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1633; son of Charles I.; became lord high The meeting had been called by Governor admiral on the accession of his brother Nicolls to “settle good and known laws” Charles to the throne in 1660. On March their government for the future, and 12, 1664, King Charles II. granted to receive their “best advice and informaJames, under a patent bearing the royal tion.” The governor laid before the deleseal, a territory in America which in- gates a body of general laws, which had cluded all the lands and rivers from the been chiefly compiled from statutes then west side of the Connecticut River to the in force in New England, with more tolereast side of the Delaware River. Its in- ation in matters of religion. The deleland boundary was a line from the head gates were not satisfied with many of of the Connecticut River to the source of them, and several amendments were made; the Hudson, thence to the head of the but when they asked to be allowed to Mohawk branch of the Hudson, and thence choose their own magistrates, the governto the east of Delaware Bay. It also em- or exhibited instructions from the Duke braced Long Island and the adjacent isl- of York, his master, wherein the choice of ands, including Martha's Vineyard and “officers of justice was solely to be made Nantucket; also the “ territory of Pema- by the governor ”; and he told them de. quid," in Maine. This granted territory cidedly that if they would have a greater embraced all of New Netherland and a share in the government than he could give part of Connecticut, which had been af- them, they must go to the King for it. The firmed to other English proprietors by the delegates found that they were not popucharter of 1662. The duke detached four lar representatives to make laws, but ships from the royal navy, bearing 450 were mere agents to accept those already regular troops, for the service of taking prepared for them. They had merely expossession of his domain. Col. Richard changed the despotism of Stuyvesant for Nicolls commanded the expedition. Stuy- English despotism. The New York code vesant was compelled to surrender (see adopted by that meeting was arranged in STUYVESANT, PETER), and the name of the alphabetical order of subjects and pubterritory was changed to New York. Very lished, and is generally known as the soon commissioners appointed by the gov- Duke's Laws. The Duke of York became ernments of New York and Connecticut King, under the title of James II. in to confer about the boundary between the 1685. He died in St. Germain, Sept. 6, two colonies agreed, for the sake of peace 1701. See CONNECTICUT; JAMES II. ; NEW and good-fellowship, that the territory NETHERLAND; NEW YORK. of New York should not extend farther Yorktown, SIEGE OF.

The allied areastward than along a line 20 miles from mies joined Lafayette at Williamsburg, the Hudson River, and that remains the Va., Sept. 25, 1781, and on the 27th there boundary to this day. In 1673 the Dutch was a besieging army there of 16,000 men, again became possessors of New York, but under the chief command of Washington, the following year it was returned to Eng. assisted by Rochambeau. The British force, land by treaty. It was decided that these about half as numerous, were mostly bepolitical changes had cancelled the Duke hind intrenchments at Yorktown. On the of York's title to the domain, and a new arrival of Washington and Rochambeau one, with boundaries defined as in the at Williamsburg they proceeded to the first grant, was issued, June 29, 1674, Ville de Paris, De Grasse's flag-ship, to but the line above mentioned was fixed congratulate the admiral on his victory upon as the eastern limit of the province over Graves on the 5th, and to make of New York.

specific arrangements for the future. In 1665 a meeting was held at Hemp- Preparations for the siege were immediatestead, L. I. (Feb. 28), at which thirty- ly begun. The allied armies marched from four delegates assembled—two representa- Williamsburg (Sept. 28), driving in the tives of each of the English and Dutch British outposts as they approached Yorktowns on Long Island and two in West- town, and taking possession of abandoned chester. Some of them had been members works. The allies formed a semicircular of Stuyvesant's last General Assembly line about 2 miles from the British inof New Netherland the previous year. trenchments, each wing resting on the

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with the right. The Princeton

fleet of De Grasse was in Lynn Haven Bay to beat off any vessels that might attempt to relieve Cornwallis. On the night of Oct. 6 a heavy ordnance was brought up from the French ships, and trenches were begun at 600 yards from the British works. The first parallel was completed before the morning of the 7th, under the direction of

General Lincoln; and on the after: Annapolis

noon of the 9th several batteries and redoubts were finished, and a general discharge of heavy guns was opened by the Americans the right. Early on the morning of the 10th the French opened several batteries on the left. That evening the same troops hurled red-hot balls upon British vessels in the river, which caused the destruction by fire of several of them—one a 44-gun ship.

The allies began the second parallel on the night of the 11th, which the British did not discover until daylight came, when they brought several heavy guns to bear upon the diggers. On the 14th it was determined to storm two of the redoubts which were most annoying, as they commanded the trenches. One the right, near the York River, was garrisoned by forty-five men; the

other, on the left, was manned by York River, and on the 30th the place about 120

The capture of the was completely invested. The British at former was intrusted to Americans led by Gloucester, opposite, were imprisoned by Lieut.-Col. Alexander Hamilton, and that French dragoons under the Duke de Lau- of the latter to Freneh grenadiers led by zun, Virginia militia, led by General Wee- Count Deuxponts. At a given signal don, and 800 French marines. Only once Hamilton advanced in two columns-one did the imprisoned troops attempt to es- led by Major Fish, the other by Lieucape from that point. Tarleton's legion tenant-Colonel Gimat, Lafayette's aide; sallied out, but were soon driven back while Lieut.-Col. John Laurens, with by Lauzun's cavalry, who made Tarleton's eighty men, proceeded to turn the redoubt horse a prisoner and came near capturing to intercept a retreat of the garrison. his owner.

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the redoubt was carried in a few minutes, commander-in-chief saw both redoubts in with little loss on either side. Laurens possession of his troops he turned and was among the first to enter the redoubt, said to Knox, “ The work is done, and and make the commander, Major Camp- well done." That night both redoubts bell, a prisoner. The life of every man were included in the second parallel. The who ceased to resist was spared.

situation of Cornwallis was now critical.

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Meanwhile the French, after a severe He was surrounded by a superior force, struggle, in which they lost about 100 his works were crumbling, and he saw men in killed and wounded, captured the that when the second parallel of the beother redoubt. Washington, with Knox siegers should be completed and the canand some others, had watched the move- non on their batteries mounted his post ments with intense anxiety, and when the at Yorktown would become untenable, and he resolved to attempt an escape by and Major Ross, of the British army, at abandoning the place, his baggage, and the house of the Widow Moore to arrange his sick, cross the York River, disperse terms for capitulation. They were made the allies who environed Gloucester, and similar to those demanded of Lincoln at by rapid marches gain the forks of the Charleston eighteen months before. The Rappa hannock and Potomac, and, forcing capitulation was duly signed, Oct. 19, his way by weight of numbers through 1781, and late on the afternoon of the Maryland and Pennsylvania, join Clinton same day Cornwallis, his army, and public at New York

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property were surrendered to the allies. Boats for the passage of the river were The delivery of the colors of the several prepared and a part of the troops passed British regiments at Yorktown, twentyover, when a furious storm suddenly eight in number, was performed in this arose and made any further attempts to wise: twenty-eight British captains, each cross too hazardous to be undertaken. bearing a flag in a case, were drawn up in The troops were brought back, and the line. Opposite to these were twenty-eight earl lost hope. After that the bombard- American sergeants in a line to receive ment of his lines was continuous, severe, thiem. Colonel Hamilton, who had the and destructive, and on the 17th he offered direction of the movement, appointed an to make terms for surrender. On the fol- ensign to conduct the ceremony. When lowing day Lieutenant-Colonel Laurens that officer gave the order for the British and Viscount de Noailles (a kinsman of captains to advance two paces and deliver Madame Lafayette), as commissioners of up their colors, and the American ser. the allies, met Lieutenant-Colonel Dundas geants to advance two paces to receive

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