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from her entrails, and at a great charge provide ornaments for your queens and princely women : but our lives are spent in the purchase; and when you have got them, you must have more : for these cannot content you, or nourish the spirit. * Ad supervacua sudatur;' 'A man must labour infinitely to get more than he needs;' but to drive away thirst and hunger, a man needs not sit in the fields of the oppressed poor, nor lead armies, nor break his sleep, 'et contumeliosam humanitatem pati,' and to suffer shame,' and danger, and envy, and affront, and all the retinue of infelicity.

Quis non Epicurum Suspicit, exigui lætum plantaribus horti? Juv. 13. 122. If men did but know, what felicity dwells in the cottage of a virtuous poor man, how sound his sleeps, how quiet his breast, how composed his mind, how free from care, how easy his provision, how healthful his morning, how sober his night, how moist his mouth, how joyful his heart, they would never admire the noises, and the diseases, the throng of passions, and the violence of unnatural appetites, that fill the houses of the luxurious and the heart of the ambitious.

Nam neque divitibus contingunt gandia solis. Hor. Ep. 1. 17. 9. These which you call pleasures, are but the imagery and fantastic appearances, and such appearances even poor men may have. It is like felicity, that the king of Persia should come to Babylon in the winter, and to Susa in the summer; and be attended with all the servants of one hundred and twentyseven provinces, and with all the princes of Asia. It is like this, that Diogenes went to Corinth in the time of vintage, and to Athens when winter came; and instead of courts, visited the temples and the schools, and was pleased in the society of scholars and learned men, and conversed with the students of all Asia and Europe. If a man loves privacy, the poor fortune can have that when princes cannot; if he loves noises, he can go to markets and to courts, and may glut himself with strange faces, and strange voices, and stranger manners, and the wild designs of all the world: and when that day comes in which we shall die, nothing of the eating and drinking remains, nothing of the pomp and luxury, but the sorrow to part with it, and shame to have dwelt there where wisdom and virtue seldom come, unless it be to call

men to sober counsels, to a plain, and a severe, and a more natural way of living; and when Lucian derides the dead princes and generals, and says that in hell they go up and down selling salt meats and crying muscles, or begging; and he brings in Philip of Macedon, εν γωνιδίω τινί μισθού ακούμενον gaOpà Tūv úrodnuárwv, ‘mending of shoes in a little stall;' he intended to represent, that in the shades below, and in the state of the grave, the princes and voluptuous have a being different from their present plenty ; but that their condition is made contemptible and miserable by its disproportion to their lost and perishing voluptuousness. The result is this, that Tiresias (Něk. 21.) told the ghost of Menippus, inquiring what state of life was nearest to felicity, “Ο των ιδιωτών άριστος Bíos, kai owopovéotepoç, The private life, that which is freest from tumult and vanity,' noise and luxury, business and ambition, nearest to nature and a just entertainment to our necessities; that life is nearest to felicity. Tolaūra lñpov vyo σάμενος, τούτο μόνον εξ άπαντος θηράση, όπως, το παρόν εύ θέμενος, παραδράμης γελών τα πολλά και περί μηδέν εσπουδακώς therefore despise the swellings and the diseases of a disordered life, and a proud vanity ; be troubled for no outward thing beyond its merit, enjoy the present temperately, and you cannot choose but be pleased to see, that you have so little share in the follies and miseries of the intemperate world.

2. Intemperance in eating and drinking is the most contrary course to the Epicure's design in the world; and the voluptuous man hath the least of pleasure; and upon this proposition, the consideration is more material and more immediately reducible to practice, because in eating and drinking, men please themselves so much, and have the necessities of nature to usher in the inordination of gluttony and drunkenness, and our need leads in vice by the hand, that we know not how to distinguish our friend from our enemy; and St. Austin is sad upon this point;

“ Thou, O Lord, hast taught me that I should take my meat as I take my physic; but while I pass from the trouble of hunger to the quietness of satisfaction, in the very passage I am ensnared by the cords of my own concupiscence. Necessity bids me pass, but I have no way to pass from hunger to fulness, but over the bridge of pleasure; and although health

and life be the cause of eating and drinking, yet pleasure, a dangerous pleasure, thrusts herself into attendance, and sometimes endeavours to be the principal; and I do that for pleasure's sake which I would only do for health; and yet they have distinct measures, whereby they can be separated, and that which is enough for health, is too little for delight, and that which is for my delight, destroys my health, and still it is uncertain for what end I do indeed desire ; and the worst of the evil is this, that the soul is glad because it is uncertain, and that an excuse is ready, that under the pretence of health,“ obumbret negotium voluptatis,” “ the design of pleasure may be advanced and protected.” How far the ends of natural pleasure may lawfully be enjoyed, I shall afterward consider: in the meantime, if we remember that the epicure's design is pleasure principally, we may the better reprove his folly by considering, that intemperance is a plain destruction to all that, which can give real and true pleasure.

2. It is an enemy to health, without which it is impossible to feel any thing of corporal pleasure. 2. A constant full table hath in it less pleasure than the temperate provisions of the hermit, or the labourer, or the philosophical table of scholars, and the just pleasures of the virtuous. 3. Intemperance is an impure fountain of vice, and a direct nurse of uncleanness. 4. It is a destruction of wisdom. 5. It is a dishonour and disreputation to the person and the nature of the man.

1. It is an enemy to health : which is, as one calls it, "ansa voluptatum et condimentum vitæ;" it is that handle by which we can apprehend, and perceive pleasures, and that sauce that only makes life delicate;' for what content can a' full table administer to a man in a fever? And he that hath a sickly stomach, admires at his happiness, that can feast with cheese and garlic, unctuous beverages, and the low-tasted spinach: health is the opportunity of wisdom, the fairest scene of religion, the advantages of the glorifications of God, the charitable ministries to men; it is a state of joy and thanksgiving, and in every of its period feels a pleasure from the blessed emanations of a merciful Providence. The world does not minister, does not feel, a greater pleasure, than to be newly delivered from the racks or the gratings of the


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stone, and the torments and convulsions of a sharp cholic: and no organs, no harp, no lute, can sound out the praises of the Almighty Father so spritefully, as the man that rises from his bed of sorrows, and considers what an excellent difference he feels from the groans and intolerable accents of yesterday. Health carries us to church, and makes us rejoice in the communion of saints; and an intemperate table makes us to lose all this. For this is one of those sins, which St. Paul affirms to be πρόδηλοι, προάγουσαι εις κρίσιν,

manifest, leading before unto judgment.” It bears part of its punishment in this life, and hath this appendage, like the sin against the Holy Ghost, that it is not remitted in this world, nor in the world to come: that is, if it be not repented of, it is punished here and hereafter, which the Scripture does not affirm concerning all sins, and all cases.

But in this the sinner gives sentence with his mouth, and brings it to execution with his hands ;

Pæna tamen præsens, cum tu deponis amictum
Targidus, et crudum pavonem in balnea portas.

The old gluttons among the Romans, Heliogabalus, Tigellius, Crispus, Montanus, “notæque per oppida buccæh," famous epicures, mingled their meats with vomitings; so did Vitellius, and entered into their baths to digest their pheasants, that they might speedily return to the mullet and the eels of Syëne, and then they went home and drew their breath short till the morning, and it may be not at all before night:

Hinc subitæ mortes, atque intestata senectusi.

Their age is surprised at a feast, and gives them not time to make their will, but either they are choked with a large morsel, and there is no room for the breath of the lungs, and the motions of the heart; or a fever burns their eyes out, or a quinsey punishes that intemperate throat that had no religion, but the eating of the fat sacrifices, the portions of the poor and of the priest; or else they are condemned to a lethargy if their constitutions be dull; and, if active, it may be they are wild with watching.

8 Juv.


h Ib. 3. 35.

i Ib. 1. 144.

Plurimus hic æger moritur vigilando : sed illum
Languorem peperit cibus imperfectus, et hærens
Ardenti stomacho k.

So that the epicure’s genial proverb may be a little altered, and

say, “ Let us eat and drink, for by this means to-morrow we shall die;" but that is not all, for these men lead a healthless life; that is, are long, are every day dying, and at last die with torment. Menander was too short in his expression, μόνος ούτος φαίνεται εύθάνατος; that it is indeed death, but gluttony is 'a pleasant death.'

"Εχοντα πολλήν την χολάδα παχύν,
Και μόλις λαλούντα, και το πνεύμ' έχοντα πάν άνω,

'Εσθίοντα και λέγοντα, Σήπομυπό της ηδονής. For this is the glutton's pleasure, “ To breathe short and difficultly, scarce to be able to speak, and when he does, he cries out, I die and rot with pleasure.” But the folly is as much to be derided as the men to be pitied, that we daily see men afraid of death with a most intolerable apprehension, and yet increase the evil of it, the pain, and the trouble, and the suddenness of its coming, and the appendage of an insufferable eternity.

Rem struere exoptas cæso bove, Mercuriumque

Arcessis fibra!

They pray for herds of cattle, and spend the breeders upon feasts and sacrifices. For why do men go to temples and churches, and make vows to God and daily prayers, that God would give them a healthful body, and take away their gout, and their palsies, their fevers and apoplexies, the pains of the head and the gripings of the belly, and arise from their prayers, and pour in loads of flesh and seas of wine, lest there should not be matter enough for a lusty disease?

Poscis opem nervis, corpusque fidele senectæ :
Esto age : sed grandes patinæ lucetaque crassa

Annuere his soperos vetuere, Joveinque morantur". But this is enough that the rich glutton shall have his dead body condited and embalmed; he may be allowed to stink and suffer corruption while he is alive; these men are for the present living sinners and walking rottenness, and hereafter will be dying penitents and perfumed carcasses, and

k Juv. 3. 232.

Pers. 2. 44.

m Pers, sat. 2.

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