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and it was not rightly observed of him that said, when the woman fell, God made her timorous, that she might be ruled,' apt and easy to obey; for this obedience is no way founded in fear, but in love and reverence. “Receptæ reverentiæ est, si mulier viro subsit,” said the lawk; unless also that we will add, that it is an effect of that modesty which like rubies adorns the necks and cheeks of women. “Pudicitia est, pater, Eos magnificare, qui nos socias sumpserunt sibi'," said the maiden in the comedy: “it is modesty to advance and highly to honour them, who have honoured us by making us to be the companions” of their dearest excellences; for the woman that went before the man in the way of death, is commanded to follow him in the way of love; and that makes the society to be perfect, and the union profitable, and the harmony complete.
Inferior matrona suo sit, Prisce, marito;
Non aliter fuerint fæmina virque pares m. For then the soul and body make a perfect man, when the soul commands wisely, or rules lovingly, and cares profitably, and provides plentifully, and conducts charitably that body which is its partner, and yet the inferior. But if the body shall give laws, and, by the violence of'the appetite, first abuse the understanding, and then possess the superior portion of the will and choice, the body and the soul are not apt company, and the man is a fool, and miserable. If the soul rules not, it cannot be a companion ; either it must govern, or be a slave ; never was king deposed and suffered to live in the state of peerage and equal honour, but made a prisoner, or put to death ; and those women, that had rather lead the blind than follow prudent guides, rule fools and easy men than obey the powerful and wise, never made a good society in a house : a wife never can become equal but by obeying ; but so her power, while it is in minority, makes up the authority of the man integral, and becomes one government, as themselves are one man. “ Male and female created he them, and called their name Adam,” saith the Holy Scripture"; they are but one : and therefore, the several parts of this one man must stand in the place where God appointed, that the lower parts
k C. alia D. se. lut. Matrim.
m Mart. 8. 12. VOL. V.
| Plautus in Sticho. 1. 2. 43.
do their offices in their own station, and promote the common interest of the whole. A ruling woman is intolerable.
Faciunt graviora coactæ
Τα δευτερεία την γυναίκα δεί λέγειν, ,
It is a sad calamity for a woman to be joined to a fool or a weak person; it is like a guard of geese to keep the capitol ; or as if a flock of sheep should read grave lectures to their shepherd, and give him orders where he shall conduct them to pasture. “O vere Phrygiæ, neque enim Phryges :" it is a curse that God threatened sinning persons ; “Devoratum est robur eorum, facti sunt quasi mulieres. Effæminati dominabuntur eisq;"" to be ruled by weaker people;” doūlov yevéoSal mapa povoūVTOC DEOTÓTOU", "to have a fool to one's master," is the fate of miserable and unblessed people: and the wife can be no ways happy, unless she be governed by a prudent lord, whose commands are sober counsels, whose authority is paternal, whose orders are provisions, and whose sentences are charity.
But now concerning the measures and limits of this obedience,we can best take accounts from Scripture : ¿v mavri, saith the Apostle, “in all things*;" « ut Domino,” “as to the Lord;” and that is large enough; 'as unto a lord,' 'ut ancilla domino;' so St. Jerome understands it, who neither was a friend to the sex, nor to marriage; but his mistake is soon confuted by the text; it is not “ut dominis," be subject to your husbands" as unto lords,” but ús tų Kupią, that is,'in all religion,' in reverence and in love, in duty and zeal, in faith and knowledge; or else ús töö Kupią may signify, 'wives be subject to your husbands ; but yet so, that at the same time ye be subject to the Lord. For that is the measure of ¿v mavri, “in all things;" and it is more plain in the parallel place, ως ανήκεν εν Κυρίω, as it is fit in the Lord' :" religion must be the measure of your obedience and subjection: “intra limites disciplinæ;" so Tertullian expresses it. Πάντα μεν τω ανδρί πειθομένη, ως μηδέν, άκοντος εκείνου, πράξαι ποτέ, πλην όσα εις αρετήν και σοφίαν διαφέρειν νομίζεται so Clemens Alex ": “ In all things let the wife be subject to the husband, so as to do nothing against his will; those only things excepted, in which he is impious or refractory in things pertaining to wisdom and piety.”
o Juvenal. 6. 134. r Arist. Plat. 2.
p Stob. floril. tit. 74.
Ephes. v. 24.
9 Isa. iii. 4.
But in this also there is some peculiar caution. For although in those things which are of the necessary parts of faith and holy life, the woman is only subject to Christ, who only is and can be Lord of consciences, and commands alone where the conscience is instructed and convinced: yet as it is part of the man's office to be a teacher, and a prophet, and a guide, and a master; so also it will relate very much to the demonstration of their affections to obey his counsels, to imitate his virtues, to be directed by his wisdom, to have her persuasion measured by the lines of his excellent religion: ουχ ήττον δε σεμνόν ακούσαι γαμετής λεγούσης, ανήρ συ μου εσσι καθηγητής και φιλόσοφος και διδάσκαλος των καλλίστων και θειotátwy: “ It were hugely decent," saith Plutarch, “that the wife should acknowledge her husband for her teacher and her guide;" for then when she is what he please to efform her, he hath no cause to complain if she be no better : tà de τοιαύτα μαθήματα πρώτον αφίστησι των ατόπων τας γυναίκας και ; “his precept and wise counsels can draw her off from vanities;" and, as he said of geometry, that, if she be skilled in that, she will not easily be a gamester or a dancer, may perfectly be said of religion. If she suffers herself to be guided by his counsel, and efformed by his religion; either he is an ill master in his religion, or he may secure in her and for his advantage an excellent virtue. And although in matters of religion the husband hath no empire and command, yet if there be a place left to persuade, and entreat, and induce by arguments, there is not in a family a greater endearment of affections than the unity of religion: and anciently it was not permitted to a woman to have a religion by herself:' “ Eosdem quos maritus, nosse Deos et colere solos uxor debet, said Plutarch. And the rites which a woman performs severally from her husband, are not pleasing to God; and therefore Pomponia Græcina, because she entertained a
u Stromat. 7.
stranger religion, was permitted to the judgment of her husband Plantius : and this whole affair is no stranger to Christianity, for the Christian woman was not suffered to "marry an unbelieving man; and although this is not to be extended to different opinions within the limits of the common faith : yet thus much advantage is won or lost by it; that the compliance of the wife, and submission of her understanding to the better rule of her husband in matters of religion, will help very much to warrant her, though she should be mispersuaded in a matter less necessary; yet nothing can warrant her in her separate rites and manners of worshippings, but an invincible necessity of conscience, and a curious infallible truth; and if she be deceived alone, she hath no excuse;
if with him, she hath much pity, and some degrees of warranty under the protection of humility, and duty, and dear affections; and she will find that it is part of her privilege and right to partake of the mysteries and blessings of her husband's religion. Γυναίκα γαμετών μετά νόμους ιερούς συνελθούσαν ανδρί κοινωνόν απάντων είναι, χρημάτων τε και ιερών, said Romulus: “A woman by the holy laws hath right to partake of her husband's goods, and her husband's sacrifices, and holy things." Where there is a schism in one bed, there is a nursery of temptations, and love is persecuted and in perpetual danger to be destroyed; there dwell jealousies, and divided interests, and differing opinions, and continual disputes', and we cannot love them so well, whom we believe to be less beloved of God; and it is ill uniting with a person, concerning whom my persuasion tells me, that he is like to live in hell to eternal ages.
2. The next line of the woman's duty is compliance, which St. Peter calls, “ the hidden man of the heart, the ornament of a meek and a quiet spirit,” and to it he opposes the outward and pompous ornament of the body;' concerning which, as there can be no particular measure set down to all persons, but the proportions were to be measured by the customs of wise people, the quality of the woman, and the desires of the man ; yet it is to be limited by Christian modes
Qais deditus autem
Juven. Sat. 6. 181.
ty, and the usages of the more excellent and severe matrons. Menander in the comedy brings in a man turning his wife from his house, because she stained her hair yellow, which was then the beauty.
Νύν δ' έρπ’ απ’ οίκων τώνδε την γυναίκα γάρ
Cleric. p. 258.
A wise woman should not paint. A studious gallantry in clothes cannot make a wise man love his wife the better". Είς τους τραγωδούς χρήσιμ', ουκ εις τον βιον, said the comedy; "Such gaieties are fit for tragedies, but not for the uses of life:” “ Decor occultus, et tecta venustas,” that is the Christian woman's fineness; the hidden man of the heart,' sweetness of manners, humble comportment, fair interpretation of all addresses, ready compliance, high opinion of him and mean of herselfb.
'Εν κοινή λύπης ηδονής τ’ έχειν μέρος, Το partake secretly, and in her heart, of all his joys and sorrows,' to believe him comely and fair, though the sun hath drawn a cyprus over him; for as marriages are not to be contracted by the hands and eye, but with reason and the hearts; so are these judgments to be made by the mind, not by the sight: and diamonds cannot make the woman virtuous, nor him to value her who sees her put them off then, when charity and modesty are her brightest ornaments.
Ού κόσμος, ουκ, ώ τλήμον, αλλ' άκοσμία
And, indeed, those husbands that are pleased with indecent gaieties of their wives, are like fishes taken with ointments and intoxicating baits, apt and easy for sport and mockery, but useless for food ; and when Circe had turned Ulysses's companions into hogs and monkeys, by pleasures
• Qaid jovat ornato procedere, vita, capillo,
Teque peregrinis vendere muneribus,
Propert. I. 1. el. 1.
Juven. Sat. 6. 167. • Πρώτα μέν γε τούθ' υπάρχειν» καν άμορφος ή πόσις, χρή δοκείν εύμορφον είναι τη γενούν κεκτημένη: ου γας οφθαλμός το κρίνειν έστιν αλλά νούς.