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tence, “I called the New World into ex- Wilberforce, whose benevolent principles istence to redress the balance of the Old ”; were practically the great question at and Chatham, his eagle face kindling stake in the American Civil War, and with the passion with which he pleaded from whom the American abolitionists the rights of the colonists. There, too, lies W. Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips



drew no small part of their inspira. Here lay for a time the body of one of the tion.

most remarkable men and righteous rulers Among the statesmen in the north tran- whom England has ever produced—the sept, next to the statue of Lord Beacons- Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell. In the field, is the monument of the Irish admi- chapel also lay his venerable mother, ral, Sir Peter Warren, who helped to take Elizabeth Cromwell, his sister, Mrs. Des. Louisburg from the French in 1745. He borough, and others of his family. Here, commanded on the American Station for too, or in other parts of the abbey, once years, and owned the tract of land in lay the mortal bodies of Adiniral Blake, New York City once known as Greenwich one of the greatest of England's seamen; Village. His house was still shown in of Sir Thomas May, the translator of Lu1863. Warren Street and Warren Place- can, and historian of the Long Parliawhich run through part of his original ment; of Pym and Strode and Bradshaw property-are named from him. Roubil- and Ireton. It is a shameful and too faiac in his bust has been so faithful as to miliar fact that the bodies of Cromwell, indicate even the marks of the small-pox Bradshaw, and Ireton were exhumed and on Sir Peter's face.

hung on the gallows at Tyburn, and that Then, passing along the north ambula- their heads—“ but not until they had tory, take a long look at the monument quite done with them," as Carlyle saysof the “ little, sickly, red-haired ” hero and were stuck on pikes at the top of Westenthusiast whose courage and genius minster Hall. Others of the commonstormed the Heights of Abraham, and se- wealth personages, to the number of twencured for Great Britain the possession of ty-one, were exhumed by an act of poor Canada. The figure of Wolfe is ridicu- and base revenge, under an order dated lously represented undraped, only that at the Court of Whitehall, Sept. 9, 1661, the sculptor, Joseph Wilton, might con- and flung promiscuously into veniently display his knowledge of anat- nameless pit at the northwest of the omy.

abbey, where their remains lie without a Just beyond the tomb is the chapel of memorial to this day. Deep, indeed, would Abbot Islip, over which you will see, in have been the interest of Americans in the Efligy Chamber, which can only be the graves of some of these. But the visited by a special order, the large chest vault in which Cromwell lay was reserved in which the remains of André were sent in part to bury the illegitimate children home from America.

of Charles II. Could there be a more Passing into Henry VII.'s Chapel, striking proof that the Revolution had Americans will certainly look with some failed for the time than the fact that these sense of participation on Boehm's ex- scions of profligate amours were thought quisite effigy of Dean Stanley. For sufficiently royal for graves which the America he always felt an enthusiastic mortal remains of a Cromwell and a Blake affection, and his visit to America was the had been supposed to desecrate? one event which conspicuously brighten- With all the greater relief, then, will ed his sad closing years. Nothing more you walk back with me to Poets' Corner, delighted him than the enthusiastic inter- and look on the memorial of John Milton. est of Americans in the abbey which he He died in 1674, and it required a century so dearly loved. He was always ready to to elapse before England ventured on a show its wonders to the many transatlan- public recognition of his supreme greattic visitors who found in the deanery a ness. When Dr. Smalridge wrote for the cordial welcome. His sermons and ad- statue of John Philips the ridiculous dresses delivered in America have a per- eulogy that he was Uni Miltono Se. manent value, and will long endear him cundus, primoque pæne par,” the line was to the hearts of our kin beyond sea.

erased by the narrow prejudice of Bishop To the left of this little chapel is Sprat, who would not have the walls of the one which forms the extreme east of the abbey “polluted” by the name of the Henry VII.'s Chapel, and of which the author of Paradise Lost, because that poet windows are still full of the significant had written the Defensio Populi Anglicani, emblems placed there by the royal builder. and been a friend of Cromwell, Harring.

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ton, and Vane. In 1737 the monument to England, and all that was Protestant in Milton was erected by Auditor Benson. her religion.” The yoke of absolutism The admission of this monument here, a which in the seventeenth century we had century and a half ago, is one more sign not strength to throw off in the motherthat the Revolution did not wholly fail country you escaped in the colony, and

in England, and that there were there, beyond the reach of the Restoration,


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those who even then revered the names of Milton's vision proved true, and a free Cromwell and Milton. But the principles community was founded, though in of that Revolution, never wholly forgotten humble and unsuspected form, which deby Englishmen, were completely trium- pended on the life of no single chief, and phant in America. The colonists carried lived on when Cromwell died. Milton, to America, as Mr. Gladstone has said, when the night of the Restoration closed “all that was democratic in the policy of on the brief and stormy day of his party, bated no jot of hope. He was strong in 1872; and invented the first copper-coatthat strength of conviction which assures ed carbons in 1873. Two years later he spirits like his of the future, however settled in Newark, N. J., where he estabdark the present may appear. But could lished the Weston Dynamo-Electric Mahe have beheld it, the morning, moving chine Company in 1877, and four years westward in the track of the Puritan later merged it with the United States emigrants, had passed from his hemisphere Electric Lighting Company, of which he only to shine in yours, with no fitful ray, was electrician until 1888. He has made but with a steady brightness which will many improvements in electric lighting in due time reillumine the feudal darkness and other electrical devices. In 1888 he of the Old World.

was made president of the American InWestminster Assembly, an assembly stitute of Electrical Engineers. of divines called at Westminster by the Weston, THOMAS, colonist; born in British Parliament in 1641. Urgent let. England about 1575; became a wealthy ters were sent to Messrs. Cotton, of Bos- merchant in London. An active member ton, Hooker, of Hartford, and Daven of the Plymouth Company, he sold out his port, of New Haven, to represent the New interest in the affair and entered upon England churches in that assembly. They speculation on his own account. Sixty men, declined the invitation, for they had word chiefly indentured servants, without womconcerning a breach between Parliament en, were sent to the Plymouth colony to and the King, and letters from England make a new and independent settlement advised them to wait. It was at the be- not far away. They subsisted for two or ginning of the civil war in England. three months on the bounty of the PlymBesides, Mr. Hooker was then framing a outh people, and committed thefts and system of church government for the Con- other crimes. Late in the year (1622) they gregational churches of New England, let established themselves at Wissagasset the determination of Westminster be what (now Weymouth), on the south shore of it might.

Massachusetts Bay, where they wasted Westminster, TREATY OF, a treaty be their provisions and were reduced to great tween England and Holland, concluded distress. They dispersed in small parties, March 6, 1674. By this treaty, proclaimed begging or stealing from the Indians, simultaneously at London and The Hague, who finally resolved to destroy the unNew Netherland was surrendered to the welcome intruders. At about that time English. Information of this surrender Edward Winslow visited and healed the was first made known to the Dutch gov- sick Massasoit, who, in gratitude, gave his ernor, Clove, by two men from Connecti- healer warning of the plot. cut. The inhabitants of New Orange (as Winslow hastened back and laid the New York had been renamed) were so ex. inatter before the governor, when Captain asperated that the bearers of the evil Standish was sent with eight men, under news were arrested and punished. They the pretext of trade, to ascertain the truth gathered in excited groups in the streets, and warn the Wissagasset men of their and cursed the States-General for giving danger. He was ordered, if the natives up the fairest colony belonging to the were hostile, to bring back the head of Dutch. They declared that no authority Wituwamut, a noted warrior, mentioned of States or Prince could compel them to as the leader of the conspirators. Standish yield the country to the English again; found the Indians full of defiance. Takand that they would fight to defend it “ so ing this as an evidence of their guilt. long as they could stand with one leg and Standish, being with the obnoxious chief fight with one hand.” They had tasted of and three of his followers in a cabin, English liberty and found it bitter; but and having his men with him, closed the they quietly submitted.

door, and at a given signal seized the Weston, EDWARD, electrician; born in knife of one of the warriors and stabbed England, May 9, 1850; came to the Unit. Wituwamut to the heart. Two of the ed States in 1870, and became chemist others were slain, and the third-a boyin the American Nickel-plating Company; was hanged. The Indians, alarmed, fled studied dynamo electric machinery in to the swamps, and several more of them

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were killed. Then the ill-favored plantation several addresses. To the military and of Wissagasset was abandoned. Wituwa- civil authorities he said: mut's head was carried to Plymouth upon " It is quite impossible to concede that a pole and set up as a warning to the the status of the rebellion and the manner other Indians. This savage work dis- in which the rebel chiefs have overrun the tressed the good Robinson, who wrote to island, the active pursuit by our troops the Plymouth colonists, “Oh, how happy being unable to check them, indicates ina thing would it have been that you had difference or a lack of spirit on the part of converted some before you killed any!” the inhabitants, for I do not understand Weston died in England after 1624. how property holders can remain inactive

Weston's Colony. See Weston, and neutral while their plantations are THOMAS.

being burned before their eyes, making no Weyler y Nicolau, VALERIANO, mili- efforts whatever to aid those who would tary officer; born in Spain in 1840; be- punish such vandalism. Nor can I excame a lieutenant-general in the Spanish plain how some, even among native Spanarmy and captain-general of the Canary iards, residents of the island, can sympaIslands when thirty-nine years old as a tbize with the insurgents. reward for his services in the Santo Do- “ It is therefore necessary for the govmingo campaign. He distinguished him- ernment to throw more energy into the self during the Carlist War, and attracted campaign, and thus reanimate the people, attention to himself during the Spanish reinspiring them with new confidence in War against the Moors in Africa. Gen- the final triumph of our cause, at the same eral Weyler was sent to Cuba in the early time letting it be known that, while we

are prepared to protect the lives and property of those loyal to Spain, we purpose to severely punish all who assist our enemies, directly or indirectly, or who endeavor in any wise to belittle the prestige of our troops, whether regulars or volunteers.

“We must insist that those who profess themselves loyal to the cause of Spain manifest it by acts as well as words, that all doubts as to their sincerity may be removed. All such must prove their fealty. If they are Spaniards they must send their sons to fight for Spain, and be willing to make the utmost sacrifice in defence of Spanish supremacy here as well as in the peninsula.

“ To leave the regular forces free for part of the Ten Years' War and served operation smaller towns must organize under two captain-generals. He remained and maintain their local defences, and there more than two years and was sent residents therein suspected of sympathy back to Spain on account of complaints with the revolution will be taken into against him for alleged cruelty. It was custody and placed at the disposition of during this campaign in Cuba that he re- the military authorities for trial. Fresh ceived his title of “The Butcher.” While guerillas must be organized and a better there, his troops, with his knowledge, spy system inaugurated to keep track of committed dreadful outrages in the prov- the enemy's movements.” ince of Santiago, and especially in Ca- In a proclamation to the inhabitants of maguey.

Cuba, he said: In January, 1896, he was appointed “I take charge with the confidence captain-general of Cuba to succeed Gen. which never abandons a cause of preservMartinez Campos. He landed at Havana, ing the island for Spain. I shall be alFeb. 10, and on the same day issued ways generous with those who surrender,



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