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quarters unsold, and the prices fall; if, on the contrary, 800 quarters only are brought to the market, there is a competition among the buyers, that they may not be amongst those who are left destitute, and the prices


“It is this uncertainty, under a system of competition, of obtaining a remunerating price, that limits the growth of corn and the quantity of all useful

prongrowth of unga a remunendler a system of

“When the destitute people are organised in communities, or Christian colonies, upon the principle of the celebrated Reductions in Paraguay, but with such modifications as an European population might require for the further advance of mankind in religion and virtue, and for the greater and more beneficial progress of science, the uncertainty of markets will cease, as the communities in different localities will adopt a system of exchange, and their mutual wants will be for several years anticipated.”

As all wealth is created by the labour of the people, it follows that a vast amount is produced beyond that which is returned to them in the shape of wages, or what they themselves consume; and the store-houses being amply supplied for some years in advance, they will no longer be exposed to the contingencies of markets or the vicissitudes of seasons.*

*“ HOSIERY AND LACE TRADE.—A sort of electric shock has taken place in the warp lace trade, by the cessation of work at the factory of Messrs. Herbert and Sneath, for one

Before we describe the great advantages, separate and combined, to be derived from these institutions, the grounds on which a considerable surplus may be calculated upon shall be stated. In the first place, there is a material saving in the food. At present the price of bread is increased by six or seven different profits and carriages, from the growth of the corn till it reaches the consumer; similar expenses, though in a less degree, enhance the price of meat also, as well as vegetables : here the corn is grown and converted into bread, and the cattle, sheep, and pig's are reared upon the spot. The hides and skins would undergo the

month. This suspension of labour has arisen entirely from a want of demand for warp lace tatting, and not from being superseded by bobbin net tattings, which are extremely dull sale. Indeed, the era for slop nets seems passing away. The public following French fashions, the rage is for French cushion nets; and sooner or later the ministry will be compelled to go back to the 'Pitt' trade system, by protecting British industry. The cotton-hose trade, particularly fullfashioned work, is in a very depressed state. The only branches that may be said now to be in a flourishing state are India rubber welted gloves, and steam bobbin nets. The bobbin net trade in Calais is extremely flat, though wages are higher than in Nottingham; indeed, machine fancy nets in every country except Germany are on the wane. The application of the Jacquard may yet retrieve this important branch of manufacture.” This paragraph appeared in the Nottingham Journal of July, 1840, and is one of the ordinary Trade Reports, showing to what precarious con

usual processes at the Institution, in preparing the leather for shoes, bookbinding, and harnessmaking. There would be the same economy in almost every article manufactured; for instance, if books were printed, the paper and ink could be made, the type cast, and the books bound at the Institution : those articles, now sent from one establishment to another in the course of manufacture, would be completed from the raw materials at the Institution.

Another source of economy would be found amid the great variety of work, in giving suitable employment even to the weak and to the aged, who require it as an amusement, so that no power

tingencies the well-being of the working classes is exposed, in despite of their own prudence and industry. Excellent arrangements may be made for the education of their children, but are neutralised by the caprice of a Parisian lady, who all at once prefers cushion nets," which may compel hundreds of families to break up and depart. Thousands must remain idle and penniless because there was no demand for “ warp lace tatting,” and “the era for slop nettings seems to be passing away.” The people in the “cotton-hose trade” may want bread, but as the public do not want " full-fashioned work,” they must go without! The glimmering of light imparted through a limited education enables them to perceive that they belong to the beings referred to when repeating the words of the Psalmist : “ Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour ;” and yet they find themselves less cared for by their fellow-creatures than even dogs and horses.

would be lost; but this belong's rather to the advanced state of a Christian Commonwealth.

At present three hundred families have as many persons preparing their dinner; eight or ten would be sufficient. At hay-making and in harvest it is often difficult to procure hands ; nearly the whole establishment could assist, so that not only a division, but a concentration, of labour would be available. *

It will be observed in the Prospectus, that the value of the labour of an able-bodied man is put at the minimum, and yet a surplus appears of more than £4,000. The following document has been signed by eight young men in one village, who now earn per week-two, 21s.; one, 14s.; one, 178.; two; 278.; one, 40s.; one, 42s.; and we are informed that hundreds, earning an equal

* Scarcely a year passes but multitudes of the poorer Irish cross the Channel, and spread themselves over the island in search of employment. Some years since, when the hay-making in the neighbourhood of London was delayed by the weather, numbers were in great destitution; near Acton two were found dead in a ditch, two more were found in the parish of Wilsden in the same situation, and a fifth was found dead near Hampstead; no sustenance whatever was found in their stomachs, excepting some sorrel. If Self-supporting Institutions were formed in Ireland, the peasantry would remain at home to get in their own harvest, and agitation would speedily terminate.

average of wages, would willingly join an Institution upon the same conditions :

“We, the undersigned, having been informed that the three hundred families composing the Self-supporting Institution in connexion with the Church of England, will consist of respectable moral characters, possessing the average of strength and industry, should be willing to join such an Institution, and to conform to the Christian Regulations of taking care of those members who may hereafter become weak or inefficient through the infirmities of age, or from any other cause; and we further consent to receive equal advantages only with those of inferior skill or activity, provided they manifest a disposition to contribute as much as they are able to the welfare and prosperity of the establishment.”

The horticultural and botanic gardens will yield much profit, and be interesting to strangers. At the Anniversary, with an horticultural exhibition, many plants, flowers, as well as works of art made during the year, would be sold, especially at the first establishments : but all these would be on constant sale to visitors, at a depôt abundantly supplied. At the Anniversary a Report might be read, giving a summary of the progress of the Institution, and another of the state of the Schools, accompanied with an examination ; vocal and instrumental music, and various gymnastic exercises and recreations, chiefly for the children,

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