

and he that reapeth receiveth wages and gathereth fruit unto life eternal, that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together.'

“We are, dear brother, very affectionately yours in the labour and fellowship of the Gospel,

HIRAM BINGHAM, ASA THURSTON.

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The King's letter.

Oahu, 31st March, 1823, “ Great affection to you dwelling together in Britain. These are my words to you, which I now make known.

We have recently learned to read, and have become acquainted with it. We have respect unto God, and desire Jehovah for our God. We also regard Jesus Christ, as a Saviour for us, that our hearts (or thoughts] may be like yours.

“ Ours is a land of dark hearts. Had you not compassionated us, even now we should be quite dark. But, no, you have compassionated us, and we are enlightened. We are praying unto God, and we are listening to the word of our salvation. We also keep the 'sacred day of Jehovah, the Sabbath, which is one good thing that we have obtained; one good thing that we have lately known to be a temporal good. Mr. Ellis is come here to this place, we desired his coming, we rejoice. He is teaching us that we may all be saved.

“ Write ye unto me, that I may know what you write (or, your writing to me.) Pray ye also to God for us, that He would give salvation for us, that our bodies, (ways, actions, walk, conversation, &c.) may be made good, that our souls may be saved by Jesus Christ. Great affection for you all.

(Signed) TAMEHAMEHA, King of the Sandwich Islands.

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Scientific Department.

GEOLOGY. Our Scientific readers are aware that Professor Buckland has published an important and interesting volume, under the appropriate title of Reliquiæ Diluviane. It is principally a registry of facts. The deductions from them differ essentially from the views of Mr. Penn, in his able work formerly noticed; and on a future occasion we may be induced to examine their difference. We have pleasure however in observing, that the Professor is likewise an unaffected and sincere asserter of the authority of the Divine Records. Indleed the object of his whole volume is to confirm, beyond a possibility of doubt, the scriptural history of the Deluge. In addition to the phenome. na observed in the various caves and fissures which he has examined, he gives the following classification of universally occurring facts which go to establish his grand general conclusion.

"1. The general shape and position of hills and valleys; the former having their sides and surfaces universally modified by the action of violent waters, and presenting often the same alternation of salient and retiring angles that marks the course of a common river : and the latter, in those cases wbich are called valleys of denudation, being attended with such phenomena as shew them to owe their existence entirely to excavation under the action of a flood of water.

** 2. The almost universal confluence and successive inosculations of minor valleys with each other, and final termination of them all in some main trunk which conducts them to the sea; and the rare interruption of their courses by transverse barriers producing lakes.

“3. The occurrence of detached insulated masses of hori: zontal strata, called outliers, at considerable distances from the beds of which they once evidently formed a coptinuous

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part, and from which they have been separated at a recent period by deep and precipitous valleys of denudation.

4. The immense deposits of gravel that occur occasionally on the summit of hills, and almost universally in valleys over the whole world, in situations to which no torrents or rivers that are now in action could ever have drifted them.

“5. The nature of this gravel being in part composed of the wreck of the neighbouring hills, and partly of fragments and blocks that have been transported from distant regions.

“6. The nature and condition of the organic remains deposited in this gravel, many of them being identical with species that now exist, and very few having undergone the smallest process of mineralization. Their condition resembles that of common grave bones, being in so recent a state, and having undergone so little decay, that if the records of history, and the circumstances that attend them, did not absolutely forbid such a supposition, we should be inclined to attribute them even to a much later period than the deluge: and certainly there is in my opinion no single fact connected with them, that should lead us to date their origin from any more ancient era.

7. The total impossibility of referring any one of these appearances to the effect of ancient or modern rivers, or any other causes that are now, or appear ever to have been, in action, since the retreat of the diluvian waters.

" 8. The analogous occurrence of similar phenomena in almost all the regions of the world that have hitherto been scientifically investigated, presenting a series of facts that are uniormly cousistent with the hyphothesis of a contemporaneousand diluvial origin.

“9. The perfect harmony and consistency in the circumstances of those few changes that now go on (e.g. the formation of ravines and gravel by mountain torrents; the limited depth and continual growth of peat bogs; the formation of tufa, sand-banks, and deltas; and the filling up of lakes, estuaries, and marshes,) with the hypothesis which dates the commencement of all such operations at a period not more ancient

Artificial formation of Haloes.

147

than that which our received chronologies assign to the deluge.

** All these facts, whether considered collectively or sepaa rately, present such a conformity of proofs, tending to establish the universality of a recent inundation of the earth, as no difficulties or objections that have hitherto arisen are in any way sufficient to overrule.”

ARTIFICIAL FORMATION OF HALOES.

The following experiment, which illustrates in a pleasing manner the actual formation of haloes, has been given by Dr. Brewster. Take a saturated solution of alum, and having spread a few drops of it over a plate of glass, it will rapidly crystallize in small flat octoedrons scarcely visible to the eye. When the plate is held between the observer and the sun or a candle, with the eye very close to the smooth side of the glass plate, there will be seen three beautiful haloes of light at different distances from the luminous body. The innermost halo, which is the whitest, is formed by the images refracted by a pair of faces of the octoedral crystals, not much inclined to each other ; the second halo, which is more coloured, with the blue rays outwards, is formed by a pair of faces more inclined and the third halo, which is very large and highly-coloured, is formed by a still more inclined pair of faces. Each separate crystal forms three images of the luminous body placed at points 1ạo distant from each other in all the three haloes; and, as the numerous small crystals have their refracting faces turned in every possible direction, the whole circumference of the haloes will be completely filled up.

The same effects may be obtained with other crystals, and when they have the property of double refraction, each halo will be either doubled when the double refraction is considerable, or rendered broader or otherwise modified in point of colour, when the double refraction is small. The effects

may be curiously varied by crystallizing, upon the same plate of glass, crystals of a decided colour, by which means we should have white and coloured haloes succeeding each other.- Edin. Phil. Jour. vol, viii. p. 394.

A NEW FLUID DISCOVERED IN MINERALS. A new fluid, of a very singular nature, has been recently discovered by Dr. Brewster, in the cavities of minerals. It possesses the remarkable property of expanding about thirty times more than water; and, by the heat of the hand, or be. tween 750 and 830, it always expands so as to fill the cavity which contains it. The vacuity which is thus filled up is of course a perfect vacuum, and, at a temperature below that now mentioned, the new fluid contracts, and the vacuity re-appears, frequently with a rapid effervescence. These phenomena take place instantaneously in several hundred cavities, seen at the same time, The new fluid is also remarkable for its extreme volubility, adhering very slightly to the sides of the cavities, and is likewise distinguished by its optical properties; it exists, however, in quantities too small to be susceptible of chemical analysis. This new fluid is almost always accompanied with another fluid like water, with which it refuses to mix, and which dues not perceptibly expand at the above-mentioned temperature. In a specimen of cymophane, or chrysoberyl, Dr. Brewster has discovered a stratum of these cavities, in which he has reckoned, in the space of one-seventh of an inch square, 30,000 cavities, each containing this new fluid, a portion of the fluid like water, and a vacuity besides. All these vacuities simultaneously disappear at a temperature of 830.-Edin. Phil. Jour.

BOTANY.

Plants in flower, in the Mission Garden, in the month of April,

1824. Monandria Monogynia.-Canna indica-coccinea-coccinea maculata---nepalensis-- limbata--polymorpha. Phrynium dichotemum-spicatum-capitatum.

Kempferia rotunda.

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