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On the Liquifaction of Gases. -Mr. Faraday, of the Royal Institution, has made some important and successful exi periments on this subject. He first succeeded in condensing chlorine into a liquid. A portion of the solid and dried hya drate of chlorine was put into a small bent tube, and hermetis cally sealed ; it was then heated to about 100° F. and a yellow vapour formed which condensed into a deep yellow liquid hea. vier than water. Upon relieving the pressure by breaking the tube, the condensed chlorine instantly assumed its usual state of gas or vapour.
He found also that, when perfectly dry chlorine is condensed into a tube by means of a syringe, a pore tion of it assumes the liquid form under a pressure equal to that of four or five atmospheres. Mr. F, next succeeded in liquifying muriatic acid gas.
He put some muriate of ammonia and sulphuric acid into the op posite ends of a bent glass tube, which he sealed hermetically, and then suffered the acid to run upon the salt; muriatic acid was generated under such pressyre as caused it to assume
the liquid form ; it was of an orange colour, lighter than sulphuric acid, and instantly assumed the gaseous state when the pressure was removed. By pursuing the same mode of experimenting, sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphurous acid, carbonic acid, cyanogen, euchlorine, and nitrous oxide, have also been found to assume the liquid form under pressure.
Mr. Perkins, during his researches upon high-pressure steam seems to have ascertained that atmospheric air is liquifi. ed under a pressure of about 1100 atmospheres. He says, that, the air upon compression disappeared, and in its place was a small quantity of a fluid, which remained so when the pres. sure was removed, had little or no taste, and did not act on the skin. The experiments evidently require repetition, and may possibly lead to much more important results than those of Mr. Faraday.
On the Chinese Year. In the Philosophical Transactions for 1823, part 1st, there is a paper on the Chinese Year, by J. F. Effects of buining on Limestone or Chulk.
Davis, Esq. F. R. S. of which the following notice is given in Brande's Journal for January, 1824.
“ One of Mr. Davis's objects in this paper appears to be, to shew the folly of attributing any thing original in astronomical -science to the Chioese, who were entirely ignorant of its ob. jects and principles, before its introduction into their empire by the Arabians, and afterwards by the European missionaries. On this one subject, says the author, that singular nation has deviated from its established prejudices and maxims against introducing what is foreign,--they have even adopted the errors of European astronomy, for he discovered in a Chinese book, the exact representation of the Ptolemaic system,ếhe adds “indeed it is impossible not to smile at the idea of attributing any science to a people whose learned books are filled with such trampery as the diagrams of Fo-hi, and a hundred other puerilities of the same kind." Mr. Davis offers several other proofs of the talent which the Chinese possess of stealing the discoveries of other nations and appropriating them to them. selves.
“The author proceeds to show that the Chinese have no solar year, but that the Chinese year is in fact alunar year, consisting of twelve months of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, with the triennial intercalation of a thirteenth month to make it correspond more nearly with the sun's course.
Peculiar effects of burning on Limestone or Chalk.—M. Vicat has lately obtained some singular results in the burning of lime. Many years since he observed, whilst burning pure lime with charcoal and coal in a small furnace, that if the fragments of lime on passing through the furnace into the ash-pit, were again put in with fresh fuel, and this many times successively, a lime was obtained incapable of slaking, but which, broken up and made into a paste, had the remarkable character of setting under water.
It is an old opinion among'lime burners 'that'limestone which has cooled before it has been completely burnt, cannot by any
Effects of burring on Limestone or. Chalk:
quantity of fuel be converted into quick lime and M. Vicat considers this opinion as supported by the experiment above. It appears to result, M. Vicat says, that pure calcareous matter, as chalk or marble for instance, may be brought by fire into an intermediate state, being neither lime nor carbonate, and that in this state it has the property, when pulverised and made into a paste, of setting under water.
Chalk converted into lime, and slaked in the usual way, yields a lydrate, which, made into a paste, will not liarden in water : but the same lime left to fall into powder by long exposure to the air, and then made into a stiff paste with water, will solidify very sensibly after immersion. The action of the air, here occasions the formation of a compound analogous to that afforded by imperfectly burnt chalk, being like that, peither completely lime or completely carbonate ; and it enjoys the same hydraulic properties.
Ten equal portions of finely-powdered chalk were taken, and a plate of cast iron being heated red hot, they were placed upon it; one portion was allowed to remain three minutes, another six, a third nine, and so on, and during the time they remained on the plate they were continually stirred, that all parts might be equally calcined. These portions were mixed up, with a small quantity of water, into pastes of equal consistency, no signs of slaking were observed; the first portions gave the ordinary odour of moistened chalk, the latter portions gave the alkaline odour belonging to lime, and were decidedly alkaline. After twenty-four hours of immersion in water all the numbers, except the first had set, as hydraulic lime would bave done, and became harder daily, whilst the first remained soft. When, after some time, the comparative hardness of the second and the tenth were tried, no apparent difference could be pere ceived. Viewing these substances as mixtures, in various proportions of lime and carbonate of lime, M. Vicat thought it probable they might be imitated, but no mixture made by adding lime and carbonate of lime, to each other, gave the least sigřs of solidification under water. --Brande's Journal.
CHITTAGONG. Extract of a letter from Mr. Johannes, dated 14th. June, 1824: _“You are no doubt anxious to learn how we are getting on, after the fears that have been entertained of our safety; all is quiet now, and nothing further to be feared. The inhabitants are returning to their respective habitations, and with them, I am happy to add, some of my children if not all.
s. Most of the boys are at Chittagong now. They are yet unsettled and undecided in mind. The rains are heavy and incessant; this is the time for them to plough their fields; and sickness prevails, These, with other unavoidable circumstances, have kept them a. way: however before the rains are over, they will all attend. Since this month the attendance has been from ten to thirty. The newly formed female schools have likewise been considerably thinned. The one which contained thirty-four, is now reduced to twenty-four girls. The other has fourteen in attendance.”
In another letter of the 15th June, Mr.J.says, “ The Mug Chris. tians are here now, and as they are so greatly distressed I wish to know, whether we can at all ameliorate their wretched condition. They have been deprived of all their property, and they have not even a morsel for their subsistence now; all they brought with then, they have spent. They cannot obtain employment here, and they came to me yesterday, expressiny a wish to proceed to Serampore, to apply to the brethren for assistance. Cannot a collection be made for them? Any small sums given will greatly relieve them in this distressing season. Do let us attend to their ory. They are destitute ; they are our brethren. If we do not assist them, who will ? and whither can they go but to us? They have never made any such request before, but have always mania fested a spirit of independence, and at this critical emergency, when they are compelled to be under obligation to brethren, shall we not administer to their wants out of our little ? We ought certainly to distribute to the necessities of saints, remembering what Christ has said ;“ In as much as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me."
POOREE.-In a letter lately received from Mrs. Peggs, she gives the following interesting recital:~"Since we have been at Pooree, there has been a suttee, a short distance from the bungalow. We were not apprized of it until the poor woman was almost burnt to
a cinder; but several spectators affirmed that, instead of going round the pile three times, as usual, she went round but once, and then hastily threw herself into the flames. Her husband was a very respectable landholder, and proprietor of one of the largest éstates in this district; he was between sixty and seventy years of age. He had been labouring under a paralytic affection for the last two years, and finding it likely to terminate fatally, he came bere two or three months before his death, that he might obtain the reward promised to all who die in this holy place. His wife, aged about sixty, followed him a short time after, with the avowed determination of burning herself,
“Instead of a funeral pile, as in Bengal, the funeral fire is placed in a small pit, into which the body of the husband is first put, and the fire lighted. The widow, after certain ceremonies, walks thrice round the flaming pit, and then throws herself into it. The bodies are not, however, allowed to be entirely consumed in the pit, but are dragged out while still distinguishable, and consumed in separate fires on the brink. The use of the pit instead of the pile is com. mon all through Orissa, but the practice of removing the bodies seems to be peculiar to Pooree. The reason of the removal is, to preserve a small portion of the ashes of father and mother to be thrown into the Ganges. Oh when will these abominable murders cease !"
RANGOON.-We doubt not all our readers participate in our anxjety respecting our Missionary friends in the Burman Empire, and will rejoice in perusing the following affecting statement of past deliverances. Of course no danger need now be apprehended at Rangoon; but at Ava we know not what to anticipate. It is some ground of consolation, that more desperate circumstances çaą scarcely be conceived, than were those of our friends at Rangoon, and yet they were saved. It would be a hard and impious heart, that did not, in such a situation, acknowledge the merciful interposition of God: and now we have past and recent experience, on which to rest our hopes for the future, The letter we now puh. Jish is written by Mrs. W. It will speak for itself. Its first date is May 20th.