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Proper Application of Science.
in the class-room, and the lightning falls within the mimickry of his own electrical machine ;---when the skill and labours of the gardener enable him to anticipate the varied characters and appearances of the productions of the soil ;- and when he ascertains that the danger he dreaded was averted by a proximate cause, palpable and sure ;--when all these circumstances are displayed, ono after the other, before him, a veil is as it were drawn aside, the phenomena of nature are exposed in their proximate machinery, and the natural impressions of awe, and fear, and gratitude, are all effaced. The phenomena are no longer directly attributed to the agency of God, and pride elevates human reason to the throne of Jehovah'--pp. 38—40,
“We regret that we are unable to follow this able and animated writer through his highly interesting sketch of universal physics,' but we very strongly recommend it to our readers, and pass on to the closing pages of this little but important book. Having in a brief but very spirited way, illustrated the connexion between science and religion, Mr. Campbell sums up as follows:
"G. Shall we not conclude, that whether the student be employed in contemplating the wonders which Astronomy unfolds, or the no less wonderful exhibitions which are every where around him on the earth, instead of repressing that admiration, which such a splendid and varied display is calculated to excite, and instead of confiping the active faculties of his soul, to the measurement of the distances, the densities, and the forces of the planets, or to the mere mechanical exposition of those beautiful laws by which the operations of nature are regulated, he should be encouraged, through these various objects of interesting contemplation, to cherish the recollection of that, which it is of vastly more importa ance to contemplate-Who it was by whom all this wondrous fabric was made.-And who is that Being who commanded the world into existence,---who said, “Let there be light, and there was light ?'—That mighty potentate, who amidst such an endless variety of his works, pervades, directs, and controls the universe —who is this King of Glory, that the everlasting gates may be opened to admit him in triumph, amidst the glad hosannahs of his creatures ?-He is Jesus of Nazareth,-He who was rejected and
despised of men,--He, who died on the Cross on Calvary for tho salvation of perishing sinners.- Is there one fact the student can learn in all the range of Philosophy, half so interesting, half so momentous as this ? And why is it, then, that when exhibiting and explaining the marvellous works which our Lord hath done, a public teacher should feel either delicacy, or difficulty, in impressing on the mind of a young student, that these are his Redeemer's works,-that His are the glorious attributes they display?" pp. 136-138.
ELEMENTS OF THE COMET OF 1823.4.–We once hoped to have had it in our power to give these Elements from Observations made in Calcutta, and therefore promised them. Uncontroulable circumstances, however, prevented the fulfilment of that promise: but we can now amply supply our deficiency by taking the following article from the Quarterly Journal of Science for April last. We know it will be particularly acceptable to those gentlemen who made observations upon the Comet, in India ; and should a comparison of these results with their own, suggest any thing worthy of notice, we shall be exceedingly happy to receive from them any communication on the subject.
“1. The first received by the Editor were from Mr. J. Taylor of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. 2. The second are by Professor Nicolai Schumacher, Astr. N: N. 48. B. 3 ; giving the greatest error in A. R. +18”, in decl. +11”. 3. The third by Mr. Hansen, A. N. 48, B. 3. 4. The fourth by Carlini. 5. The fifth by Dr. Brink, ley. 6. The sixth by Mr. Richardson, of Greenwich,
1. 1923, Dec. 9.3697d Greenwich
9.47193 Altona Passage of Perihelium
9.4792 Greenwich 5.
9 21.68 Greenwich 6.
(1. 302° 56' 34 4. ' 3030 4' 4" : Longitude of Node 2. 303 1 18 : 5. 303 0 40
(3. 303 3 22 6. 303 1 43, 28 43 54
8 – Perihelium 2. 28 43 46
5. 29 18 50 3. 28 29 55
6. 28 20 6 (1. 9.3598242 4. 9.3545000 Log. nearest distance 2. 9.3579600 .5. 9.3689400
3. 9.3553934 6. 9.3536855
SIR THOMAS BRISBANE'S EXPERIMENTS ON THE Pen; DULUM.-By means of a pendulum belonging to the Board of Longitude, and similar to that used by Captain Kater and Cap. tain Hall, Sir Thomas Brisbane made a series of experiments at Paramatta, in 1822. The pendulum having been swung in London, and observed both by Captain Kater and Sir Thomas Brisbane, it was found that it performed 86090.17 vibrations at London, in Lat. 51° 31'8”.4, in a mean solar day, at 60° of Fahrenheit, and in a vacuum, At Paramatta in E. Long. 151° 0' 15," and S. Lat. 33° 48' 43," the same pendulum performed 86021.59 vibrations, according to Sir Thomas Brisbane's observations, and 86022.21 according to the observations of Mr. Dunlop, his scientific assistant. By comparing Sir
Thomas's' results with those made in London, Captain Kater has found that 39,07696 inches is the length of the pendulum yibrating seconds at Paramatta ; .0052704 the diminution of gravity from the pole to the Equator, and the resulting
295.81 compression, the seconds-pendulum at London being taken at 39.13929 inches, By comparing the same experiments with those made by Captain Kater, at Unst, in Lat. 60° 45' 23" N. the diminution of gravity is .0053605, and the resulting compression, By comparing the results of Mr. Dunlop's observations with his own in London, Captain Kater finds the length of the seconds-pendulum at Paramatta to be 39.07751, the diminution of gravity .0052238, and the compression zu1.83 Comparing these with the Unst observations, the diminu. tion of gravity is .0053292, and the compression 30.1.0.se Edin, Phil. Journal.
The Asiatic Society has been favoured with a communication, from the Madras Government, intimately connected with the preceding article. It is au account of an Expedition fitted out
from the Madras Observatory, for ascertaining the length of the seconds-pendulum at the Equator. The Expedition was set on foot by Mr. Góldingham, under the encouragement of Sir Thomas Munro, and Sir Stamford Raffles, in 1821. In 1822, the party under Captain Crisp arrived at Bencoolen, and after some time occupied in searching for an eligible spot, stationed themselves on a small island, named Gaunsah Lout, in January 1824. The Latitude of the island was 0° 1'48”. 73. The observations and experiments were continued till the end of March, and were very numerous and laborious. The details form the bulk of the Report, á folio of 268 pages, including, however, a series of observations to determine the geographical position of a number of places in the vicinity. The result as it regards the main object of the Expedition, is, that the length of the Pendulum on the Equator is ascertained to be 39.02125994 inches.
PERKINS's STEAM Engine, &c.-" The delay which has taken place in the construction of Mr. Perkins's Steam Engine, has arisen solely from the difficulty of constructing a genera, tor capable of retaining the steam under high pressure, without leakage at the seams and joints. Under this difficulty, Mr. Perkins very properly declined to exbibit an imperfect experiment of his invention. We are glad, however, to find, that Mr. James Russell of Wednesbury, has succeeded in constructing a generator of wrought iron, without any seam or rivets, which we learn has been proved to resist the enormous and incredible pressure of twenty thousand pounds upon every inch of its surface. Mr. Perkins considers this extraordinary piece of workmanship as enabling him to surmount all his practical difa
ficulties. :, The great power of Mr. Perkins's engine he has recently illustrated by some singular experiments. He has construct. ed a small apparatus, which, when connected with the gene. rator, has been found to discharge ordinary inusket bullets at the rate of 210 in the minute, and with such tremendous force,
ElectricityOrang Outang in Sumatra.
that after passing through an inch deal, the ball, in striking against an iron-target, became fattened on one side, and squeezed out. The original size of the bullets was 0.65 of an inch, but after striking the target, they were plano-convex, and their diameter 1.070 inches, and 0.29 of inch thick.”– Edin. Phil. Jour. April, 1824.
ELECTRICITY PRODUCED BY SEPARATION OF PARTS. “In the fine water-proof cloths manufactured by Charles Mackintosh, Esq. of Glasgow, where two pieces are cemerited togee ther by caoutchouc, dissolved in coal-tar oil, the adhesion is so complete, that when the two are torn from one another in the dark there is a bright flash of electric light, similar to what is produced by tearing asunder plates of mica, by bursting Prince Rupert's drops, or by breaking barley sugar, or sugar-candy. Upon trying this experiment with different substances, we found that flashes of light were distinctly produced by tearing quickly a piece of Cotton cloth.”-Edin. Phil. Jour.
NATURAL HISTORY.-Orang Outang.-It has been generally believed, that the Great Orang Outang was to be found only in Africa, and it has been doubted whether"Orang Outangs existed in Sumatra at all. We have much pleasure, there fore in being able to give the following decided information on the subject. It is contained in an extract of a letter from Mr. Burton of Tappanooly, Sumatra, to Mr. N. Ward, of Bencoolen.
“I must not omit to mention that Messrs, Craygman and Fish, officers of the Mary Anne Sophia, have lately killed near Tarumon an immense Orang Outang, measuring in height six feet, spanning with its arms nearly eight; its foot fourteen and a half inches in length. I have seen its skin, which is covered with bright shining brown hair, nearly resembling that of a horse's mane, about a foot long. Its face was quite human, with a long beard beautifully curled. You may imagine the size and power of the animal when I tell you that I measured one of its eyeteeth, and found it three inches and one-eighth in length, and that