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"an everlasting covenant. . .Then shalt thou re"member thy ways and be ashamed, when thou "shalt receive thy sisters, the elder and the "younger," (Samaria and Sodom,) "and I will "give them unto thee, for daughters, but not by thy covenant."l "God will remember his covenant with Israel;" " He will establish unto Israel "an everlasting covenant:" and he will give the gentiles " to them for daughters, but not by their "covenant."—What does this mean, but that God yfill restore Israel, not by the national covenant, but by another distinct covenant, including the gentiles also r For substance, this was the Abrahamic covenant,2 more explicitly proposed by the Messiah, as " the new covenant in his blood," and of which he is the Surety and Mediator.—Thus again, speaking of the restoration of Israel; "My "servant David shall be their prince for ever; and "I will make a covenant of peace with them; and it "shall be an everlasting covenant with them, &c."3 Is it not evident, that this '* covenant of peace," which God will make with Israel, on their restoration, and under which "David shall be their "prince for ever," is entirely distinct from that covenant, which God made with their fathers, at Mount Sinai?
In like manner God, by Isaiah, says to the Messiah: "I will give thee for a covenant of the "people, for a light of the gentiles." * And again: "I will preserve thee and give thee for a covenant "of the people, to establish the earth, &c."5 And "again: Incline your ear, and come unto me ; hear "and your souls shall live: and I will make an ever"lasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies "of David." l Whether we understand this literally of David,2 or figuratively of the Messiah, it must denote a covenant distinct from the national covenant of Israel; and one which is made through the Messiah with individuals, who 'obey the 'calling,' and with no others.—Again, " And the "Redeemer shall come to Zion; and unto them "that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the "Lord. As for me, this is my covenant with "them, saith the Lord, &c."—Now, this covenant made with a remnant of penitent Jews, at the coming of the Redeemer, (or at any other time,) could not be the same, with the national covenant made with Israel at Mount Sinai.—In like manner, also Gabriel says to Daniel, concerning the Messiah, " He shall confirm the covenant with many "for one week." 3 Now this covenant which was confirmed " with many" while the rest were given up to desolations, could not be the national covenant of Sinai.—In fact, in the Old Testament, as well as the New, the covenant made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and not the Sinai covenant, is almost always referred to, whenever the promised mercies of Israel are spoken of.4
'E*. xvi. 60, 61. * Ps.cv. 8—10. * Ex. xxxvii. 25—27.
4 Is. xlii. 6. * Is. xlix. 8. See also liv. 10.
We therefore conclude, that the Messiah is " the "Mediator of a New and a better covenant," than that made with Israel at Mount Sinai, promising far more valuable blessings to those with whom it is made, and securing them in a far more irrevocable and unalterable manner: being for substance the same with the covenant made with Abraham, in behalf of himself and his Seed, even Christ, and confirmed by the oath which was sworn unto him: including also the gentiles, who are " grafted "into the good olive tree" by faith in the Messiah, and so " partake of the root and fatness of "the good olive tree."' But as this is proposed in a new and clearer manner, and its extent and blessings, and security, are more explicitly exhibited; it is generally called "the new covenant," as distinguished from the Sinai covenant.—I forbear to quote the New Testament on this subject; except as I introduce it to shew what our news on this subject are, and on what grounds we consider them warranted by clear testimonies from the Old Testament.—This part of the subject is wholly overlooked by Mr. C. But this new covenant is a far different thing from a new law. This I suppose St. Paul meant, when he said, "not without law "to God, but under the law to Christ." (Iwo^
1 Is. lv. 3. * 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. Ps. lxxxix. 4,5. * Dan. ix. 27. 4 Deut. iv. 31. viii. 18. 2 Kings xiii. 23. 1 Chron. xvi. 15—18. Neh.ix. 8. Ps. cv. 9,10. Micah vii. 20. Luke i. 54,55, 72—75. 'Rom. xi. 16—24. Heb. vi. 13—18. '1 Cor.ix. 21.
We indeed read in the New Testament of " ful"filling the law of Christ:" but I apprehend the apostle meant, the new commandment requiring Christians to love one another for his sake, and according to the pattern of his love to them.3 However, the constant reference of the apostles to the moral law of ten commandments, as the rule of our duty, sufficiently proves that Jesus did not intend to abolish the holy, just, good, and spiritual law of the Old Testament, to substitute one of a milder and more indulgent nature in its place.l
1 John xiii. 34. Gal. vi. 2. 1 John ii. 7, 8.'
P. 49.1. 6. 'This law cannot make happy,' &c. —No law can make happy him who has broken it. —" Blessed are they that keep judgment, and he "that doeth righteousness at all times." "He that "doeth these things shall live in them." "The soul *f that sinneth, it shall die." 2 Where is then the blessedness ?" Blessed is he whose iniquity is "forgiven, and whose sin is covered." "Blessed "is the man, to whom the Lord imputeth not ci iniquity." But this properly belongs not to the law but to the gospel ;3 for " without shedding of "blood there is no remission."
P. 49.1. 14. * He ought to have,' &c—True Christians never think of prescribing to God what he ought to do: it is their question, " What must "I do to be saved?" "Lord what wouldst thou "have me to do?"
P. 49.1. 17. 'In number seventy,' Sec.—It is not very easy to make out the number of the distinct families which sprang from Noah's three sons; as any one will find, if he attempt to be accurate, and to distinguish exactly between their immediate and their more remote descendents. I do not think the matter deserving of a laboured investigation: but, as Mr. C. purposes to build much upon it, he ought well to secure the foundation; else the whole superstructure will fall to the ground on the slightest assault.
1 Rom. vii. 12. xiii. 8—10. Gal. v. 14. Eph. vi. 1,2. Jam. ii. 8—11. 'Ps. cvi. 3. Ez. xviii. 4. xx. 11. 21. Luke x. 25—29. 'Ps. xxxii. 1, 2. exxx. 4, 5. Rom. iv. 6—8.
P. 49.1. 24, 25. ' Lest we be scattered, and God 'said, they shall be scattered.'—scatter is not a very appropriate word for such a regular allotment as Mr. C. supposes was made of the earth, to these seventy families at this time.1 Jacob said of Simeon and Levi, " I will divide them in Jacob, and "scatter them in Israel." 2 And God declared by Moses," I said, I would scatter them into corners:" "I would make the remembrance of them to cease "from among men."3 And Israel is now scattered among the nations: but could Joshua, when he divided the promised land among the tribes of Israel, be said to scatter them in Canaan?
P. 49. 1. 26. 'The heavenly Sanhedrim,' &c. As the scripture reveals nothing of this Sanhedrin and their proceedings, I must consider the whole as a mere fable, and class it with the legends of popery; that part especially, which gives the several countries of the world to different saints, who are the special patrons of them; and who, I suppose, contend with one another, when these nations choose to engage in war; nay, with God himself, when they war against his chosen people! Thus St. James is the patron saint of Spain, St. George of England, St. Patrick of Ireland, St. Dennis of France.—The virgin Mary, I have lately heard, is now substituted in the place of the latter. We require The Word Of God, not the dreams of men. "What is the chaff to the wheat, saith the
1 Gen. xi. 3—9. * Gen. xlix. 7.
3 Lev. xxvi. 33. Deut. iv. 27. xxx. 3. xxxii. 26.