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about, I saw Mary standing at the other end of the piazza, and tears rolling down her black cheeks. When I came near her she made a low curtsey, and said, I thank you, Sir;' then turned about and went to the school-house, and I have no doubt fell on her knees, and turned to her Bible. “ A woman who had been excommunicated, thus address

Massa, I beg you do not be angry with me.' sured her that I was not angry with her, but that I pitied her. She said, Suppose, Massa, you have a child, and that child do bad, and you flog that child for it, is it not still your

child? I stand the same fashion ; I have done bad; I have sinned against God, for which I have been turned away from God's people, which is too much trouble for me. I have tried to find comfort, and gone to sit down with them people that no serve God; but I have no peace there-I no belong to them. True, I deserve to be turned into hell ; but the Lord Jesus Christ wills not the death of a sinner : this gives me hope ; and I beg you, Massa, let me come again : I cannot find peace any where, but at the feet of Jesus.' She wept much. I encouraged her, by assuring her that it was not my business to keep her from Christ; but, on the contrary, to invite her, and every selfcondemned sinner, to come and receive the free, unmerited mercy of God, which was held out to them in the Gospel, through Jesus Christ.”

The following is an affecting example of pastoral solicitude and love. God alone can repair such a loss as these dear people have sustained. Most affectionately would we therefore commend them to His care. We remember well the summous of our beloved Mr. Ward, to the companions of his voyage, when off Sierra Leone, to come and pray for our fellowJabourers there. His and Mr. Jobnson's seem to have been

kindred spirits.

Preparatory to the administration of the Lord's Supper, on one occasion, I directed that all the communicants should peet me in the church. Having observed a coldness in them, I was desirous to exhort them previous to the administration : but as it rained very much, only half came. As this did not satisfy my mind, I appointed the following morning, at nine o'clock, for all who intended to come to the Lord's table to be in the church. Accordingly, when the clock struck nine, the whole, except the sick, came, iu twelve different parties, according to the division of the town, to church. My heart did re. joice when I saw this scene. When they had entered the church, the Churchwardens came and told me, that all who were well had come. I went, and, as some liad been re-admitted, I read and explained such passages of Scripture as were suited to humble them; and exhorted them to carefulness and watchfulness: I also read and explained the commination service, and concluded by urging them to self-examination and repentance; and when my conscience was satisfied, I concluded with prayer.


young men then came forward, and said that they had quarrelled, and desired to make peace with each other before they came to the Lord's Supper: this was soon effected, as each said that he was in the wrong! A wo. man said to me, that she had spoken ill behind another woman's back, and wished to beg her pardon, which, of course, I advised her to do: she went and did so, and the offended woman forgave her with cheerfulness. I was so denghted with the simple mode in which they thus dealt with one another, that I scarcely could forbear shedding a tear of joy on seeing that my children walk in truth. Oh that these beloved people may continue in their simplicity! The bell was then rung, and the church was opened for the rest of the people. house again, and saw the people come in every

direction; but it was perceptible that the salt and the light (Matt. v. 13, 14.) were inside the church. I read prayers and preached on Luke xviii. 13. God be merciful to me a sinner ! As the consciences of the people had been previously wounded, the words of the text seemed to make such a deep impression, that an awful silence, with the greatest attention, was observed during the service,

I went to my

Scientific Department,

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A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaic Geologies.


(Concluded.) Mr. Penn in the third part of his work, proceeds to examine the mode of the universal changes or revolutions which the mi. neral substance of the earth has undergone since the creation, and whether the evidences of revolution correspond with the statements of the sacred record, and are sufficiently accounted for by it; or hether the mineral geology has found evidences of revolution not reducible to those stated in the record.” Of the Mosaic Deluge he gives this very ingenious and plausible account.

“We cannot fail to perceive that a repetition of the same process which produced the former earth was alone requisite to bring to light another earth to replace it. We have already seen that a violent disruption and subsidence of the solid surface of one portion of the subaqueous globe produced at first a bed to receive the diffusive waters; and that these waters drawn into that bed from off the other portion of the same globe, left it exposed and fitted for the reception of vegetation, and for the habitation of man. That exposed portion was now in its turn to sink and disappear. By a similar disruption and subsidence of its surface, which should depress it below the level of the first depressed part or basin of the sea, the waters flowing into a still lower level, would leave their basin empty, exposed and dry, and thus by a similar separation render it in its turn a habitable earth :-thus that first depressed part or basin of the former sea is our actual present earth.”

Our author then proceeds to shew that the general phenomena of the earth may be satisfactorily referred either, 1. to the creation; 2. the first revolution; 3. the long interval that succeeded it, during which the sea remained in its primitive basin; or 4. to the second revolution. To the first cause belong the sensible characters and diversities of all primitive rocks and soils; to the second, those of their dislocatio big


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ture, and dispersion; to the third, the water-worn appearance of the larger and smaller fragments of rocks and stones, and the moulding of the loose soil over the solid substrata, as well as the vast accumulations of marine substances. Lastly, to the second revolution, the excavation of valleys in secondary soils; the heaping up of marine mineral masses ; the secondary rocks, and the confused mixture of the organic terrestrial fragments, once a part of the furniture of the earth that perish. ed, are as evidently to be referred.

Of the natural agencies employed by the Almighty in the two great revolutions, our author supposes earthquakes and volcanoes to have been the most probable, arguing very justly that the limited effects attending them now, prove nothing as to what they might accomplish when rendered general within the globe, and acting simultaneously against its solid crusts.

The circumstance that organic remains are found in great abundance in situations far remote from their natural localities, the inhabitants of the torrid zone in the most northerly latitudes, and rice rersa, is shewn to afford no proof that they either lived or died there, and therefore none for the revolution in the nature of animals or the climates of the earth, which are deemed necessary by the mineral geology. Mr. Penn has drawn bis arguments on this subject from the rate, the course, and the effects of the currents now observed in the ocean; and also from a number of interesting facts, which we cannot at present notice.

None of the enquiries of Geology are passed over, but all receive an acute and candid discussion. Such are, the absence of human organic remains; the mixture of strata containing marine, with those containing terrestrial exuviæ; the formation of mountains and valleys, and the courses of rivers; the formation of coal, &c.

In the remaining portion of the work, our aythor ascribes the covering of the new earth with vegetation after the second revolution, to a fresh and immediate act of God; and infers, from the olive-leaf brought by the dove to Noah, that it was

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The Mineral and Mosaic Geologies.


created in full and perfect maturity. He supposes it probable, also, that new animal species were at the same time created to supply the place of those which it was the will of God to destroy utterly by the deluge. He then concludes, from the general-result of the preceding inquiry, that the numerous revolutions assumed by the mineral geology “ are the offspring of defective investigation and unregulated fancy," and are all reducible to those two only which are recorded in the Mosaic history; and that in the second question, “ relative to the changes which this globe has undergone since its first formation, and to the mode by which those changes were effected, the Mosaic geology has maintained the superiority over the mineral, which it established in the first question relative to the mode by which that first formation was produced.” A code of general principles, “ which may at all times guide our view in contemplating the phenomena apparent in the globe, and secure us against the fascination of unisubstantial theories,” fol. lowed by some valuable general reflections, closes the work.

The principal features of the work appear to be, the inference the author deduces from the sacred record, of two disa tinct revolutions, or periods of destruction, of the surface of the earth: bis mode of reconciling the accounts of the creation of light on the first day, and the sun's visible appearance on the fourth : the reasons why fossil remains of some animals are found in climates uncongenial to their natures, and of others whose species are atterly extinct; as well as why fossil human bones have never been found at all. The ingenuity, too, with which he proves the incompetence of mere physical plienomena to decide on the mode of first formations, is extremely striking, as well as many other parts of the work, which we have pot room to enumerate. Our author's claims to a high rank as a scholar are evident throughout: his criticisms on the sacred text, in the second part, evince a perfect knowledge of the Hebrew, as well as of the classical languages; and his re. marks on Deluc's hypothesis of the indefinite period of the Mo. saic days of creation, and Saussure's nonsensical rhapsody

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