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holders under Kellogg. They were therefore the north and west. Perceiving the gath-
doomed to death. Six of them were seized ering of danger, Washington called a
and carried away from their homes and council of war at his headquarters on
murdered in cold blood. No one has been Harlem Heights, which was the deserted
punished; and the conservative press of mansion of Roger Morris, who
the State denounced all efforts to that ried Mary Phillipse (see WASHINGTON,
end, and boldly justified the crime."

The House on March 1, 1875, by a strict party vote, 155 Republicans to 86 Democrats, recognized the Kellogg government. The Senate did the same on March 5, by 33 to 23, also a party vote.

White Mountains, in New Hampshire, covering 1,300 square miles in several short ranges.

In the Presidential range tower the peaks of Mounts Washington, 6,286 feet; Adams, 5,819; Jefferson, 5,736; Madison, 5,381; Monroe, 5,396; Jackson, and others. They were called Waumbek Methna by the Indians, a name adopted by Whittier in his ballad of Mary Garvin: “ From the heart of Waumbek Methna.

From the lake that never fails, Falls the Saco in the green lap

GEORGE). Morris had espoused the cause of Conway's intervales."

of the crown, and fled from his mansion

with his family. Mount Washington has a carriage-road

At that council, held Oct. 16, 1776, it ascending its rocky slope to the summit.

was determined to extend the army beThe first cog-rail mountain railway in the world was built to the summit in

yond the King's Bridge into Westchester 1868–69, rising 3,730 feet in less than 3

county, abandoning the island, exceptmiles, the steepest grade being 134, inches ing the strong work known as Fort Wash

ington, on in a yard.

the highest point of the islWhite Plains, BATTLE AT. General

and. Arranged in four divisions, under

Generals Lee, Heath, Sullivan, and Lin-
Howe dared not attack the intrenched
American camp

coln, the army concentrated at the vil

Harlem Heights, so he attempted to gain the rear of Wash: lage of White Plains, and formed an in

trenched camp.

The two armies were
each about 13,000 strong. On the morn-
ing of Oct. 28, after a series of skirmishes,
1,600 men from Delaware and Maryland
had taken post on Chatterton's Hill,
a lofty eminence west of the Bronx.
River, and to these General McDougall
led reinforcements, with two pieces of
cannon under Capt. Alexander Hamilton,
and took the chief command there.
Washington, with the rest of the army,
was on the lower ground just north of the

The British army advanced to the atington's army, and hem them in on the tack in two divisions, the right led by Sir upper part of Manhattan Island. To do Henry Clinton and the left by Generals this he landed a considerable force at De Heister and Erskine. Howe was with Throgg's Point, Westchester county, and the latter. He had moved with great causent armed ships up the Hudson to cut off tion since his landing. Inclining his supplies for the Americans by water from army to the left, he planted almost twenty

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Gloucester, England, Dec. 16, 1714; was a religious enthusiast in very early life, fasting twice week for thirtysix hours, and at the age of eighteen became a member of the club in


nomination of

Methodists field-pieces on the slope south of the vil. took its rise. He became intimately aslage, and under cover of these a bridge sociated in religious matters with John was constructed, and British and German and Charles Wesley. In 1736 he was ortroops passed the Bronx and attacked dained deacon, and preached with such exthe Americans Chatterton's Hill. traordinary effect the next Sunday that a Hamilton's little battery made them re- complaint was made that he had driven coil at first, but, being reinforced, they fifteen persons mad. The same year the drove the Americans from their position. Wesleys accompanied Oglethorpe to GeorMcDougall led his troops to Washington's gia, and in 1737 John Wesley invited camp, leaving the British in possession of Whitefield to join him in his work in the hill. Washington's breastworks were America. He came in May, 1738; and after composed of corn-stalks covered rather hastily and lightly by earth; but they appeared formidable that Howe dared not attack them, but waited for reinforcements. Just they appeared a storm of wind and rain set in. Washington perceiving Howe's advantage, withdrew under cover of darkness, in the night of Oct. 31, behind intrenchments the hills of North Castle, towards the Croton River. Howe did not follow; but, falling back encamped the heights of Fordham. The loss of the Americans in the skirmishes on Oct. 26, and the battle on the 28th, did not exceed, probably, 300 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners; that of the British was about the same.

Whitefield, GEORGE, clergyman; born in

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laboring four months, and perfecting plans Whitehouse, James Horrox, designer; for founding an orphan-house at Savannah, born in Staffordshire, England, Oct. 28, he returned to England to receive priest's 1833; came to the United States and orders and to collect funds for carrying settled in New York; and since 1858 has out his benevolent plans. With more than been connected with Tiffany & Co., jewel$5,000 collected he returned to Savannah, lers. He designed the vase presented to and there founded an orphan-house and William Cullen Bryant, and other notable school, laying the first brick himself for artistic productions in silver. the building, March 25, 1740. He named Whitehouse, ROBERT Treat, lawyer; it “ Bethesda ”-a house of mercy. It born in Augusta, Me., March 27, 1870; afterwards became eminently useful. graduated at Harvard University in 1891,

Mr. Whitefield was early accustomed to and at Harvard Law School in 1893; was preach to large congregations assembled admitted to the bar in the same year; in the open air. He travelled and preach- elected attorney for Cumberland county, ed much in America. On Boston Common Me., in September, 1900. He is the auhe addressed 20,000 people at one time, thor of Equity Jurisdiction ; Pleading and and was distinctly heard by all. Inde. Practice in Maine; and Constitutional, pendent in his theology, he did not entire. Judicial, and Commercial Histories of ly agree with anybody. Although he was Maine, in the History of the New Engactive in the establishment of the Meth- land States (4 volumes). odist denomination, he disagreed with Whiteside, PETER, patriot; born in Wesley on points of doctrine, and was Puten, England, in 1752; settled in Philafinally an evangelist without the disci- delphia, where he became a prosperous pline of any denomination. Whitefield merchant; advanced much of his wealth crossed the Atlantic many times, and during the Revolutionary War to promade tours in America from Georgia to vide shoes for the American soldiers; and New Hampshire. In September, 1769, he was sent by Washington to France to arstarted on his seventh tour there, and the range for better trading facilities with day before his death he preached two the American colonies. In conjunction hours at Exeter, N. H., and the same with his brother, William Whiteside, and evening addressed a crowd in the open air Robert Morris, he sent to the East Inat Newburyport. He died of asthma the dies the first merchant vessel from the next day in Newburyport, Mass., Sept. 30, Western Hemisphere to trade there. He 1770, and was buried under the pulpit died in Philadelphia, Pa., in December, of the Federal Street Church in that 1828. town.

Whitfield, Henry, clergyman; born Whitehead, WILLIAM ADEE, historian; in England in 1597; received a university born in Newark, N. J., Feb. 19, 1810; be- education; admitted to the bar, and aftercame a surveyor and made a survey of wards took orders in the Church of EngKey West, Fla., in 1828 ; was United land; emigrated to New England and States customs collector there in 1830– settled in New Haven in 1637 ; was one of 38; then removed to New York and be the founders of Guilford, Conn., in 1639. came a stock-broker. He was one of the He returned to England in 1650, and was founders of the Newark Library Associa: minister in Winchester, where he died in tion and was corresponding secretary of 1658. He wrote A Farther Discovery of the New Jersey Historical Society from the Present State of the Indians in New its establishment in 1845 till his death. England, etc. He was the author of East Jersey Under Whiting, Henry, military officer ; born the Proprietary Governments; Papers of in Lancaster, Mass., about 1790; joined the Lewis Morris, Governor of New Jersey; army in 1808; promoted first lieutenant Analytical Index to the Colonial Docu- in 1811; was placed on the staff of Gen. ments of New Jersey, in the State Paper John P. Boyd, and afterwards on that of Office in England; Biographical Sketch of Gen. Alexander Macomb; promoted capWilliam Franklin ; Contributions to the tain in 1817; was chief quartermaster Early History of Perth Amboy, etc. He of the army of General Taylor during the died in Perth Amboy, N. J., Aug. 8, 1884. Mexican War; won distinction at Buena Vista, in recognition of which he was Joseph E. Johnston. He was a brigadierbrevetted brigadier-general, United States general in the battle of Bull Run, and was army, Feb. 23, 1847. His publications in promoted major-general in 1863. He clude Ontway, the Son of the Forest (a built Fort Fisher, at the mouth of the poem); Life of Zebulon M. Pike, in Cape Fear River, and was in command Sparks's American Biography; joint au- during both attacks upon it (see FISHER, thor of Historical and Scientific Sketches FORT). He was severely wounded in its of Michigan, etc.; and editor of Washing. defence; was made prisoner by General ton's Rerolutionary Orders Issued During Terry; and died of his wounds on Govthe Years 1778, 1980, 1981, and 1782, ernor's Island, New York, March 10, Selected from the MSS. of John Whiting. 1865. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 16, 1851. Whitman, MARCUS, pioneer; born in

Whiting, NATHAN, military officer; Rushville, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1802; studied born in Windham, Conn., May 4, 1724; medicine, and was made a medical misgraduated at Yale College in 1743; be- sionary to Oregon by the American board came a merchant in New Haven in 1745; in 1834. After living in Oregon a number appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 2d of years he discovered that the English Connecticut Regiment at the outbreak of were discouraging American emigrants the French and Indian War in 1755; was from settling there, and were colonizing it with Col. Ephraim Williams when that offi- with English settlers. Late in 1842 he set cer was surprised by the French and Ind- out for Washington, D. C., and arriving ians, and upon his death retreated with there in March, 1843, gave the government great coolness and skill; promoted colonel valuable information which led to extenin 1756 and served to the close of the war. sive colonization on the part of Americans, He died in New Haven, Conn., April 9, 1771. and in all probability kept Oregon from

Whiting, WILLIAM HENRY, naval offi- falling into the hands of the British. He, cer; born in New York City, July 8, 1843; his wife, two adopted children, and ten graduated at the United States Naval others were killed by the Indians in Academy in 1863; was with the West Waülatpu, Or., Nov. 29, 1847. Gulf Squadron on the flag-ship Hartford Whitman, Walt, poet; born in West in 1863–65; won distinction by burning Hills, Long Island, N. Y., May 31, 1819; the blockade-runner Ivanhoe, though de- received public school education; fended by the guns of Fort Morgan, July learned the printer's trade; taught school 5, 1864; raised the American flag at for a time; and later learned the carpenthe fall of Fort Gaines; was present dur- ter's trade. During the Civil War he ing the action of Mobile Bay and at the was a nurse in the Federal military hoscapitulation of Fort Morgan; he was pro- pitals; and was a government clerk in moted captain, June 19, 1897; went to 1865–73. He was editor of the Brooklyn the Philippines in command of the Mo- Daily Eagle; a contributor to the Demonadnock in 1898; was in command of the cratic Review ; established The Freedman cruiser Charleston when the insurrection in 1850; and wrote Drum Taps; Leaves of began in the islands; participated in the Grass, etc. He died in Camden, N. J., battles around Manila, and was present March 26, 1892. in the action at Caloocan. In May, 1899, Whitmer, DAVID, Mormon; born in he was placed in command of the Bos. Harrisburg, Pa., Jan. 7, 1805; became a ton, which he took to San Francisco; and farmer in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1829. in March, 1900, took command of the In June of that year he, together with receiving-ship Independence.

Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith, went Whiting, WILLIAM HENRY CHASE, into a woods near his home to investimilitary officer ; born in Mississippi about gate the alleged discovery of the golden 1825; graduated at West Point in 1845, plates of the Book of Mormon. While entered the engineer corps, and in Feb. praying in a quiet place these men claimed ruary, 1861. left the National army and a bright light shone around them and an entered the Confederate service, as chief angel appeared with seven golden plates engineer with the rank of major, in the which they were commanded to examine. Army of the Shenandoah, under Gen. They were, moreover, enjoined to tell their


experience to the world. This they did in in one volume; studied art in Europe for a statement appended to the Book of Vor- four years; and established herself in mon, where it is written that they, Boston in 1872. Among her works are “through the grace of God and our Lord statues of Samuel Adams, Lief Erikson, Jesus Christ, have seen the plates which etc., and busts of Ethiopia, Roma, etc. contain this record, which is the record Whitney, EDWARD BALDWIX, lawyer; of the people of Nephi.” Mr. Whitmer born in New Haven, Conn., Aug. 16, 1857; withdrew from the Mormon Church in graduated at Yale University in 1878; June, 1838, and removed to Richmond, admitted to the bar in 1880; was assistMo. His reasons for leaving that body ant Attorney-General of the United States are contained in a publication entitled in 1893–97, in which capacity he parAn Address to all Believers in Christ. ticipated in the argument on the incomeThese include, the creation of high priests tax case, the Debs trial, etc. In 1898 in 1831; the making public of many rev. he secured the first decision against a elations; the formation of a congrega- manufacturing monopoly under the fedtion of Danites in the Far West in 1838; eral anti-trust law, in the trial of the the doctrine of polygamy, etc. He died Cast-Iron Pipe Trust. He is the author in Richmond, Mo., Jan. 25, 1888. See of The Advice and Consent of the SenMORMONS.

ate; Commercial Retaliation Between the Whitmore, William HENRY, genealo. States; Reciprocity Legislation; Incomegist; born in Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 6, Tax Decision; Federal Judges and Quasi 1836; received a public school education, Judges, etc. and engaged in business, devoting his Whitney, Eli, inventor; born in Westspare time to historical research. His boro, Mass., Dec. 8, 1765; graduated at publications include The American Gene. Yale College in 1792; obtained a collegiate alogist; Massachusetts ('ivil List, 16.36– education largely by the earnings of his 177); Copp's Hill Epitaphs; History of own hands. In the year of his graduation the Old State House, etc. He also pre. he went to Geo gia, became an inmate of pared the Laws of Adoption ; Rerision of the family of Mrs. General Greene, and the City Ordinances (with Henry W. there invented his cotton-gin, which gave Putnam); Report of the State Seal, etc. a wonderful impulse to the cultivation

Whitney, Addison O., soldier; born in of the cotton-plant, rendering it an enorWaldo, Me., Oct. 30, 1839; became a me. mous item in the foreign and domestic chanic in Lowell, Mass.; and joined the 6th commerce of the United States. Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. He ac. The seeds of the cotton raised in the companied the regiment on its march to United States adhered so firmly to the the defence of the national capital, and fibre that it was difficult to separate them while passing through Baltimore, Md., from it. The seeds were separated from April 19, 1861, was killed during the at. the cotton wool by the slow process of tack on the regiment by the mob. LUTHER picking by hand, which was chiefly done C. Ladd (born in Alexandria, N. H., Dec. by negro women and children. The separa22, 1843), also a mechanic in Lowell and tion of one pound of the wool from the a comrade of Whitney, fell in the same at. seeds was regarded as a good day's work tack, piereed by several bullets. These for one woman. So limited was the prowere the first casualties in the National duction on account of the labor that even army in the Civil War. The common- high prices did not stimulate its cultiwealth of Massachusetts and the city of vation, and the entire cotton crop in the Lowell caused the remains of the two United States in 1791 was only about “first martyrs” to be placed beneath an 2.000.000 pounds. The following year imposing monument of Concord granite, Whitney accepted an invitation to teach erected in Merrimac Square, Lowell, and the children of a Georgia planter. He ardedicated June 17, 1865.

rived there too late, and the widow of Whitney, ANNE, sculptor; born in General Greene, living near, gave the Watertown, Mass., in September, 1821; young stranger a home in her house. He received a private school education; wrote displayed much inventive genius, which a number of poems which were collected Mrs. Greene encouraged.

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