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* munion of Saints,' it would be impossible for us to enter, without mutilating the clear and distinct, yet brief and weighty statements of Dr. M. This we feel no disposition to do; and shall therefore satisfy ourselves with remarking, that here at least we generally agree with him, and that he has successfully opposed hard arguments to Aquinatic distinctions. We subjoin the Doctor's own summary of this important section.
• The preceding pages are believed to have shewn, that the communion for which they plead is enjoined in the word of God—was understood to be so enjoined by the Apostolic and primitive church— was acted upon under that persuasion—was contended for in opposition to every sort of sectaries—was asserted, and the doctrine of it inserted, in the briefest summary of faith ever current in the churches, the Apostles' creed—was maintained at the revival of the cause of God and truth at the Reformation—was practised to the greatest extent in the best of churches in the best of times—was cordially received by that venerable representation of evangelical interests, the Assembly of Divines at Westminster—is in perfect unison with the known convictions and conduct of the most glorious champions of the cross whom England ever saw—was not only received, but is formally, explicitly, and fully maintained in their profession of faith— has been re-asserted and vindicated by the church of Scotland thirty years before the Secession—and stands, at this hour, a conspicuous part of the solemn, public profession of churches which, on both sides of the Atlantic, have originated from her.' '"''.'
Part the Third—' A review of objections'—does not fall short of the ability displayed in the former sections of the work; it is, however, even less susceptible of compression, and we must here content ourselves with a simple reference to the original, the republication of which we have been given to understand, since we began this article, may be shortly expected.
Part the Fourth—' The consequences of sectarian, as op'posed to Catholic communion'—is the concluding chapter. Dr. Mason points out these consequences,' in relation to our'selves—to the Church of God at large—and to the surround'ing world.' Whatever may be thought of his arguments, the force of eloquence with which he urges them will be denied by none. There is a powerful energy, an overwhelming vehemence in his reproofs and expostulations, that seem to bear down his antagonist. It might be easy, perhaps, to detect minor faults in the style and manner of this able work, but we have no disposition to apply this inferior sort of criticism to powers of such richness and magnitude. Dr. Mason's mind is of a bold, determined, and elevated cast; he possesses the eloquence both of words and argument, though not in equal perfection, yet in powerful combination; and with these rare excellences it is perhaps a natural defect that his strength is sometimes injurious to just refinement, and that his language is sometimes forced. We shall conclude this article with the peroration of his work.
'In very deed, sectarians are Christians in disguise. Sectarian distinctions are masks; sectarian champions, ecclesiastical knights covered with their armour, themselves unseen. The masks are of all hues and all features. They must be removed before you can perceive that the combatants are of one species. Sectarianism stripped off, you see the Christians. You discover the identity of race—the family features—those beautiful features in which they resemble their Father who is in Heaven, and are "conformed to the image of the "first-born among many brethren."
'Blessed likeness! enchanting loveliness! Are the painted earthmade vizors which conceal the "human face divine," and substitute in its room their own deformed and forbidding visages, worth the price they cost us? worth the conflicts which have all the pains of military warfare without its recompence, and all the hardihood of chivalry without its generosity? worth the broken unity, the blighted peace, the tarnished beauty, the prostrate energy, the humbled honour, of the Church of God? Ah no! Our hearts feel that they are not. What then remains but to lay aside our petty contests? to strike our hands in a covenant of love —a « holy league,' offensive and defensive, for the common Christianity—to present our consolidated front to the legions of error and death, and march on, under the command and conduct of the Captain of our salvation, till the nations mingle their shouts in that thundering Alleluia—" The Lord "God Omnipotent reigneth."
We now take our leave of this able and impressive writer. Whatever may be thought of his general arguments, there can be no question concerning the skill with which he has conducted it; and whatever may be the fate of his main positions, all sincere Christians will join with him in deprecating that mutual jealousy and alienation of spirit, which have so long subsisted among men formed to admire and love one another. 'Secta'rian fires,' says Pr. Mason, 'put out Christian light:' it is however some consolation, that the day will come when Christian light shall for ever extinguish sectarian fires.
Art. III. Monastic and Baronial Remains; with other interesting Fragments of Antiquity, in England, Wales, and Scotland. Illustrated with upwards of one Hundred Plates. By G. J. Parkyns, Esq. Royal 8vo. 2 Vols. pp. 288. Price 41. Longman and Co. 1816.
TT is a commodious circumstance attending the gratification of •"■ taste in contemplating the greater proportion of architectural ruins, that we cannot regret that they are ruins. We often indeed do regret to see them so much dilapidated, but we do not in the least envy the persons who had the advantage of seeing them entire. Thus, we have the solemnity of the images of past Vol. VI. N. S. 2 Y
ages and generations, combined with satisfaction that the state which existed in those times and among those people, is gone into the past with them, never to return.
The two classes of antiquities specified in the title above transcribed, please us by their irreparable decay, as monumental of the destruction of feudality and Popish superstition, of which these remains strongly illustrate the savage and the slavish character. How grim is that vision of a former age, which rises to the view of a reflective spirit, while contemplating one of these dilapidated castles, while looking up at the remains of towers and battlements, while passing through the deep and massive gate-ways, while observing the rocky solidity and thickness of the walls, while winding through the narrow gloomy passages, and while looking down into the dungeons, where, in a dismal twilight, and surrounded closely by au impenetrable construction of stone, so many wretches have pined in protracted despair, or awaited a speedy and violent death. However disparted by time, or worn by the elements, or mantled with ivy, or crowned with wall-flowers, or enlightened now by the wide access of sunshine, the ruins may be, they retain unalterably a frowning and as it were malevolent aspect. The structure has much the same effect on the imagination, as the sight of a skeleton of some gigantic murderer. The idea of merely defensive strength, is quite secondary in the beholder's reflections. The predominant impression is that of a hold of barbarous and turbulent beings, ready to rush out on enterprises of revenge, and slaughter, and devastation; or returned to riot in the spoils and the exultation of their destructive success. And when the thought is extended to the rural tracts between several of these fortresses, their condition in that age is presented in all the forms of a disturbed culture and a harrassed population.
The edifices raised by Popery, and abandoned to the operation of time since the fall of that hateful domination, suggest—by their gloom, by their superstitious uncouth imagery, by their arrangements for the purpose of vain rites, and for the privilege and accommodation of the performers and teachers of them, and by their enormous expense of labour—an impressive idea of the enslaved condition of the human mind; and we may rejoice, with gratitude to Heaven, that in these ruins we behold so many signs of its deliverance from what was so little better than Pagan idolatry. It is a mind of very little elevation, that in contemplating the cloisters, and arches, and broken walls, can be more gratified in the way of taste than of philanthropy and religion; more pleased by picturesque appearance, than sympathetic with the exultation of prophets and confessors, that in thus far, " Babylon is fallen!"
Meanwhile, there is no danger of the resumption of ' Monastic 'and Baronial' architecture. In this country its characteristic uses being gone irrevocably, together with the very means, in a pecuniary sense, of maintaining it, on any scale comparable to its former magnificence, the style itself, with whatever were its merits, is surrendered to the times to which it belonged. And nothing can appear more impertinent than the raising, in recent times, of some few ecclesiastical edifices, in such imitation as to seem like mockery of the temples of Popish superstition;— unless it be that wretched caprice of wealth that, in two or three notorious instances, has been building, at an immeasurable expense, abbeys and castles, with all their now unmeaning appurtenances, for mere places of abode. Who has not marvelled at such a whimsical vanity in elderly men, choosing expedients adapted to provoke perpetual ridicule, as the ambitious means of securing perpetual fame?
As to the relics of the ambitious labours of the older times, there can be no question whether it be desirable to have accurate delineations of them added to our elegant literature, before they are still further sunk in ruins or quite destroyed. Mr. Parkyns's work will be regarded as a pleasing and valuable addition to the numerous performances of this class. It is in part a republication. The Preface states, that in early life, Mr. P. belonging to a regiment which happened to be encamped on the same ground with that to which Captain Grose belonged, contracted an intimate friendship with that antiquary, and, by his means, ' with Mr. James Moore, a gentleman whose talents'as an amateur draughtsman, claimed every consideration, and 'Whose abilities at length riveted the attention of the Author to 'these subjects.' It is added,
'Ere the first named celebrated and excellent man had completed his great work of Antiquities, he paid the debt of nature in Ireland. After his decease, being urged by their mutual (common) friend, who made an offer of an extensive collection of sketches, made by himself in various summer excursions, and assured of the valuable aid of Mr. Caley towards obtaining the requisite descriptions—for whose solicitude the utmost acknowledgements are due—the present writer was induced to undertake a publication somewhat similar to Mr. Grose's, but on a smaller scale; of which a commencing volume was published in the year 1793, under the title of Monastic Remains, &c.'
'The volume formerly ushered to the world being merely an experiment, the objects contained in it were fortuitously selected; in the present, which becomes a new work, it will be considerably extended: the first of these volumes, as originally purposed, is still confined to England and Wales; the second embraces many interesting objects in North Britain.'
Some particulars of explanation are briefly and not imper tinently introduced. After the publication of the volume above mentioned, which had a flattering success with the public, Mr. P. was proceeding, with a valuable stock and accession of materials, to prepare another, with the intention of 'yearly' committing a volume to the press; but his progress was stopped * by the occurrence of a fire at the copper-plate printer's, which 'destroyed a considerable number of impressions, and many of 'the plates,' combined with a sudden call to North America, to settle some concerns of property. But he never relinquished the intention of prosecuting this favourite undertaking. During this long suspension, it seems, 'an unhandsome attempt was 'made,' by an individual not named,' to produce little less than * a piracy of it,' by bad imitations, accompanied with an 'en- * deavour to wrest from the memory of the Author's late friend 'the title of originality;' and the production appeared even after the Author had returned to England, and was known to have resumed his work. There can now be no further competition.
Some of the expressions in this Preface, would seem to imply that the second volume cannot have completed the Author's design; but there is no positive information of its intended further prosecution. It is proper to mention, that though these volumes comprise a hundred and twelve short descriptive articles, each referring to a distinct plate, not more than ninetynine prints are inserted. There is a notice from the Publishers, that 'having been disappointed of plates for thirteen of the 'subjects, it is their intention to deliver them hereafter to the
* purchasers of the work, at a moderate charge.'
Mr. Parkyns explicitly signifies that he does not take upon him the task of formal antiquarian investigation.
* Whatever literary illustrations occur, must be considered as entirely subordinate to the efforts of the pencil. To exhibit to the historian and antiquary a sketch of those monastic, castellated, and other remains, necessarily forming objects of their curiosity, as they are, or as they luere; to assist in preserving or elucidating those exquisite monuments of ages long since passed away, thereby conveying to a polished people, a just sense of the religious, civil, and military talents, as also of the splendour of their ancestors; and at the same time to offer an interesting pocket companion to the amateur, or the tourist, are the entire motives of the author.'
The engravings are in aquatinta, and washed over with various tints, chiefly yellowish or reddish brown, to give the effect, though not in a glaring degree, of seeing the objects through coloured glasses. A deep shade is thus thrown over many of the views. However unnatural this mode of finishing may be, it certainly is pleasing to the majority of eyes. It gives an effect of richness, and magnitude, and perhaps re