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nermost side of the room, was awake, and was bound; and, as they came out, Freysaid, “What dost thou wish here, Frey. dis caused each one to be slain. In this dis?” She answers, “I wish thee to rise wise all of the men were put to death, and and go out with me, for I would speak only the women were left; and these no one with thee.” He did so; and they walked would kill. At this Freydis exclaimed, to a tree, which lay close by the wall of “Hand me an axe." This was done; and the house, and seated themselves upon it. she fell upon the five women, and left “ How art thou pleased here?” says she. them dead. They returned home after this He answers, “I am well pleased with the dreadful deed; and it was very evident fruitfulness of the land; but I am ill con- that Freydis was well content with her tent with the breach which has come be- work. She addressed her companions, saytween us, for, methinks, there has been ing, “If it be ordained for us to come no cause for it.” “It is even as thou again to Greenland, I shall contrive the sayest,” says she, “and so it seems to me; death of any man who shall speak of these but my errand to thee is that I wish to events. We must give it out that we left exchange ships with you brothers, for that them living here when we came away." ye have a larger ship than I, and I wish Early in the spring they equipped the ship to depart from here.” “To this I must which had belonged to the brothers, and accede," says he, “if it is thy pleasure.” freighted it with all of the products of

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Therewith they parted; and she returned the land which they could obtain, and home and Finnbogi to his bed. She climb- which the ship would carry. Then they ed up into bed, and awakened Thorvard put out to sea, and after a prosperous with her cold feet; and he asked her why voyage arrived with their ship in Ericsshe was so cold and wet. She answered with firth early in the summer. Karlsefni was. great passion: “I have been to the broth- there, with his ship all ready to sail, and ers," says she, “ to try to buy their ship, was awaiting a fair wind; and people say for I wished to have a larger vessel ; but that a ship richer laden than that which they received my overtures so ill that they he commanded never left Greenland. struck me and handled me very roughly ; Freydis now went to her home, since what time thou, poor wretch, wilt neither it had remained unharmed during her arenge my shame nor thy own; and I find, absence. She bestowed liberal gifts upon perforce, that I am no longer in Green all of her companions, for she was anxland. Moreover I shall part from thee un. ious to screen her guilt. She now establess thou wreakest vengeance for this.” lished herself at her home; but her comAnd now he could stand her taunts no panions were not all so close-mouthed longer, and ordered the men to rise at concerning their misdeeds and wickedonce and take their weapons; and this they ness that rumors did not get abroad at did. And they then proceeded directly to last. These finally reached her brother, the house of the brothers, and entered it Leif, and he thought it a most shameful while the folk were asleep, and seized and story. He thereupon took three of the bound them, and led each one out when he men, who had been of Freydis' party,




and forced them all at the same time mother of Bishop Brand. Hallfrid was the to a confession of the affair, and their name of the daughter of Snorri, Karlstories entirely agreed. “I have no sefni's


the mother of heart,” says Lief, “to punish my sis- Runolf, Bishop Thorlak's father. Biorn ter, Freydis, as she deserves, but this I was the name of [another] son of Karlpredict of them, that there is little pros- sefni and Gudrid; he was the father of perity in store for their offspring.” Thorunn, the mother of Bishop Biorn. Hence it came to pass that no one from Many men are descended from Karlsefni, that time forward thought them worthy and he has been blessed with a numerous of aught but evil. It now remains to and famous posterity; and of all men take up the story from the time when Karlsefni has given the most exact acKarlsefni made his ship ready, and sail- counts of all these voyages, of which ed out to sea. He had a successful voy- something has now been recounted. age, and arrived in Norway safe and Vinton, FRANCIS LAURENS, military sound. He remained there during the officer; born in Fort Preble, Me., June winter, and sold his wares; and both he 1, 1835; son of Maj. John Rogers Vinton ; and his wife were received with great graduated at West Point in 1856; entered favor by the most distinguished, men the 1st Cavalry, but resigned in Septemof Norway. The following spring he put ber and devoted himself to the science of his ship in order for the voyage to Ice- metallurgy, becoming in 1857 a pupil of land; and when all his preparations had the Imperial School of Mines in Paris, been made, and his ship was lying at where he graduated with distinction. At the wharf, awaiting favorable winds, the beginning of the Civil War he was there came to him a Southerner, a na- made captain in the 16th United States tive of Bremen in the Saxonland, who Infantry, and colonel of the 43d New wished to buy his house-neat.” “I do York Volunteers, with which he served not wish to sell it,” says he. “I will through the Peninsular campaign; was give thee half a 'mörk' in gold for it,” wounded in the battle of Fredericksburg. says the Southerner. This Karlsefni In March, 1863, he was promoted brigathought a good offer, and accordingly dier-general of volunteers, resigned in May closed the bargain. The Southerner went following because of his wound; and behis way with the “house - neat,” and came Professor of Mining Engineering in Karlsefni knew not what wood it was, but Columbia College in 1864, from which he it was

mösur," come from Wineland. retired in 1877. He died in Leadville, Col., Karlsefni sailed away, and arrived Oct. 6, 1879. with his ship in the north of Iceland, Vinton, FREDERIC, librarian; born in in Skagafirth. His vessel was beached Boston, Mass., Oct. 7, 1817; graduated at there during the winter, and in the spring Amherst College in 1837; studied theolbe bought Glaumbæiar-land, and made ogy: became first assistant in the Boston his home there, and dwelt there as long Public Library in 1856. He assisted in preas he lived, and

of the paring the Index to the Catalogue of Books greatest prominence. From him and his in Bates Hall; was first assistant in 1865wife, Gudrid, a numerous and goodly 73 in the Congressional Library, where he lineage is descended.

After Karlsefni's prepared six annual supplements to the death Gudrid, together with her son Alphabetical Catalogue of the Library of Snorri, who was born in Wineland, took Congress and the Index of Subjects; and charge of the farmstead; and, when was librarian of Princeton University Snorri was married, Gudrid went abroad, from 1873 till his death, Jan. 1, 1890. and made a pilgrimage to the South, Vinton, JOHN ADAMS, clergyman; born after which she returned again to the in Boston, Mass., Feb. 5, 1801; graduated home of her son Snorri, who had caused at Dartmouth College in 1828, and at

church to be built at Glaumbær. Andover Theological Seminary in 1831 ; Gudrid then took the veil and became ordained in the Congregational Church an anchorite, and lived there the rest of in 1832, and held pastorates in Maine, her days. Snorri had a son, named Thor- Vermont, and Massachusetts; was agent geir, who was the father of Ingveld, the of the American Society for Improving





the Condition of the Jews; chaplain of promoted lieutenant-general in 1781, and the Massachusetts State almshouse in given the grand cross of St Louis for ser1859–60; and later devoted himself to vices at the siege of Yorktown. After genealogical researches. He contributed the war he was governor of La Rochelle, many articles to periodicals, and was in 1783–89. He died in Paris, Nov. 9, 1782. author of Deborah Sampson, the Female His brother, CHARLES JOSEPH HYASoldier of the Revolution, etc. He died CINTHE DU HOUX, MARQUIS DE VIOMENIL; in Winchester, Mass, Nov 13, 1877. born in the castle of Ruppes, Vosges,

Viomenil, ANTOINE CHARLES DU Aug. 22, 1734; attained the rank of majorHoux, BARON DE, military officer; born in general in the French army; accompanied Fauconcourt, Vosges, France, Nov. 30, Count de Rochambeau to the United 1728. He attained the rank of major-gen- States as commander of the French areral in the French army; and in 1780 tillery, and took a prominent part in the was appointed second in command of siege of Yorktown, for which he was grantCount de Rochambeau's troops which were ed a pension of 5,000 francs. He died in sent to assist the American colonists; was Paris, March 5, 1827.

VIRGINIA, COLONY OF Virginia, COLONY OF, the name given other company to settle between lat. 41° to an undefined territory in America (of and 45° N. The space of about 200 miles which Roanoke Island, discovered in 1584, between the two territories was a broad was a part) in compliment to the un- boundary-line, upon which neither party married Queen, or because of its virgin was to plant a settlement. In December, soil. It was afterwards defined as ex- 1606, the London Company sent three tending from lat. 34° to 45° N., and was ships, under Capt. Christopher Newport, divided into north and south Virginia. with 105 colonists, to make a settlement The northern part was afterwards called on ROANOKE ISLAND (q. v.). They took NEW ENGLAND (9. v.). The spirit of adventure and desire for colonization were prevalent in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century, and circumstances there were favorable to such undertakings, for there was plenty of material for colonies, such as it was. Soon after the accession of James I., war between England and France ceased, and there were many restless soldiers out of employment—so restless that social order was in danger. There was also a class of ruined and desperate spendthrifts, ready to do anything to retrieve their fortunes. Such were the men who stood ready to go to America when Ferdinando Gorges, Bartholomew Gosnold, Chief Justice Popham, Richard Hakluyt, Capt. John Smith, and others devised a new scheme for settling Virginia.

The timid King, glad to perceive a new field open for the restless spirits of his realm, granted a liberal patent to a company of

noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants," chiefly of London, to plant settle. the long southern route, by way of the ments in America, between lat. 34° and 38° West Indies, and when they approached X., and westward 100 miles from the sea. the coast of North Carolina a tempest A similar charter was granted to an- drove them farther north into Chesapeake X.-F


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Bay, where they found good anchorage. that Smith was one of the council, and he The principal passengers were Gosnold, was released. Wingfield was chosen presiEdward M. Wingfield, Captain Smith, and dent. Smith and others ascended the Rev. Robert Hunt. The capes at the en- river in small boats to the falls at Richtrance to Chesapeake Bay Newport named mond, and visited the Indian emperor Charles and Henry, in compliment to the PowhatAN (9. v.), who resided a mile King's two sons.

below. Landing and resting at a pleasant point Early in June Newport returned to of land between the mouths of the York England for supplies and more emigrants. and James rivers, he named it Point The supplies which they brought had been Comfort, and, sailing up the latter stream spoiled in the long voyage, and the Ind50 miles, the colonists landed on the left ians around them appeared hostile. The bank, May 13, 1607, and there founded marshes sent up poisonous vapors, and a settlement and built a village, which before the end of summer Gosnold and they named Jamestown, in compliment to fully one-half of the adventurers died of the King. They gave the name of James fever and famine. President Wingfield to the river. On the voyage, Captain lived on the choicest stores, and was Smith, the most notable man among them preparing to escape to the West Indies (see SMITH, JOHN), had excited the jeal. in a pinnace left by Newport, when his ousy and suspicion of his fellow-passen- treachery was discovered, and a man equal. gers, and he was placed in confinement on ly notorious, named Radcliffe, was put suspicion that he intended to usurp the in his place. He, too, was soon dismissed, government of the colony. It was not when Captain Smith was happily chosen known who had been appointed rulers, for to rule the colony. He soon restored the silly King had placed the names of the order, won the respect of the Indians, colonial council in a sealed box, to be compelled them to bring food to James. opened on their arrival. It was found town until wild-fowl became plentiful in


the autumn, and the harvest of maize or ware) was appointed governor of Virginia ; Indian corn was gathered by the bar. Sir Thomas Gates, deputy-governor; Sir barians. Smith and a few companions ex- George Somers, admiral; Christopher plored the Chickahominy River, where he Newport, vice - admiral, and Sir Thomas was captured and condemned to die, but Dale, high-marshal, all for life. Nine was saved by the King's daughter. See vessels, with 500 emigrants, including POCAHONTAS.

twenty women and children, sailed for Everything was in disorder on his return Jamestown in June, 1609. Gates and Somfrom the forest, and only forty men of the ers embarked with Newport, and the three colony were living, who were on the point were to govern Virginia until the arrival of escaping to the West Indies. Newport of Lord Delaware. A hurricane dispersed returned with supplies and 120 emigrants the fleet, and the vessel containing these early in 1608. They were no better than joint rulers or commissioners was wrecked the first. There were several unskilful on one of the Bermuda Islands. Seven goldsmiths, and most of the colonists be- vessels reached Jamestown. The new-comcame gold-seekers and neglected the soil. ers were, if possible, more profligate than There was no talk, no hope, no work, but the first—dissolute scions of wealthy famdig gold, work [earth supposed to be] ilies, who “ left their country for their gold, refine gold, and load gold.” Some country's good.” glittering earth had been mistaken for Smith continued to administer the govgold, and Newport had loaded his ship ernment until an accident compelled him with the worthless soil. Smith implored to return to England in the fall of 1609. the settlers to plough and sow. They re. Then the colonists gave themselves up to fused, and, leaving Jamestown in disgust, every irregularity; the Indians withheld he explored Chesapeake Bay and its trib- supplies; famine ensued, and the winter utary streams in an open boat. In the and spring of 1610 were long remembered course of three months he travelled 1,000 as the starving time. The Indians premiles and made a rude map of the coun- pared to exterminate the English, but they try. Newport arrived at Jamestown soon were spared by a timely warning from after Smith's return in September, with seventy more emigrants, among them two women, the first Europeans of their sex

in Virginia proper. See DARE, VIRGINIA.

These emigrants were no better than the first, and Smith entreated the company to send over farmers and mechanics; but at the end of two years, when the settlement numbered 200 strong men, there were only forty acres of land under cultivation. In 1609 the company obtained a new charter, which made the settlers vassals of the council

ENAT VIR GINIA, of Virginia and extended

Q TAM the territory to the head of Chesapeake Bay. Lord De la Warr (Dela






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