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by that term) in as much as they knew nothing of the matter already. The attempt they might suppose in the highest degree arduous, 'nay even bordering upon impracticability; still they could not but confess it was legitimate, it was not a work of supererogation. Many, therefore, who knew but little of the influence of Christianity in their own souls, became helpers, of missions, and through the help they gave, became interested ia religious matters. It necessarily became a subject of inquiry, What was the ultimate object of the conductors of missions ? Was it to spread knowledge in regions of ignorance ? No, that was but a means employed for the accomplishment of something greater. Was it the universal propagation of a creed? Nothing of the kind was intended. Was it the introduction of the arts of civilization and peace amongst rude and savage nations ? That was but a secondary o'yject. Was it to bring nations to adopt the name of Christianity ? No, those who conducted Missions disclaimed such as their great object. Then what was it? It was the salvation of souls; and by this was meant, the forgiveness of sins and acceptance with God through the atonement of his Son Christ Jesus, and the renewing of the heart by the Holy Spirit. For gaining this great object, the di. vinely prescribed means were used-preaching repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. Then it came to be asked; But is every one thus saved, except those who, by their situation in Heathen countries, are excluded from the knowledge of the gospel? Need we wander so far from home to find men unblessed with such redemption ? And the enquiry has led to anxious self-examination in many persons, and bas been the means of their own conversion : and afterwards led them to commiserate those, our brethren after the Aesh, who have a name to live, but are dead. Hence arose our Tract Sq. cieties, Bible Associations, Home Missions, village preaching, and itineracies, and more extensively still, the Sabbath Schools. The following important information respecting them, we submit to our readers, from the Seventh Report of the Sabbath School Union for Scotland. It is the report of 1823.

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# The Committee of the Sabbath School Union cannot commence their Annual Report in any other language than that of congratulation to their constituents, and thankfulness to Almighty God.From every quarter the accounts are most favourable; old schools are flourishing, and new ones are rapidly forming, under the patronage of men of rank and weight in their respective neighbour hoods, under the superintendance of zealous and faithful ministers, and under the immediate direction of a large body of active, affeca tionate, and pious teachers.

6. Your Committee consider this as a state of things which, in every point of view, is calculated to produce the deepest feelings of joy and thankfulness. Nothing can be clearer, than that the pos, pulation of the nation, especially in the larger towns, is increasing in a much greater ratio, than the number of religious instructors whether in or out of the establishment: And there are few who will not be inclined to consider the unequal increase, as a great moe ral evil, tending to the diminution of religious knowledge among the lower orders of society. Now, though knowledge is not principle, and may in particular cases exist without producing any good effect upon the heart and conduct: Yet reason declares that men cannot perform their duty without first knowing it; and ex. perience has sufficiently proved, that though knowledge may be neglected or abused, popular ignorance can be productive of nothing that is good, and has been productive of all that moralists, philanthropists, and Christians, must join to condemn and to de. plore.

“ Considering then the importance of religious knowledge, and the inadequacy of the public means for its support, we haił the increase of Sabbath Schools as of instruments exactly suited to the emergency of the case, and calculated under the Divine blessing to confer the deepest benefits upon our country.

“There is also another point of view in which the prevalence and increase of Sabbath Schools must be peculiarly gratifying, and that is the consideration that while their extended operation warrants the hope of a rich harvest in the rising generation, it affords also a gratifying proof of the piety and charity that exists in the present. The number of gratuitous teachers employed in the Sabbath Schools in connexion with the Union, may be estimated at 4000. Now, without complimenting these individuals on the performance of what we consider a plain and positive duty, wo will venture to say, that it is difficult to imagine any motive for these gratuitous labours but the best-a love for souls, and a zealous desire for the increase of Christ's kingdom upon earth And when we recollect how many of the friends of religion must ne. cessarily be prevented from joining in these labours, by age, by infirmities, or the engagements of domestic duty, it is gratifying to think, that with all these deductions there still remain so many who are able and willing to execute his humble though important duty."

“Statement, shewing the number of Sabbath Schools, &c. connected with the different Unions in Great Britain and Ireland, according to the last Reports.

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The Hibernian Society,


6,824 Sunday School Society for Ireland. Province of Ulster, ...,

1,117 8,833

121,680 Province of Leinster,..

262 1,950 19,527 Province of Connaught,...

77 425 5,122 Province of Munster,....

63 420 4,453 Total in Ireland,

1,622 11,628 156,606 The grand total of the above in Great Britain and Ireland, is, 7329 Sabbath schools, 72,275 teachers, and 769,263 children, which, when compared with the Reports of last year, presents an addition of 1692 schools, 21,900 teachers, and 112,721 scholars."


TERN AFRICA. As this is both a pleasing and a novel undertaking, it will, doubtless, be gratifying to our readers to know something of its origin and proceedings. We believe it owes its rise, principally, to the benevolence of an excellent lady, Mrs. Hannah Kilham, who is now the principal agent in its operaa tions. She took under her care, in 1820, two African youths, Sandanee and Mahmedee, and began the double task of instructing them and obtaining from them a knowledge of the Jaloof, or Wolof, language, in order to reduce it to grammatical principles, and prepare the way for its expression by writing and printing. By these means she has been enabled to prepare a publication entitled “ AFRICAN LESSONS, Wolof and English, in three parts”—the first part containing, “ Easy Lessons and Narratives for Schools ;" the second, “ Examples in Grammar, Family Advices, and a short vocabulary;" the third, “ Selections from the Holy Scriptures”--the whole comprising 175 pages, in Wolof and English. At the same time the conduct of her pupils has been satisfactory, and their attainments in common learning and the knowledge of certain mechanical operations, such as to qualify them to impart valuable instruction to their countrymen ; to which work, it is said, their minds appear to be steadily devoted.

Mrs. Kilham baving made all the preparation that was practicable in England, and having obtained the personal assistance of other three friends, Richard Smith, John Thompson, and his sister Ann Thompson, sailed, in company with them and her two Africans, for Western Africa on the 28th of October, 1823. They were exposed to the dreadful gales of that season, and were obliged to put back to Cowes, from which they made their final departure on the 7th of November; and after a safe and agreeable passage they anchored before Bathurst, on the 8th of December. Their subsequent proceedings are thus related in the second Report of the Committee of Management.

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“ Upon landing, our friends were conducted to a vacant. house, provided for them, as an abode while here, by the kindness of William Waterman, a merchant, to whom the Committee bad incurred many previous obligations. They were soon afterward introduced to the Commandant, Capt. Findlay, and to the rest of the principal resident Europeans. Our friend Hannah Kilham writes ;

« • The Commandant received us courteously, and was so kind as to, promise conducting us to Birkow; and introduce us to the Alcaide, whom all speak of as a respectable man.'

· Birkow, or Bakkáoo, is a Mandingo town, situate on the Cape St. Mary, about 8 miles from Bathurst, near the sea ; and being on a dry, elevated spot, was considered the most eligible place to settle in. Another favourable circumstance concur. red to recommend it to the attention of the Committee. A good stone-house has been here erected, at the charge of government, on land held by an annual acknowledgement to the Chief; and the Committee, having learned that it was not likely to be speedily occupied for the purposes for which it was built, made ap: plication, by letter, to Sir Charles MacCarthy, for the use of it until they could otherwise provide for, the party going out: this request having been, in the most liberal and condescending manner, complied with, the concern has been thus reliesed, for the present, from a difficulty which had pressed heavi. ly upon it—that of building a sufficiently large and safe babitation and school-room, before the merits of the proposed site should have been ascertained by actual trial.

6. The interview with the Alcaide of Birkow has since taken: place; and the consent of his Chief, the King of Combo, has been obtained, to the settlement at that place, for the purposes of a School and Farm.

“ But before entering upon the particulars supplied by letters of more recent date, it will be proper to state, in her own words, the views and feelings with which our friend entered this new field of labour. She writes, the day after her arrival ;

"Through the kind protecting care of Heavenly Goodness, we kaye arrived safe on the shores of Africa; and it is due from me to ac

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