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cepted as our national air, and is in posi- served therein six years. He died in St. tive contrast in spirit to the stately God Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 1873. His son, Save the King of old England. The tune Richard, was elected governor of Illinois is so associated with the patriotic deeds for the term 1901-5. of Americans that it always inspires a Yates, ROBERT, jurist; born in Schelove of country in the heart of every good nectady, N. Y., Jan. 27, 1738; was adcitizen.

mitted to the bar in 1760, and became Yankton Indians, a tribe of the Siouan eminent in his profession. During the family. In 1899 there were 1,061 lower controversies preceding the Revolutionary Yanktonai Sioux at the Crow Creek War he wrote several excellent essays agency, in South Dakota ; 1,239 Yanktonai upon the great topics of the time. He Sioux at Fort Peck agency, in Montana; a was a prominent member of the comconsiderable number of Yanktonai Sioux mittee of safety at Albany; also chairman at the Standing Rock agency, in North of the committee on military operations Dakota ; and 1,728 Yankton Sioux at the (1776–77), member of the Provincial Yankton agency, in South Dakota. For Congress of New York, and of the convenfurther details of this tribe, see Sioux, tion that framed the first State constior DAKOTA, INDIANS.

tution. He was judge of the Supreme Yates, RICHARD, war governor; born in Court of New York from 1777 to 1790, Warsaw, Ky., Jan. 18, 1818. In early and chief-justice from 1790 to 1798. youth he went to Illinois; graduated at Judge Yates was a member of the conIllinois College; studied law, and became vention that framed the national Constieminent in the profession. He was often tution, but left the convention before a member of the State legislature. He its close and opposed the instrument

then adopted. He kept notes of the debates while he was in the convention. He was one of the commissioners to treat with Massachusetts and Connecticut respecting boundaries and to settle difficulties between New York and Vermont. He died in Albany, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1801.

Yazoo Lands. The first legislature of Georgia that met after the adoption of the national Constitution undertook to sell out to three private companies the preemption right to tracts of wild land beyond the Chattahoochee River. Five million acres were allotted to the South Carolina Yazoo Company for $66,964, 7,000,000 acres to the Virginia Yazoo Company for $93,742, and 3,500,000 acres to the Tennessee Yazoo Company for $16,876.

This movement was in response to a prewas a member of Congress from 1851 to vailing spirit of land speculation stim1855, and governor of Illinois from 1861 ulated by extensive migrations of people to 1865—a most active “war ” governor from the Atlantic seaboard to new lands during that exciting period. The legislat- in consequence of pecuniary embarrassure of Illinois met on Jan. 7, 1861. The ments, a result of the Revolutionary War. governor's message to them was a patriotic in 1790 the national government, by appeal to his people; and he summed up treaty, gave much of the lands south what he believed to be the public senti- and west of the Oconee River to the Creek ment of Illinois, in the words of Presi. Indians. This offended the Georgians, dent Jackson's toast, given thirty years and the more violent among them probefore: “Our Federal Union: it must be posed open resistance to the government preserved.” Governor Yates was elected and to settle on those lands in spite of the to the United States Senate in 1865, and treaty. Sales of the lands were made

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RICHARD YATES.

to a Georgia Yazoo Company formed sub- claimant, by its agent, and solicited a sequent to the treaty. The sales in 1796 settlement. It appeared that a great had amounted to $500,000, a sum totally share of those original grants had passed inadequate for the amount of land pure into the hands of New England men. chased. There were evidences of great Their claims were violently opposed, partcorruption on the part of the Georgia lyon political and sectional grounds. legislature, and in 1796 Congress revoked The subject was before Congress several the sales as unconstitutional and void, years, many of the Southern members, led and directed the repayment to the several by the implacable John Randolph, defeatcompanies of the amount of money which ing every proposed measure for making an they had paid to the State, if called for bonorable settlement with the New Engwithin eight months.

land purchasers. The claimants turned The original act authorizing the sale from Congress to the courts. In 1810 was burned in front of the State-house, the Supreme Court of the United States and all records relating to it were ex- decided that the act of the Georgia legispunged. In 1798 the constitution of lature in repudiating the original grants Georgia was revised, and in certain pro- of the Yazoo lands was unconstitutional visions, having reference expressly to the and void, being in violation of a solemn Yazoo lands, an effectual check was put contract. This decision and other conto these speculations. In the organization siderations caused Congress to make a of Territories west of the Chattahoochee tardy settlement with the claimants in the subject of the Yazoo lands presented the spring of 1814. Such was the end of some grave questions, for there were still a speculation out of which Southern claimants under the original grants who grantees made splendid fortunes, but which were importunate. They claimed in the proved very unprofitable to Northern aggregate about $8,000,000 as an equiva- speculators. lent for a relinquishment of their rights. Yazoo River Fleet. General Herron In 1804 the New England Mississippi was sent, July 12, 1863, up the Yazoo Company, successor, by purchase, to the River with a considerable force in lightGeorgia Yazoo Company, appeared as draught steamboats to destroy a Con

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federate fleet lying at Yazoo City. The navy. This story reached Sir James, then transports were convoyed by the armored a commander on the West India Station, gunboat De Kalb. When they approached and he sent by a paroled prisoner a mesthe town the garrison and vessels fled up sage to Porter, inviting the Essex to comthe river, and were pursued. When the bat with his vessel (the Southampton), De Kalb was abreast the town she was saying he “would be glad to have a têtesunk by the explosion of a torpedo. Her- à-tête anywhere between the capes of the ron's cavalry landed and pursued the ves- Delaware and the Hayana, when he would sels up the shore, destroying a greater have the pleasure to break his own [Porportion of them. The remainder were ter's] sword over his d-d head, and sunk or burned by the Confederates. put him down forward in irons.” The Herron captured 300 prisoners, six heavy challenge was accepted in more decorous guns, some small-arms, 800 horses, and terms, but the tête-à-tête never 2,000 bales of cotton.

off. Sir James was too cautious. InYeamans, Sir John, colonial governor; deed, his conduct on two or three ocborn in Bristol, England, about 1605. In casions on Lake Ontario caused the wits 1655 he went from Barbadoes and settled of the day to interpret his extreme caution in Clarendon county, or South Carolina, as a specimen of “ heart disease” known and first introduced negro slaves there. to cowards. He commanded the British He was made governor, and at first he ruled with mildness and justice, but, becoming violent and tyrannical, he was removed from office in 1674, and returned to England. He died in Barbadoes, West Indies, about 1676. See SOUTH CAROLINA.

Yeardly, SIR GEORGE, colonial governor; born in England about 1580; was governor of Virginia several times between 1616 and 1625; and first introduced representative government in Virginia. He died in England in November, 1627. See VIRGINIA.

Yellowstone Park. In 1872 Congress passed an act for setting apart a large tract of the public domain, about 40 miles square, lying near the head-waters of the Yellowstone River, on the northeastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, for a public park. Its present extent is about 5,500 square miles. It is dedicated to pleasure and enjoyment of the people of the United States."

Yeo, Sir JAMES LUCAS, naval officer; naval forces on Lake Ontario in 1813-14. born in Southampton, England, in 1782; He died off the coast of Africa in 1819. was an active, but very cautious officer. Yonkers, a city in Westchester county, Just after the declaration of war (1812) N. Y.; on the Hudson and Bronx rivers ; a Federalist newspaper charged Captain adjoining the northern part of New York Porter with cruelly treating an English City. It is a charming residential place seaman on board the Essex who refused to and has important manufactures. The fight against his countrymen, pleading, place received its name in 1788; was inamong other reasons, that if caught he corporated as a village in 1855 and as a would be hung as a deserter from the royal city in 1872; and is the seat of the

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Philipse Manor, erected in 1752, and now York, a town and port of entry in York the city hall; “Greystone,” the suburban county, Me.; on the York River and Cape residence of Samuel J. Tilden; the Hebrew Neddick harbors; 9 miles northeast of home for the aged and infirm; and the Portsmouth. It was settled about 1624 Leake and Watts orphan home. Popu- under the name of Agamenticus, on lation in 1900, 47,931.

portion of the territory granted to Sir

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Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason by the province of Maine; from 1735 to 1760 Plymouth council in 1622. On April 10, shire town with Falmouth (now Portland) 1641, it was given a city charter and of the whole province; and from 1760 to government by Sir Ferdinando under the 1800 shire town of York county. In 1802 name of Georgeana, and it was thus the Alfred was made a shire town with York, first English city on the continent of and continued so till 1832, when all the America. In 1652 it was organized as a courts were removed to Alfred. York is town under the name of York, from the now principally known as a summer recity of that name in England. From 1716 sort. Population in 1900, 2,668. to 1735 it was the shire town of York- York, JAMES, DUKE OF, born in St. shire county, which included the whole James's Palace, London, England, Oct. 14,

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