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THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digested into the form of Distinct T.R E A TI SE S OR SYSTEM-S,

COMPREHENDING

The History, THEOR Y, and PRACTICE, of each, according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;

AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

WHETHER RELATING TO

NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,

Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, &c. Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, MORALS,

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:

TOGETHER WITO

A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, 6c.

throughout the WORLD; A General HISTORY, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States ;

AND

An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times.

Compiled from tbe u rilings of the best Authors, in several languages; the most approved Dictionaries, as well of general frience as of its parti

oular branches ; the Tranjadtions, Journals, and Memoirs, of learned Societies, bosb at home and abroad: tbe MS. Lectures of Eminent Profcijors on different sciences ; and a variety of Original Materials, furnished by an Extensive Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

VOL. IV.

INDOCTI DIS CANT, ET A MENT ME MINISSE PZRITI.

EDINBURGH.
PRINTED FOR 4. BELL AND C. MACFARQUHAR.

MDCCXCVII,

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Entered in Stationers Hall in Terms of the ax of Parliament.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA,

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Caaba.

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С
с A A

CA A
C,

THE third letter, and second consonant, of the the door. In the corner next this door is the black ftone,

, alphabet, is pronounced like k before the vowels so much celebrated among the Mahometans. On the a, o, and u; and like s before e, i, and y. C is formed, north side of the caaba, within a semicircular inclosure according to Scaliger, from the x of the Greeks, by re- 50 cubits long, lies the white stone, said to be the fetrenching the item or upright line; though others de- pulchre of Ithmael, which receives the rain-water from rive it from the 3 of the Hebrews, which has in effect the caaba by a spout formerly of wood, but now of the same form ; allowing only for this, that the He- gold. The black stone, according to the Mahometans, brews, reading backwards, and the Latins, &c. for was brought down from heaven by Gabriel at the crewards, each have turned the letter their own way. ation of the world, and originally of a white colour ; However, the C not being the same as to found with but contracted the blackness that now appears on it the Hebrew caph, and it being certain the Romans did from the guilt of those fins committed by the sons of not borrow their letters immediately from the He It is set in filver, and fixed in the south-eaft brews or other orientals, but from the Greeks, the de. corner of the caaba, looking towards Bafra, about seven rivation from the Greck x is the more probable. Add, spans from the ground. This stone, upon which there that F. Montfaucon, in his Palæographia, gives us is the figure of a human head, is held in the highest some forms of the Greek ~, which come very near that estimation among the Arabs; all the pilgrims kissing of our C; thus, for instance, c: and Suidas calls the it with great devotion, and some even calling it the C the Roman kappa. The second sound of C resem. right hand of God. Its blackness, which is only superbles that of the Greek 2; and many instances occur official, is probably owing to the kisses and touches of ancient inscriptions, in which I has the same form with so many people. After the Karmatians had taken our C. All grammarians agree, that the Romans pro- Mecca, they carried away this precious stone, and nounced their Q like our C, and their C like our K. could by no means be prevailed upon to restore it; F. Mabillon adds, that Charles the Great was the first but finding at laft that they were nable to prevent the who wrote his name with a C; whereas all his prede- concourse of pilgrims to Mecca, they fent it back of cessors of the same name wrote it with a K: and the their own accord, after having kept it 22 years. same difference is observed in their coins,

The double roof of the caaba is supported within by As an abbreviature, Citands for Caius, Carolus, Cæ- three octagonal pillars of alocs-wood; between which, sar, condemno, &c. and CC for confulibus.

on a bar of iron, hang some filver lamps. The outside As a numeral, C signifies 100, CC 200, &c. is covered with rich black damaik, adorned with an

C, in music, placed after the cliff, intimates that the embrvidered band of gold, which is changed every music is in common time, which is either quick or Now, year, and was formerly sent by the khalifs, afterwards as it is joined with allegro or adagio: if alone, it is by the sultans of Egypt, and is now provided by the usually adagio. If the C be crolled or turned, the Turkish emperors. The caaba, at some distance, is alfirst requires the air to be played quick, and the last moft surrounded by a circular inclosure of pillars, joinvery quick,

ed towards the bottom by a low balluftrade, and toCAABA, or CAABAH, properly fignifies a square wards the top by bars of lilver. Just without this inner stone building ; but is particularly applied by the Ma- inclosure, on the fouth, north, and west sides of the hometans to the temple of Mecca, built, as they pre. caaba, are three buildings, which are the oratories or tend, by Abraham and Ifmael his son.

places where three of the orthodox sects assemble to perBefore the time of Mahomet, this temple was a form their devotions. Towards the south-east stands place of worship for the idolatrous Arabs, and is said to an edifice which covers the well Zemzen, the treasury, have contained no less than 360 different images, and the cupola of Al Abbas. Formerly there was anequalling in number the days of the Arabian year. other cupola, that went under the name of the bemiThey were all deltroyed by Mahomet, who fanctified cycle, or cupola of Judæa: but whether or not any rethe Caaba, and appointed it to be the chief place of mains of that are now to be seen is unknown; nor is it worship for all true believers. The temple is in length easy to obtain information in this respect, all Christians from north to south about 24 cubits; its breadth from being denied access to this holy place. At a small dieast to west is 23; and its height 27. The door, stance from the caaba, on the east fide, is the station which is on the east side, stands about four cubits from or place of Abraham ; where is another stone much re. the ground; the floor being level with the bottom of fpected by the Mahometans; and where they pretend VOL. IV, Part. I.

А

to

Caaba

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Cab.

to show the footsteps of the patriarch, telling us he ftood of a feah or fatum, and the 18th part of an ephah. A
on it when he built the caaba. Here the fourth sect cab contained 2 pints of our corn-measure: a quarter

Cabbala.
of Arabs, viz. that of Al Shafei, assemble for religious cab was the measure of dove's dung, or more proper-
purposes.

ly a sort of chick-peasë called by this name, which
The square colonnade, or great piazza, that at a was fold at Samaria, during the liege of that city, for
considerable distance incloses these buildings, consists, five shekels.
according to Al Jannabi, of 448 pillars, and has no CABAL, an apt name currently given to the infa-
less than 38 gates. Mr Sale compares this piazza to mous ministry of Charles II. composed of five persons,
that of the royal exchange at London, but allows it Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lau.
to be much larger. It is covered with small domes or derdale ; the first letters of whose names, in this or.
cupolas, from the four corners of which rise as many der, furnished the appellation by which they were di-
ininarets or steeples, with double galleries, and adorn- ftinguished.
ed with gilded spires and crescents after the Turkish CABALIST, in French commerce, a factor or per-
manner, as are also the cupolas which cover the piazza fon who is concerned in managing the trade of an-
and other buildings. Between the columns of both in- other.
closures hang a great number of lamps, which are con CABALLARIA, in middle-age writers, lands held
ftantly lighted at night. The first foundations of this by the tenure of furnishing a horseman, with suitable
second inclosure were laid by Omar the second khalif, equipage, in time of war, or when the lord had occa-
who built no more than a low wall, to prevent the court fion for him.
of the caaba from being incroached upon by private CABALLEROS, or CAVALLEROS, are Spanish
buildings; but by the liberality of succeeding princes, wools, of which there is a pretty considerable trade at
the whole has been raised to that ftate of magnificence Bayonne in France.
in which it appears at present.

CABALLINE, denotes something belonging to
This temple enjoys the privilege of an asylum for all horfes: thus caballine aloes is so called, from its being
forts of criminals; but it is most remarkable for the chiefly used for purging horses; and common brim-
pilgrimages made to it by the devout musselmans, who stone is called fulphur caballinum for a like reason.
pay so great a veneration to it, that they believe a fingre CABALLINUM (anc. geog), a town of the Ædui
fight of its facred walls, without any particular act of in Gallia Celtica; now Challon sur Saone, which see.
devotion, is as meritorious, in the fight of God, as the CABALLINUS (anc. geog.), a very clear foun.
most careful discharge of one's duty, for the space of a tain of mount Helicon in Bæotia; called Hippocrine by
whole year, in any other temple.

the Greeks, because opened by Pegasus on itriking the
CAAMINI, in botany, a name given by the Spa- rock with his hoof, and hence called Pegafus.
niards and others to the finest sort of Paraguayan CABALLIO, or CABELLIO (anc. geog.), a town
tea. It is the leaf of a fhrub which grows on the of the Cavares in Gallia Narbonnensis, situated on the
mountains of Maracaya, and is used in Chili and Pe. Druentia. One of the Latin colonies, in the Notitive
ru as the tea is with us. The mountains where this called Civitas Cabellicorum. Now Cavaillon in Pro-
fhrub grows naturally are far from the inhabited parts
of Paraguay; but the people of the place know so well CABBAGE, in botany. See BRASSICA; and A.
the value and use of it, that they constantly furnish GRICULTURE, no 40, and 169. In the Georgical essays,
themselves with great quantities of it from the spot. we find this plant greatly recommended as an excellent
They used to go out on these expeditions many thou- food for cattle, producing much dung, and being an
sands together; leaving their country in the mean time excellent substitute for hay. The author prefers the
exposed to the insults

of their enemies, and many of Scotch kind, as being most durable, and preferable on
themselves perishing by fatigue. To avoid these in- all other accounts. He also recommends autumn-lowed
conveniences, they have of late planted these trees about plants in preference to those fowed in the spring; the
their habitations ; but the leaves of these cultivated former producing a much more weighty crop than the
ones have not the fine flavour of those that grow latter. The expence of raising an acre of good cab-
wild. The king of Spain has permitted the Indians bages he values at 141. 15. and its produce at 34).
of Paraguay to bring to the town of Saintfoy 12,000 CABBAGE-Tree, or True CABBAGE-PALM. See A.
arobes of the leaves of this tree every year, but they RECA.
are not able to procure so much of the wild leaves an. CABBAGE-B.IRK Tree. See GEOFFRÆA.
nually: about half the quantity is the utmoft they CABBALA, according to the Hebrew style, has
bring of this: the other half is made up of the leaves a very distinct fignification from that wherein we un-
of the trees in their own plantations; and this sells at derstand it in our language. The Hebrew cabbala fig-
a lower price, and is called pabos. The arobe is about nifies tradition; and the Rabbins, who are called cab.
25 pound weight; the general price is four piaftres; balists, ftudy principally the combination of particular
and the money is always divided equally among the words, letters, and numbers, and by this means pretend
people of the colony.

to discover what is to come, and to see clearly into the
CAANA, or KAANA, a town in Upper Egypt, sense of many difficult passages of scripture. There
feated on the eastern banks of the river Nile, from are no fure principles of this knowledge, but it depends
whence they carry corn and pulse for the supply of upon some particular traditions of the ancients; for
Mecca in Arabia. E. Long. 32.23. N. Lat. 24. 30. which reason it is termed cabbala.
Here are several monuments of antiquity yet remaining, The cabbalists have abundance of names which they
adorned with hieroglyphics.

call sacred; these they make use of in invoking of fpi-
CAB, an Hebrew dry measure, being the fixth part rits, and imagine they receive great light from them.

vence.

They

Cabes

Cabinet.

Cabbala They tell us, that the secrets of the cabbala were dis CABES, or Gabes, a town of Africa, in the king-
Cahenda,

covered to Mofes on mount Sinai; and that these have dom of Tunis, feated on a river near the gulf of the
been delivered to them down from father to son, withe same name. E. Long. 10. 55. N. Lat. 33. 40.
out interruption, and without any use of letters ; for CABEZZO, a province of the kingdom of Angola,
to write them down, is what they are by no means in Africa; having Oacco on the north, Lubolo on the
permitted to do. This is likewise termed the oral law, fouth, the Coanza on the north-east, and the Reinba
because it passed from father to son, in order to dif on the south-west. It is populous, and well itored
tinguish it from the written laws.

with cattle, &c. and hath a mine of iron on a moun-
T'here is another cabbala, called artificial, which tain from thence called the iron mountain, which yields
consists in searching for abftrufe and mysterious figni- great quantities of that metal; and this the Portuguese
fications of a word in Scripture, from whence they bor- have taught the natives to manufacture. This

pro-
row certain explanations, by combining the letters vince is watered by a river called Rio Longo, and other
which compose it: this cabbala is divided into three small rivulets, lakes, &c. The trees here are vastly
kinds, the gematrie, the notaricon, and the temura or large; and they have one fort not unlike our apple-trees,
themurah. The first whereof consists in taking the the bark of which being Nashed with a knife, yields an
letters of a Hebrew word for ciphers or arithmetical odoriferous relin of the colour and consistency of wax,
numbers, and explaining every word by the arithmetic and very medicinal in its nature, only a little too hot
cal value of the letters whereof it is compofed. The for Europeans, unless qualified by some cooling drug.
second sort of cabbala, called notaricon, consists in ta. CABIDOS, or Cavidos, a long measure used at
king every particular letter of a word for an entire Goa, and other places of the East Indies belonging to
diction; and the third, called themura, i. e. change, the Portuguese, to measure ituffs, linens, &c. and
confifts in making different transpositions or changes equal to this of the Paris ell.
of letters, placing one for the other, or one before the CABIN, a room or apartment in a ship where any
other.

of the officers usually refide. There are many of these
Among the Christians, likewise, a certain fort of in a large ship; the principal of which is designed for
magic is, by mistake, called cabbala ; which consists in the captain or commander. In ships of the line this
using improperly certain passages of Scripture for ma chamber is furnished with an open gallery in the ship's
gic operations, or in forming magic characters or fi- ftern, as also a little gallery on each quarter. The
gures with stars and talismans.

apartments where the inferior officers or common fail-
Some visionaries among the Jews believe, that Jesus ors fleep and mess are usually called Births; which
Christ wrought his miracles by virtue of the mysteries see.
of the cabbala.

The bed-places built up for the sailors at the ship's
CABBALISTS, the Jewish doctors who profess fide in merchantmen are also called cabins.
the study of the cabbala.

CABINDA, the chief port of the kingdom of
In the opinion of these men, there is not a word, Angoy in Loango in Africa. It is fituated at the
letter, or accent in the law, without some mystery in mouth of a river

of the fame name about five leagues
The Jews are divided into two general sects; the north of Cape Palmerino, on the north fide of the
karaites, who refuse to receive either tradition or the mouth of the river Zaire. The bay is very commo-
talmud, or any thing but the pure text of scripture ; dious for trade, wooding, and watering.
and the rabbinifts, or talmudists, who, besides this, re CABINET, the most retired place in the finest
ceive the traditions of the ancients, and follow the part of a building, fet apart for writing, ítudying, or
talmud.

preserving any thing that is precious.
The latter are again divided into two other fects; A complete apartment consists of a hall, anti-cham-
pure rabbinifts, who explain the scripture in its na- ber, chamber, and cabinet, with a gallery on one side.
tural sense, by grammar, history, and tradition ; and Hence we say, a cabinet of paintings, curiolities, &c.
cabbalifts, who, to discover hidden myitical senfes, CABINET, also denotes a piece of joiner's workman-
which they fuppofe God to have couched therein, make fhip, being a kind of press or cheft, with several doors
use of the cabbala, and the mystical methods above and drawers.
mentioned.

There are common cabinets of oak or of chesnut,
CABECA, or CABESSE, a name given to the finest varnished cabinets of China and Japan, cabinets of in-
filks in the East Indies, as those from 15 to 20 per laid work, and fome of ebony, or the like scarce and
cent, inferior to them are called barina. The Indian precious woods. Formerly the Dutch and German
workmen endeavour to pass them off one with the O cabinets were much eiteemed in France ; but are now
ther ; for which reason, the more experienced Euro- quite out of date, as well as the cabinets of ebong
pean merchants take care to open the bales, and to which came from Venice.
examine all the ikaines one after another. The Dutch Cabinet is also used in speaking of the more select
distinguish two forts of cabecas; namely, the moor ca and secret councils of a prince or adminiftration. Thus
beca, and the common cabeca. The former is fold at we say, the secrets, the intrigues of the cabinet. To
Amiterdam for about 21 schellinghen Flemith, and avoid the inconveniences of a numerous council, t're
the other for about 187.

policy of Italy and practice of France first introduced
CABECA de Vide, a small sea-port town of Alentejo cabinet councils. King Charles I. is charged with
in Portugal, with good walls, and a strong castle. W. firit establishing this ulage in England. Belides his
Long. 6. 43. N. Lat. 39. O.

privy council, that prince erected a kind of cabinet CABENDA, a sea-port of Congo in Africa, fi- council

, or junto, under the denomination of a council tuated in E. Long. 12. 2. S. Lat. 4. 5.

of state ; composed of archbishop Laud, the earl of

A2

Strafford,

it.

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