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One day some gentlemen at her table forth those who had wronged Whitney, in expressed a regret that there was no ma- defiance of law and justice, were permitted chine by which the cotton wool could be to continue the wrong under the protection readily separated from the seed. “Apply of law. The immediate influence of Whitto my young friend here,” said Mrs. ney's cotton-gin upon the dying institution Greene; “ he can make anything.” Whit- of slavery was most remarkable. It play. ney had then never seen a cotton-seed with ed an important part in the social, comwool adhering. He was furnished with


With rude plantation tools he constructed a machine that performed the work. This was the origin of the saw. gin, which, with some improvements, is universally used on American plantations. Some of Mrs. Greene's neighbors were called in to see the working of it. They were astonished and delighted. Phineas Miller, a college-mate of Whitney, had come to Georgia, and soon became the second husband of Mrs. Greene. Having some money, he formed a copartnership with Whitney in the manufacture of gins. The machine

locked from public view until a patent could be procured. Planters came from all parts of South Carolina and Georgia to see the wonderful machine which could do the work in a day of 1,000

The workshop of the inventor

broken into and the model carried off. Imperfect machines were mercial, and political history of the counmade by common mechanics, which in- try for seventy years. The increased projured the fibre and defamed the machine duction of cotton made an enormous de. for a while.

mand for slave-labor in the preparation The gin was patented (1793) before any of the soil, the ingathering of the harvest, were made. The violators of the patent and the preparation of it for market. Its were prosecuted, but packed juries gave effects upon the industrial pursuits of sweeping verdicts against the owners. nearly one-half the nation were marvel. Even State legislatures broke their bar. lous. Such, also, were its effects upon the gains with them, or, like South Carolina, moral and intellectual condition of the long delayed to fulfil them; and when, in people in the cotton-growing States. Be1812, Whitney asked Congress for an ex. fore 1808 (after which time the national tension of his patent, the members from Constitution prohibited the prosecution of the cotton-growing States, whose constit. the African slave-trade) enormous numuents had been enriched by the invention, bers of slaves were brought to the country. vehemently opposed the prayer of the The institution had been unprofitable, and petitioner, and it was denied. Thence- was dying. The cotton-gin revived it,







made it strong and powerful, and cotton, that capacity edited the Ticknor Catalogue its representative, assumed to be king of Spanish Literature and other similar of the nation, and for fifty years swayed publications. In 1899 he succeeded Heran imperial sceptre, almost unchallenged. bert Putnam as librarian of the Boston Eli Whitney, Yankee school-master, built Public Library. the throne of King Cotton, but was denied Whitney, WILLIAM COLLINS, capitalist; his just wages by the subjects of the born in Conway, Mass., July 15, 1841; monarch. The legislature of South Caro- graduated at Yale University in 1863, and lina voted him $50,000, which, after vexa. at the Harvard Law School in 1865; ad. tious delays and lawsuits, was finally paid. mitted to the bar and began practising North Carolina allowed him a percentage in New York; assisted in organizing the for the use of the gin for five years. Con Young Men's Democratic Club in 1871; gress having refused to renew his patent, was active in the movement against the he engaged in the manufacture of fire. Tweed ring; and Secretary of the Navy arms for the government during the War in 1885–89, during which period the creaof 1912-1.5, and finally gained a fortune. tion of the “new navy ” was begun. He He died in New Haven, Conn., Jan. 8, 1825. has since been largely interested in street

Whitney, FREDERIC AUGUSTUS, clergy- railway corporations. man; born in Quincy, Mass., Sept. 13, Whitney, WILLIAM Dwight, philolo1812; graduated at Harvard College in gist; born in Northampton, Mass., Feb. 1833 and at its Divinity School in 1838; 9, 1827; graduated at Williams College was pastor at Brighton, Mass., in 1813– in 1815; studied in Europe till 1853; was 39. He was the author of Historical Profesor of Sanskrit in Yale University Sketch of the Old Church at Quincy; from 1854 till his death, in New Haven, Biography of James Holton, etc. He died June 7, 1894. In 1857–84 he was correin Brighton, Mass., Oct. 21, 1880. sponding secretary of the American Ori

Whitney, HENRY CLAY, lawyer; born ental Society, and in 1884–90, its presiin Detroit, Me., Feb. 23, 1831; received a dent. He contributed articles on Oriental collegiate education; became intimately philology to Appleton's American Cycloacquainted with Abraham Lincoln in pædia ; and was editor-in-chief of The 1857; and was paymaster in the United Century Dictionary. States army in 1861-65. He is the au- Whiton, John Milton, clergyman; thor of Life on the Circuit with Lincoln; born in Winchendon, Mass., Aug. 1, 1785 ; Lincoln's Lost Speech ; Lincoln in Remi- graduated at Yale College in 1805; was niscent and Colloquial Voods, etc.

pastor of Presbyterian church in Whitney, HENRY HOWARD, military Andover, N. H., in 1808–53. His publicaofficer; born in Glen Hope, Pa., Dec. 25, tions include Brief Notices of the Town of 1866; graduated at the United States Antrim, in the Collections of the New Military Academy in 1892 and was as- Hampshire Historical Society; Sketches signed to the 4th Artillery as first lieu of the Early History of New Hampshire. tenant. In 1898, under the guise of an 1623–1833, etc. He died in Antrim, N. English sailor, he made a military recon- H., Sept. 28, 1856. noissance of Porto Rico and gained in- Whitside, SAMU'EL MARMADU'KE, miliformation which General Miles made the tary officer; born in Toronto, Canada. basis of his campaign against that isl. Jan. 9, 1839; joined the United States and. He was captain and assistant ad- army in 1858; served throughout the jutant-general on the staff of General Civil War with the 6th Cavalry; was then Miles during the war with Spain; was assigned to duty on the frontier, where he afterwards promoted lieutenant - colonel served for twenty-five years. In Decemand became aide-de-camp to Lieutenant- ber, 1890, he captured Big Foot and his General Miles.

400 Sioux warriors, and led his regiment Whitney, JAMES LYMAN, librarian: at the battle of Wounded Knee. During born in Northampton, Mass., Nov. 28, the war with Spain he commanded the 1835: graduated at Yale College in 1856; 5th Cavalry; was transferred to the 10th was chief of the catalogue department in Cavalry in October, 1898; and went to the Vale library for many years and in ('uba in May, 1899, where he was placed


in command of the Department of San- Whittemore, Amos, inventor; born in tiago and Puerto Principe in January, Cambridge, Mass., April 19, 1759; reared 1900. On the reorganization of the regu- a farmer; became a gunsmith; and then, lar army, in 1901, he was promoted brig. with his brother, a manufacturer of cotadier-general.

ton and wool-cards, or card-cloth. IIe Whittaker, ALEXANDER, clergyman; claimed to have invented a machine for born in England; accompanied Sir Thomas puncturing the leather and setting the Dale to Virginia in 1611; was a mission- wires, which was patented in 1797. Before ary. Sir Thomas had been active in plant- that time the work had been performed ing a settlement at Henrico, composed slowly by hand. The establishment of largely of Hollanders, and Mr. Whittaker, spinning machinery in New England (see who was a decidedly Low Churchman, SLATER, SAMUEL) had made the business it was thought would be in sympathy with of card-making profitable, and so useful them, and so he seems to have been. He was Whittemore's machine that the patent was puritanical in his proclivities. “ The was sold for $150,000. His brother Samsurplice,” says Purchas, was not even uel afterwards repurchased it and carried spoken of in his parish.” He organized on the business of making card-cloth. a congregation at Henrico, and there he Amos died in West Cambridge, March 27, preached until 1617, when he was drowned. 1828.



WHITTIER, JOHN GREENLEAF Whittier, John GREENLEAF, poet; born him with reverential affection. He died in Haverhill, Mass., Dec. 17, 1807. His in Hampton Falls, N. H., Sept. 7, 1892. parents were Quakers, and he was a mem- The Centennial Hymn. — The following ber of the Society of Friends till his death. hymn by Mr. Whittier was sung at the Until he was eighteen years old he worked opening of the Centennial Exposition in on his father's farm, and sent occasionally 1876: some verses to the local newspaper-Hav

“Our fathers' God! from out whose hand erhill Gazette. Sometimes he worked at

The centuries fall like grains of sand, shoemaking. In 1829 he became editor of We meet to-day, united, free, the American Janufacturer, in Boston.

And loyal to our land and Thee,

To thank Thee for the era done,
The next year he was editing in Hartford, And trust Thee for the opening one.
Conn.; and in 1832-36 he edited the Ga-
zette, at Haverhill. His first publication

“Here, where of old, by Thy design,

The fathers spake that word of Thine, of any pretension was his Legends of New

Whose echo is the glad refrain England (1831). Others soon followed. Of rended bolt and falling chain, As early as 1833 he began to battle for To grace our festal time, from all the freedom of the slaves, and he never

The zones of earth our guests we call. ceased warfare until the slave system dis- " Be with us while the New World greets appeared in 1863. He was elected secre- The Old World, thronging all its streets, tary of the Anti-slavery Society in 1836,

Unveiling all the triumphs won

By art or toil beneath the sun; and edited, in Philadelphia, the Pennsyl- And unto common good ordain rania Freeman, devoted to its principles. This rivalship of hand and brain. In 1840 he removed to Amesbury, Mass.,

" Thou. who hast here in concord furled where he resided until about 1878, culti

The war-flags of a gathered world, vating a small farm. In 1847 he became

Beneath our Western skies fulfil corresponding editor of the National Era, The Orient's mission of good-will, an anti-slavery paper published at Wash

And, freighted with love's Golden Fleece,

Send back the Argonauts of peace. ington, D. C. Mr. Whittier was a thoroughly American poet, and most of his For art and labor met in truce, verses were inspired by current events. For beauty made the bride of use,

We thank Thee, while, withal, we crave The spirit of humanity, democracy, and

The austere virtues strong to save, patriotism expressed in his poems and The honor proof to place or gold. prose writings made the public regard The manhood never bought nor sold. X-Z


“Oh! make Thou us, through centuries long, (1833), on The Abolitionists: their SentiIn peace secure, in justice strong ;

ments and Objects. Around our gifts of freedom draw

The Life of Whittier, by Samuel T.
The safeguards of Thy righteous law ;
And, cast in some diviner mould,

Pickard, is especially full, touching his
Let the new cycle shame the old !"

work against slavery and his general po

litical life, which was much more active Whittier was pre-eminently the poet of than is commonly supposed. There are the anti-slavery conflict. There is almost briefer biographies by Underwood, Kenneno phase of the great wrong and almost dy, and Linton, and interesting volumes

of personal reminiscences by
Mrs. Mary B. Claflin and
Mrs. James T. Fields.

The Anti - slavery Con-
vention of 1833.—By John
G. Whittier. Written in
1874. Copyright, 1888, by
John Greenleaf Whittier.*

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In the gray twilight of a chill day of late November, forty years ago, a dear friend of mine, residing in Boston, made his appearance at the old farm-house in East Haverhill. He had been deputed by the abolitionists of the city, William L. Garrison, Samuel E. Sewall, and others, to inform me of my appointment as a delegate to the convention about to be held in Philadelphia for the formation of an American antislavery society, and to urge upon me the necessity of my attendance.

Few words of persuasion, however, were needed. I was unused to travelling; my life had been spent on a secluded farm; and the

journey, mostly by stageno episode in the struggle for its aboli- coach, at that time was really a formidable tion which is not the subject of some one. Moreover, the few abolitionists were burning poem from his pen. Whittier's everywhere spoken against, their persons prose writings against slavery were also threatened, and in some instances a price numerous—he was a vigorous polemic, set on their heads by Southern legislators. and these papers, twenty in number, may Pennsylvania was on the borders of slabe found together in vol. vii. of the River- very, and it needed small effort of imagside edition. Among them are the pam- ination to picture to one's self the phlet Justice and Expediency, which he breaking up of the convention and malrefers to in his account of the conven- treatment of its members. This latter tion of 1833 as his first venture in au

* Reprinted by permission from Whittier's thorship, and his two letters to the Jef- Prose Works, published by Houghton, Millin fersonian and Times, Richmond, Va. & Co.


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consideration I do not think weighed much finement. Our worthy friend the clergywith me, although I was better prepared man bore it a while in painful silence, for serious danger than for anything like but at last felt it his duty to utter words personal indignity. I had read Governor of remonstrance and admonition. The Trumbull's description of the tarring and leader of the young roisterers listened feathering of his hero MacFingal, when, with ludicrous mock gravity, thanked after the application of the melted tar, him for his exhortation, and, expressing the feather bed was ripped open and fears that the extraordinary effort had shaken over him, until

exhausted his strength, invited him to take

a drink with him. Father Thurston “ Not Maia's son, with wings for ears,

kuried his grieved face in his coat-colSuch plumes about his visage wears, Nor Milton's six-winged angel gathers

lar, and wisely left the young reprobates Such superfluity of feathers”;

to their own devices.

On reaching Philadelphia, we at once and, I confess, I was quite unwilling to betook ourselves to the humble dwelling undergo a martyrdom which my best on Fifth Street occupied by Evan Lewis, friends could scarcely refrain from laugh- a plain, earnest man and lifelong aboliing at. But a summons like that of Gar- tionist, who had been largely interested rison's bugle-blast could scarcely be un- in preparing the way for the convention. heeded by one who, from birth and edu- In one respect the time of our cation, held fast the traditions of that bling seemed unfavorable. The Society of earlier abolitionism which, under the lead Friends, upon whose co-operation we had of Benezet and Woolman, had effaced from counted, had but recently been rent the Society of Friends every vestige of asunder by one of those unhappy controslave-holding. I had thrown myself, with versies which so often mark the decline a young man's fervid enthusiasm, into of practical righteousness. The martyra movement which commended itself to age of the society had passed, wealth and my reason and conscience, to my love of luxury had taken the place of the old country and my sense of duty to God and simplicity; there was a growing conformmy fellow-men. My first venture in author- ity to the maxims of the world in trade ship was the publication at my own ex. and fashion, and with it a corresponding pense, in the spring of 1833, of a pamphlet unwillingness to hazard respectability by entitled Justice and Expediency, on the the advocacy of unpopular reforms. Unmoral and political evils of slavery and profitable speculation and disputation on the duty of emancipation. Under such one hand, and a vain attempt on the other circumstances I could not hesitate, but to enforce uniformity of opinion, had prepared at once for my journey. It was measurably lost sight of the fact that necessary that I should start on the mor- the end of the gospel is love, and that row; and the intervening time, with a charity is its crowning virtue. After a small allowance of sleep, was spent in pro- long and painful struggle the disruption viding for the care of the farm and home- had taken place. The shattered fragstead during my absence.

ments, under the name of Orthodox and So the next morning I took the stage Hicksite, so like and yet so separate in for Boston, stopping at the ancient hos- feeling, confronted each other as hostile telry known as the Eastern Stage Tavern; sects; and and on the day following, in company with

Never either found another William Lloyd Garrison, I left for New

To free the hollow heart from paining: York. At that city we were joined by

They stood aloof, the scars remaining, other delegates, among

them David Like cliffs that have been torn asunder, Thurston, a Congregational minister from

A dreary sea now flows between ;

But neither rain nor frost nor thunder
On our way to Philadelphia we

Can wholly do away, I ween, took, as a matter of necessary economy, The marks of that which once has been." a second-class conveyance, and found ourselves, in consequence, among rough and We found about forty members assemhilarious companions, whose language was bled in the parlors of our friend Lewis, more noteworthy for strength than re- and after some general conversation Lewis

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