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fought against the Getæ, and himself and his whole army were compelled by thirst to yield themselves to bondage; but when the wine was sunk as far as his navel, the pleasure was gone, and so was his kingdom and his liberty : for though the sorrow dwells with a man pertinaciously, yet the pleasure is swift as lightning, and more pernicious; but the pleasures of a sober and a temperate table are pleasures till the next day, και τη υστεραία ηδέως γίνονται, as Timotheus said of Plato's scholars; they converse sweetly, and ' are of perfect temper and delicacy of spirit even the next morning:' whereas the intemperate man is forced to lie long in bed, and forget that there is a sun in the sky; he must not be called till he hath concocted, and slept his surfeit into a truce and a quiet respite; but whatsoever this man hath suffered, certain it is that the poor man's head did not ache, neither did he need the juice of poppies, or costly cordials, physicians or nurses, to bring him to his right shape again, like Apuleius's ass, with eating roses : and let him turn his hour-glass, he will find his head aches longer than his throat was pleased; and, which is worst, his glass runs out with joggings and violence, and every such concussion with a surfeit makes his life look nearer its end, and ten to one but it will, before its natural period, be broken in pieces. If these be the pleasures of an epicure's table, I shall pray that my friends may never feel them; but he that sinneth against his Maker, shall fall into the calamities of intemperance.

3. Intemperance is the nurse of vice; 'Appodirns yada, • Venus-milk, so Aristophanes calls wine; távrwv delvūv untpórolis, 'the mother of all grievous things ;' so Pontianus. For by the experience of all the world, it is the bawd to lust: and no man must ever dare to pray to God for a pure soul in a chaste body, if himself does not live temperately, if himself “make provisions for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts of it;" for in this case he shall find “that which enters into him, shall defile him" more than he can be cleansed by those vain prayers, that come from his tongue, and not from his heart. Intemperance makes rage and choler, pride and fantastic principles; it makes the body a sea of humours, and those humours the seat of violence: by faring deliciously every day, men become senseless of the

evils of mankind, inapprehensive of the troubles of their brethren, unconcerned in the changes of the world, and the cries of the poor, the hunger of the fatherless, and the thirst of widows: ουκ εκ των μαζοφάγων οι τύραννοι, αλλ' εκ των Tpupwuévwv, said Diogenes; “ Tyrants never come from the cottages of them that eat pulse and coarse fare, but from the delicious beds and banquets of the effeminate and rich feeders.” For, to maintain plenty and luxury, sometimes wars are necessary, and oppressions and violence : but no landlord did ever grind the face of his tenants, no prince ever sucked blood from his subjects for the maintenance of a sober and a moderate proportion of good things. And this was intimated by St. James, Do not rich men oppress you, and draw you before the judgment-seat"?” For all men are passionate to live according to that state in which they were born, or to which they are devolved, or which they have framed to themselves; those therefore that love to live high and deliciously,

Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato >, who live not to God but to their belly, not to sober counsels but to an intemperate table, have framed to themselves a manner of living, which oftentimes cannot be maintained but by injustice and violence, which coming from a man whose passions are made big with sensuality and an habitual folly, by pride and forgetfulness of the condition and miseries of mankind, are always unreasonable, and sometimes intolerable.

regustalum digito terebrare salinum

Contentus perages, si vivere com Jove tendis y. Formidable is the state of an intemperate man, whose sin begins with sensuality, and grows up in folly and weak discourses, and is fed by violence, and applauded by fools and parasites, full bellies and empty heads, servants and flatterers, whose hands are full of flesh and blood, and their hearts empty of pity and natural compassion; where religion cannot inhabit, and the love of God must needs be a stranger; whose talk is loud and trifling, injurious and impertinent;

u Jam. ii. 6.

* Juv. 11. 11.

y Pers. 5. 138.

and whose employment is the same with the work of the sheep or the calf, always to eat; their loves are the lusts of the lower belly; and their portion is in the lower regions to eternal ages, where their thirst, and their hunger, and their torment, shall be infinite.

4. Intemperance is a perfect destruction of wisdom. Παχεία γαστηρ λεπτόν ου τίκτει νόον, «A full-gorged belly never produced a sprightly mind :” and therefore these kind of men are called yaotipes åpyaì, “slow bellies,” so St. Paul concerning the intemperate Cretans out of their own poet: they are like the tigers of Brazil, which when they are empty, are bold, and swift, and full of sagacity ; but being full, sneak away from the barking of a village-dog. So are these men, wise in the morning, quick and fit for business ; but when the sun gives the sign to spread the tables, and intemperance brings in the messes, and drunkenness fills the bowls, then the man falls away, and leaves a beast in his room; nay, worse, vervas pegatxevas, they are dead all but their throat and belly, so Aristophanes hath fitted them with a character, “Carcasses above half way.” Plotinus descends one step lower yet; affirming such persons, anodevdpwhñval, “to be made trees,” whose whole employment and life is nothing but to feed and suck juices from the bowels of their nurse and mother; and indeed commonly they talk as trees in a wind and tempest, the noise is great and querulous, but it signifies nothing but trouble and disturbance. A full meal is like Sisera's banquet, at the end of which there is a nail struck into a man's head: ως συγκολλώσα και οίον καθηλούσα Thv Yuxov apòs TV TOū o úpatos árólavolv, so Porphyry; "it knocks a man down, and nails his soul to the sensual mixtures of the body.” For what wisdom can be expected from them, whose soul dwells in clouds of meat, and floats up and down in wine, like the spilled cups which fell from their hands, when they could lift them to their heads no longer? πολλάκις γαρ εν οίνου κύμασί τις ναυαγεί: it is a perfect shipwreck of a man, the pilot is drunk, and the helm dashed in pieces, and the ship first reels, and by swallowing too much is itself swallowed up at last. And therefore the Navis Agrigentina, the madness of the young fellows of Agrigentum, who being drunk, fancied themselves in a storm, and the house the ship, was more than the wild fancy of their cups ;

it was really so, they were all cast away, they were broken in pieces by the foul disorder of the storm.

Hinc Vini atque somni degener socordia,
Libido sordens, inverecundus lepos,
Variæque pestes languidorom sensuu!n.
Hinc et frequenti marcida oblectamine
Scintilla menlis intorpescit nobilis,

Animusque pigris stertit in præcordiis -. • The senses languish, the spark of Divinity that dwells within is quenched; and the mind snorts, dead with sleep and fulness in the fouler regions of the belly.'

So have I seen the eye of the world looking upon a fenny bottom, and drinking up too free draughts of moisture, gathered them into cloud, and that cloud crept about his face, and made him first look red, and then covered him with darkness and an artificial night: so is our reason at a feast,

Patrem resudans crapulam
Obstrangulatæ mentis ingenium premit.

The clouds gather about the head, and according to the method and period of the children, and productions of darkness, it first grows red, and that redness turns into an obscurity, and a thick mist, and reason is lost to all use and profitableness of wise and sober discourses ; αναθυμίασις θολωδεστέρα ούσα επισκοτεί τη ψυχή, "a cloud of folly and distraction darkens the soul,” and makes it crass and material, polluted and heavy, clogged and laden like the body: Yuxn kádvopos ταϊς εκ του οίνου αναθυμιάσεσι και νεφέλαις δίκην σώματος ποιουuévn. 'And there cannot be any thing said worse, reason turns into folly, wine and flesh into a knot of clouds, the soul itself into a body,' and the spirit into corrupted meat; there is nothing left but the rewards and portions of a fool to be reaped and enjoyed there, where flesh and corruption shall dwell to eternal ages; and therefore in Scripture such men are called Bapukápdou. “Hesternis vitiis animum quoque prægravant:" Their heads are gross, their souls are emerged in matter, and drowned in the moistures of an unwholesome cloud ; they are dull of hearing, slow in apprehension, and to action they are as unable as the hands of a child, who too hastily hath broken the enclosures of his first dwelling. · Pradent. hym. de Jejun,

a Clem. Alexand.

But temperance is reason's girdle, and passion's bridle; σώα φρόνησις, so Ηomer in Stobaeus; that is σωφροσύνη; “prudence is safe,” while the man is temperate; and therefore σώφρον is opposed τω χαλίφρoνι, , A temperate man is no fool;" for temperance is the owopoviothpiov, such as Plato appointed to night-walkers, a prison to restrain their inordi- . nations; it is ρώμη ψυχής, as Pythagoras calls it; κρηπίς αρετής, s0 Socrates ; κόσμος αγαθών πάντων, so Plato; ασφάdela Tūv kalliorWV BEEWV, so Jamblichus; it is “ the strength of the soul, the foundation of virtue, the ornament of all good things, and the corroborative of all excellent habits.”

5. After all this, I shall the less need to add, that intemperance is a dishonour, and disreputation to the nature, and the person,

and the manners of a man. But naturally men are ashamed of it, and the needs of nature shall be the veil for their gluttony, and the night shall cover their drunkenness : τέγγε πνεύμονα οίνω, το γαρ άστρον περιστέλλεται, which the Apostle rightly renders, " They that are drunk, are drunk in the night;" but the priests of Heliopolis never did sacrifice to the sun with wine; meaning, that this is so great a dishonour, that the sun ought not to see it; and they that think there is no other eye but the sun that sees them, may cover their shame by choosing their time; just as children do their danger by winking hard, and not looking on. Σκυθίζειν, και ζωρότερον πιείν, και δεινώς φαγείν, « Το drink sweet drinks and hot, to quaff great draughts, and to eat greedily;” Theoprastus makes them characters of a clown'.

3. And now that I have told you the foulness of the epicure's feasts and principles, it will be fit that I describe the measures of our eating and drinking, that the needs of nature may neither become the cover to an intemperate dish, nor the freer refreshment of our persons be changed into scruples, that neither our virtue nor our conscience fall into an evil snare.

1. The first measure of our eating and drinking, is our “ natural needs,” μήτε αλγείν κατά σώμα, μήτε ταράττεσθαι κατά fuxhv; these are the measures of nature, that the body be free from pain, and the soul from violence.' Hunger, and thirst, and cold, are the natural diseases of the body; and

b Alcæus.

e Cap. 4.

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