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or (b) At length the freshening western blast
And first the ridge of mingled spears
And plumed crests of chieftains brave,
(a) I delight in the beauty of the summer, when the open spaces of the woods are alive with bird and insect, glancing hither and thither, as if in the fullest enjoyment of life; before the thick, black thunder-clouds, accumulating in the later summer sky, give warning that the tempest is approaching.
The sweet trill of the birds is heard rising from among the leafy recesses of the forest, and their gay plumage flashes like jewels in the sunlight, that traverses the woodland glades.
(b) But now a strong west wind arose, and drove before it the dense mist that hung over the combatants, completely hiding them from view; then a close and sharply-defined mass of spears in conflict was disclosed, piercing the sunlit cloud; and the white banners of the chieftains were seen wildly dashing hither and thither amid the chaos, like the agitated and uncertain movements of sea-birds in a tempest. And the on-lookers were at last able to distinguish the confused mass of combatants, looking, as they fled in every direction, like the angry billows of a storm-tost sea, upon which the plumes of the chieftains were as specks of white sea foam.
Analyse the following passage :
Cæsar, who is commonly esteemed to have been the founder of the Roman Empire, possessed very eminently all the qualities, both native and acquired, that enter into the composition of a hero, but failed of the honour, because he overthrew the laws of his own country, and raised his greatness by the conquest of his fellow-citizens more than of their enemies.
5 all the qualities
6 both native and acquired
Adver. adjunct of deg. to 4
Adjec. adjuncts to 5.
B.-Subordinate Adjec. Clause to A 5.
of the honour
[tion to 3.
Adverbial adjunct of limita
D.-Subordinate Adverbial Clause of Reason to C. 3.
Write out the plurals of cow, cloth, deer, datum, quarto, factory, species, and the past tense of the verbs strike, swing, sing, tear, split.
Give words (not more than six) derived from the Latin duco, I lead; fundo, I pour, with their meanings.
Write out the classes of pronouns with two examples of each.
Produce, to bring or lead forth.
Conduce, to tend towards an object.
Induction, reasoning from what is known, to what is not.
Abduction, leading away or taking by force.
Induce, to lead or persuade another.
From fundo, "I pour."
Refund, to pour back.
Refuse, to give or throw back, from fusus, the complete participle of fundo.
Confuse, to pour or mix together.
Confound, to pour together, to make confusion.
Profuse, liberal, as if pouring forth.
Fusion, pouring substances together, blending.
Classes of Pronouns.-Personal, Relative, and Adjective. Adjective Pronouns are Demonstrative, Distributive, Indefinite, and Numeral
Give the force of the prefixes in the words printed in italics in the following passages :—
Scenes singularly opposed are peculiar to beds of slate, which are both vast in elevation and easy of destruction. The comparative durableness of the rock forbids vegetation, but the exposed summits are not subject to laws of rapid destruction.
The imprudent zeal with which the nobles had supported the royal prerogative in opposition to the Commons in the commotions of the previous year, enabled Charles to depress one of the orders and to destroy the balance to which the constitution owed its security.
Write full notes of a lesson on one of the following subjects :
(a) Relative pronouns.
(b) Substantive clauses.
(c) The channels through which Latin words have been introduced into our language.
Channels through which Latin words have been introduced into our language.
Introduction.-Teach that Latin was the language of the ancient Romans, and that from their time to the present, other people have learnt it, in addition to their own language, and have written many Latin books, which learned people like to read.
Second.-Lead children to think what connection ever existed between the old Romans and their own country. Question them upon what they know of Cæsar's invasion and the Roman occupation of Britain; upon the state of Britain, and what the Romans did to the country-their great roads, fortified towns, camps, &c.; these new to Britons, would have no names for them, therefore would adopt the names by which they were known to the Romans. These would be Latin words. This we may call—
Latin of the First Period introduced by Roman soldiers, and relating to soldiers' work and life. Such words as
Castra, a camp, found in many names of places, as Lancaster.
Third.-Recapitulate briefly the desertion of Britain by the Romans, and the subsequent invasion and settlement of the Saxons. Let the children give the history wherever they can. Glance at condition of Saxons. Then tell the story of Pope Gregory and the Saxon boys in the slave market at Rome, and the coming of the missionary St. Augustine with his forty priests to preach the Gospel, and make the people Christians. Show that he built churches, and taught the Saxons to worship God. He would not talk about camps and roads, as the Roman soldiers have done, but of things relating to the Church. Used the Latin names, but Saxons soon altered them a little. Thus we have
Latin of the Second Period, introduced by St. Augustine, and relating to churches and the worship of God: