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White House estate. She was there, with shows that 1,884 were killed and wounda part of her family, when the Nationals ed. From 1868 to the present time no approached, and fled towards Richmond, official investigation has been made, and but was brought back. Under the im- the civil authorities in all but a few cases pression that this was the house in which have been unable to arrest, convict, and Washington resided a while after his mar. punish perpetrators. Consequently, there riage, it was carefully guarded as a pious are no correct records to be consulted for relic of the Father of his Country; but information. There is, ample evidence, when it was found that the white house however, to show that more than 1,200 sanctified by the presence of Washington persons have been killed and wounded had been burned more than thirty years during this time, on account of their pobefore, all reverence for it was dismissed. litical sentiments. Frightful massacres
White League. The aspect of affairs have occurred in the parishes of Bossier, in several of the Southern States, par. Caddo, Catahoula, Saint Bernard, Saint ticularly in Louisiana, was so unsettled Landry, Grant, and Orleans. The general in 1874 that there was much uneasiness character of the massacres in the abovein the public mind. Outrages of various named parishes is so well known that kinds and murders were committed for it is unnecessary to describe them. The the alleged purpose of keeping peaceable isolated cases can best be illustrated by citizens from the polls, and an utter dis- the following instances which I have taken regard for law was reported in many from a mass of evidence now lying before districts. In September, when these out- me of men killed on account of their porages were increasing in number and litical principles. In Natchitoches parish violence, the United States Attorneythe number of isolated cases reported is General, with the sanction of the Presi. thirty-three. In the parish of Bienville dent, issued a circular letter to the au- the number of men killed is thirty. In thorities in the States affected, expressing Red River parish the number of isolated his determination to take vigorous steps cases of men killed is thirty-four. In for upholding the laws and protecting the Winn parish the number of isolated rights of all citizens of whatever class cases where men were killed is fifteen. or hue; and the President directed the In Jackson parish the number killed Secretary of War to consult and act with is twenty; and in Catahoula parish the Attorney-General in the matter. By the number of isolated cases reported vigorous action these disturbances were where men were killed is fifty; and almost suppressed at the beginning of most of the country parishes through1875; but they broke out with more vio- out the State will show a corresponding lence in the summer of 1876, and appeared state of affairs. The following statement in increased strength during the canvass will illustrate the character and kind of for President and Vice-President that year. these outrages. On Aug. 29, 1874, in Red The leaders and inciters of these. out. River parish, six State and parish offirages were members of a secret organi- cers, named Twitchell, Divers, Holland, zation, alleged to be The White League, Howell, Edgerton, and Willis, were taken, formed for the widely indicated purpose together with four negroes, under guard, of depriving the colored citizens of the to be carried out of the State, and were deelective franchise.
liberately murdered on Aug. 30, 1874. The The following is General Sheridan's re- White League tried, sentenced, and hanged port, together with an extract from Presi. two negroes on Aug. 28, 1874. Three dent Grant's special message to Congress: negroes were shot and killed at Browns
ville, just before the arrival of the United
States troops in the parish. Two White NEW ORLEANS, Jan, 10, 1875.
Leaguers rode up to a negro cabin and Hon. W. W. Belknap, Secretary of War: called for a drink of water. When the
Since the year 1866, nearly 3,500 per- old colored man turned to draw it, they sons, a great majority of whom were col- shot him in the back and killed him. ored men, have been killed and wounded The courts were all broken up in this in this State. In 1868 the official record district, and the district judge driven out. In the parish of Caddo, prior to the ar- State has existed only when that opinion rival of the United States troops, all of was in favor of the principles and party the officers at Shreveport were compelled supported by the Ku - klux and White to abdicate by the White League, which League organizations. Only yesterday took possession of the place. Among those Judge Myers, the parish judge of the obliged to abdicate were Walsh, the mayor, parish of Natchitoches, called on me upon Rapers, the sheriff, Wheaton, clerk of the his arrival in this city, and stated that court, Durant, the recorder, and Fergu- in order to reach here alive, he was obliged son and Renfro, administrators. Two col- to leave his home by stealth, and after ored men, who had given evidence in re- nightfall, and make his way to Little gard to frauds committed in the parish, Rock, Ark., and come to this city by way of were compelled to flee for their lives, Memphis, Tenn. He further states that and reached this city last night, having while his father was lying at the point been smuggled through in a cargo of of death in the same village, he was uncotton. In the parish of Bossier the White able to visit him for fear of assassinaLeague have attempted to force the abdica- tion; and yet he is a native of the parish, tion of Judge Baker, the United States and proscribed for his political sentiments commissioner and parish judge, together only. It is more than probable that if bad with O'Neal, the sheriff, and Walker, the government has existed in this State it clerk of the court; and they have com- is the result of the armed organizations, pelled the parish and district courts to which have now crystallized into what is suspend operations. Judge Baker states called the White League; instead of bad that the White Leaguers notified him sev. government developing them, they have eral times that if he became a candidate by their terrorism prevented to a considon the Republican ticket, or if he attempt. erable extent the collection of taxes, the ed to organize the Republican party, he holding of courts, the punishment of crimishould not live until election.
nals, and vitiated public sentiment by They also tried to intimidate him familiarizing it with the scenes above dethrough his family by making the same scribed. I am now engaged in compiling threats to his wife, and when told by evidence for a detailed report upon the him that he was a United States com- above subject, but it will be some time missioner, they notified him not to at. before I can obtain all the requisite data tempt to exercise the functions of his of- to cover the cases that have occurred fice. In but few of the country parishes throughout the State. I will also report can it be truly said that the law is prop- in due time upon the same subject in the erly enforced, and in some of the parishes States of Arkansas and Mississippi. the judges have not been able to hold
P. H. SHERIDAN, court for the past two years.
Lieutenant-General. life in this State is held so cheaply that, when men are killed on account of po- President Grant said in a special meslitical opinions, the murderers are regard- sage to Congress. Jan. 13, 1875: ed rather as heroes than as criminals in “ It has been bitterly and persistently the localities where they reside and by alleged that Kellogg was not elected. the White League and their supporters. Whether he was or not is not altogether An illustration of the ostracism that pre- certain, nor is it any more certain that vails in the State may be found in a reso- his competitor, McEnery, chosen. lution of a White League club in the The election was a gigantic fraud, and parish of De Soto, which states, “That there are no reliable returns of its result. they pledge themselves under (no?) cir- Kellogg obtained possession of the office, cumstances after the coming election to and in my opinion has more right to it employ, rent land to, or in any other man- than his competitor. ner give aid. comfort, or credit, to any “ On Feb. 20, 1873, the committee on man, white or black, who votes against privileges and elections of the Senate made the nominees of the white man's party.” a report, in which they say they were Safety for individuals who express their satisfied by testimony that the manipulaopinion in the isolated portion of this tion of the election machinery by War
moth and others was equivalent to 20,000 were wounded, not mortally, and by prevotes; and they add, to recognize the tending to be dead were afterwards, during McEnery government would be recogniz- the night, able to make their escape. ing a government based upon fraud, in de- Among them was the Levi Nelson named fiance of the wishes and intention of the in the indictment. voters of the State.' Assuming the cor- • The dead bodies of the negroes killed rectness of the statements in this report in this affair were left unburied until ( and they seem to have been generally Tuesday, April 15, when they were buried accepted by the country), the great crime by a deputy-marshal and an officer of the in Louisiana, about which so much has militia from New Orleans. These persons been said, is, that one is holding the found fifty-nine dead bodies. They showed oflice of governor who was cheated out pistol-shot wounds, the great majority in of 20,000 votes, against another whose the head, and most of them in the back of title to the office is undoubtedly based on the head. In addition to the fifty-nine dead fraud, and in defiance of the wishes and bodies found, some charred remains of intentions of the voters of the State. dead bodies were discovered near the court
“ Misinformed and misjudging as to the house. Six dead bodies were found under nature and extent of this report, the a warehouse, all shot in the head but one supporters of McEnery proceeded to dis- or two, which were shot in the breast. place by force in some counties of the “The only white men injured from the State the appointees of Governor Kellogg; beginning of these troubles to their close and on April 13, in an effort of that were Hadnot and Harris. The court-house kind, a butchery of citizens was com- and its contents were entirely consumed. mitted at Colfax, which in bloodthirsti- “ . There is no evidence that any one ness and barbarity is hardly surpassed by in the crowd of whites bore any lawful any acts of savage warfare.
warrant for the arrest of any of the To put this matter beyond controversy, blacks. There is no evidence that either } quote from the charge of Judge Woods, Nash or Cazabat, after the affair, ever of the United States circuit court, to the demanded their offices, to which they had jury in the case of the United States vs. set up claim, but Register continued to act Cruikshank and others, in New Orleans, as parish judge, and Shaw as sheriff. in March, 1874. He said:
«« These are facts in this case, as I un““ In the case on trial there are many derstand them to be admitted.' facts not in controversy. I proceed to " To hold the people of Louisiana genstate some of them in the presence and erally responsible for these atrocities hearing of counsel on both sides; and if would not be just ; but it is a lamentable I state as a conceded fact any matter that fact that insuperable obstructions were is disputed, they can correct me.'
thrown in the way of punishing these “ After stating the origin of the diffi- murderers, and the so-called conservative culty, which grew out of an attempt of papers of the State not only justified the white persons to drive the parish judge massacre, but denounced as federal tyranand sheriff, appointees of Kellogg, from ny and despotism the attempt of the Unitoffice, and their attempted protection by ed States officers to bring them to justice. colored persons, which led to some fighting Fierce denunciations ring through the in which quite a number of negroes were country about office-holding and election killed, the judge states:
matters in Louisiana, while everyone “ . Most of those who were not killed of the Colfax miscreants goes unwhipped were taken prisoners. Fifteen or sixteen of justice, and no way can be found in of the blacks had lifted the boards and this boasted land of civilization and Christaken refuge under the floor of the court- tianity to punish the perpetrators of this house. They were all captured. About bloody and monstrous crime. thirty-seven men were taken prisoners;
“ Not unlike this was the massacre in the number is not definitely fixed. They August last. Several Northern young men were kept under guard until dark. They of capital and enterprise had started the were led out, two by two, and shot. Most little and flourishing town of Coushatta. of the men were shot to death. A few Some of them were Republicans and office