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all-that there shall be at first a con- powers of nature, and adding them to sciousness of working upon a new his own boily, thus becoming, uncon. principle, or a positive purpose to de- scions of the poetic analogy, a Titan viate (for such a purpose would be but again. This age is, after all, doing a a vagary and extravagance, relying great deed. Let the dreamer, ihe veron no principle): there must be some sifier, the searcher after visible beauty, want of the day strongly felt, some the painter, the statuary, incapacitated feeling to be embodied, some impress as they all generally are from the of the times to be stamped and made knowledge of what we term the busivisible. Hence alone can arise a new ness of life, consider coolly, without principle of art; and it is one that can- prejudice for his art, and against what not be preconceived, it must have its more commonly meets him in some inbirth without forethought, and pos- terrupting and ungracious form, resibly without a knowledge that it ex. aliiy, the machinery of governments, ists; it may be in the artist's mind, the science of banking, the law of maran unconscious purpose working kets, and the innumerable detail of throazh the conscious processes of art. which he se!dom ihinks, but without Tne age in which we live has a strong the establishment of which he would desire to know all about art, as to ad- not be allowed to think,-hy which he vance in knowledge of every kind; but lives his daily life; let him trace any has in itself one characteristic feel. one manufacture through all its sucing, one strong impulse, favourable to cessive ingenuities to its great uses ari, such as will make genius start up, and its great results. Let him travel as it were, from his slumber and his a few hundred miles on a railroad, and dream, and do his real work? Nor note how all is ordered, with what can this be prophesied of; for, if it precision all arrangements are made could, it would exisi somewhere, at and conducted, and what a world it is least in the mind of the prophet. It in itsell, moving through space like a is like the statue existing in the block; world, and set in motion and stayed but it is the hand of tune, under direc- hy the hand of one of his own Saxon lion that we wol not cif, that must be blood; and then, an idea, transferring culing it away. Nor is it fair, for himself from his own work, and his any lack in one power of mind, to un- pride of his own art, let him ask himderrate the age in which we live'. It self if he sees not something beyond, may be great in anoiber power to do quite extraneous to himself, a great a destined work; that work done, an- ibing effected, which he never could other may be required, and another have conceived nor have executed ; porer be developel, in which art may and then let him say if there be not even be the required means to the more per. in this our working world, a great and fect vivifying a new principle. The living poetry, a magnificent thought genius of our day is too busy in the realized, a principle brought, out, worll's doings, in striving to advance worthy an age; and then let him be utility, to have leisure, or 10 take an content for a while that his own parinterest in the ideal and poetical. A ticular capacity should for a time he greit poetry it is indeed in itself, with in abeyanice, io great purposes inopeall its mighty engines, working with rative, unproductive of ihe world's iron arms
vast and powerlul esteem. Ti may be that he will but than fable could imagine of Brontes have to wait for his season. His time and Steropes, and all the buge manu may come again. Some new principle in facturers of thunderbolts for an Ideal the world's action, with possibly a Jove. Realiiy has outgrown fiction, secret and electric power, may reach -has become the “ major videri"-—is bim, enter his own mind, and set at doing a sublime work-one, too, in large all his capacities, and make them which poetry of high cast is inherent, felt; for that principle, whatever it is through hands and means most un to be, will be electric, too, in the genepoetical. Mind is there, thought is ral mind. It may arise naturally out ihere, worthy of all the greatness of of the present state of things. Now, man's reputation for sagacity or in- our schoolless ari, like what has once vention, and gigantic energy; the been a mighty river, with all its trireaching to and grasping the large bulary streams, bas wandered into
strange and lower lands, and been en came, and art awakened to its percepticed away through innumerable small tion. Gioito, Della Robbo, ihe old channels, still fertilizing, in a more Siennese school, Beato Angelico, homely and modest
many Pisani, Donatello, evolve the Chriscountries, but losing its own distinc. tian idea. Perugino, weak in faith, tive character and name. The streams turns art towards earin, and leads will never flow back and unite again, Raffaelle to strive for a new beautiful; but some oi them, in this earth's shifts and Michael Angelo for the powerfuland changes, may again become rivers, the former humanizing the divine, ihe and bear a rich merchandize into the latter, if not deifying, gigantizing large ocean, and so enrich the world. humanity-not in the antique repose, If we think upon the distinct charac. but incorporeal energy-the whole teristics of echools, we must be struck dignity of man, as imagined in his with this, that before each one was personal condition. This was ihe chitknown, established, and confirmed in racieristic of the Florentine schoolpublic opinion, it could not have been as, after Perugino, or commencing with generally imagined and preconceived. him, intelleci, united with grace and It is altogetber the creation of gifted beauty, became the characieristic of genius. We acknowledge the setting the Roman. But grace and beauty up a great truth, of which we had not, ire dangerously human. The religious a glimpse until we see it worked out mind, in reverential contemplation, and standing before us manisest. It felt are above humanity, and feared is ours by natural adoption, not by a to invest divinily with corporeal charm. universal instinctive invention. So Even in heathen art, the great Athethat it is a presumption of our weak. nian goddess affects not grace, but ness to believe, as some do, that the stands in a severe repose, so unlike arena of art is limited, and every part rest, the beautiful emblem of weakoccupied ; and that, for the future, ness. Grace and beauty became dannothing is left but a kind of copying gerous qualities when applied 10 Chrisand imitation. Who is 10 set limit 10 lian devotional art. The followers of the powers of mind? We can imagine Perugino, who thought them essential, a dozmalist of this low kind, before were not at first aware to what degree Shakapeare's day, in admiration of they were deteriorating the great the Greek drama, laying down the principle of their school, and bow they laws of the unities as irrefragable, were rendering art 100 human for their and that the great volume of the creed. Woman-by the gift of nature, drama was closed with them. And beauty personified — by more close and some such opinions have been set accurate study of her perfections, forth by our Gallic neighbours, and ceased to be an object of real worship, maintained with no little pertinacity. as her fascinations were felt. Even We must have heen Shakspeares Rafaelle was under an unadoring into have preconceived his drama. fluence. His malonnas often detract How, for ages, was poetry limiied ! much from the idolatry wbich his the epic, as it were, closed ! His age church labored to confirm. We must knew nothing of Milton before Milion. not wonder, then, if alter him we find It was a new principle coming dimly humanity in woman even dethroned through troubadours and romances, from ber higher and almos! majestic that shone forth at length Homerically, state of heavenly porily—though lebut with a difference, in Marmion, gitimatized as an object of worship, the and indeed all Sir Walter Scoll's “ mother of God," in that higher poetry, which, if it be linked 10 any sanctity ihan it was possible to set up ihat has preceded it, must be referred nian, in his most saintly apotheosis, to the most remote, to that of Homer (for the boldesi mind would necessarily himself; so that let no man say that be shocked at the idea of be-lowing the world of fact and possibility is a divine paternily on man, even if his shut against art. The great classic religion forbade it noi). Woman, in idea, the deification, the worship of her real beauiy, superseded ihe ideal ; beauty, was completed by the ancients. anil, from condescending 10 represent There was a long rest, a sleep, with. inferior saints and conventual devoout a dream of a new principle; but it tees, reassumed at length her more
earthly empire, and threw around understood. He has been classed with fascinations which rather tended to “painters of drolls ;" yet was be the dissipate than 10 encourage religious most tragic painter this country-we sentiment. The divinity of art, which were about to say, any country-bas bad deigned to shine with sacred produced. We are not prepared to say lustre beneath and through the nalural it is a school we should wish to have veil of modesty, indignantly withdrew, been established; but we assert that the when that veil was ridely cast aside genius of Hogarth incurred for us the by the undevotional hands of her not danger. His works stand unique in less skilful but more deteriorated pro. arl--that which can be said, perhaps, fessors.
of the works of no other painter that The Venetian school, with a truly ever existed, and oblained a name. We congenial luxury of colour, evolved had written so far, when we were will. the idea of civil polity, in all its con- ing to see what a modern writer says of nexions with religion, with judicature, this great man; and we are happy to find with manners, commerce, societies, dig. his views in so gr at a degree coincide nities, iriumphs; a large field, indeed, with our own. We make the followbut one in which the great civic idea ing extract from Cleghorn's 2d volume was the characteristic, running through of Ancient and Modern Art; a work, every subject. Even the nude, before indeed, thal, when we took up the pen. considered as most eligible in the dis- it was our purpose io speak or more play of art, yielded to civic dress and largely, and io which we mean to degorgeous ornament. What other ideas voie what further space may be remain to be evolved ? The world allowed for this paper :does not stand still-art may for a " To Hogarth, on the other hand, time. We must wait till some genius M. Passavant awards that justice awaken us.
which has been denied to himn by his There is, we repeat, no modern countrymen. Hogarth is of all Eng: school among us; art is pursued to lish painters, and, perhaps, of all an extent unprecedented, but without others, the one who knew how to reang fixed serious purpose, in all its present the events of common liie multifarious forms, and with an ability with the most humour, and, at the sufficient to show that some moving same time, with rare and profound canse is alone wanted. We progress truth. This truth of character is, how. in skill, in precision and clearness; but ever, visible not only in his conception the hand is little direcied by the mind. of a subject, but is varied throughout Our exhibition walls abound with in the form and colour of his figures talent, but are for the most part barren in a no less masterly manner.” “ Ho. of genius : and surely this must con- garth [continues Mr. Cleghorn] stands tinue to be the case, while the public alone as an artist, having had no premind is in its unpoetic, its utilitarian decessors, rivals, nor successors. He stale, and shall look to art for its pass. is the more interesting, 100, as being ing charm only as a gentle recreation, the first native English artist of celean idle amusement. If there is any brily. Yet a tasteless public was tendency 10 a school, it is unfor- unable to appreciate his merits; and tunately to one which is most in oppo. he was driven to the necessity of sition to that pure school which found, raffing his pictures for small sums, and cherished, and idealized the sanc which only partially succeeded. In lity of female beauty.
spite of the sheers of Horace Walpole We know not if it should be consi- that he was " more a writer of comedy dered an escape or not; but certainly with his pencil than a painter,” and there was, in the earlier period of the epigrammatic saying of Augustus English ari, one man of extraordinary Von Schlegel, that · he painted ugligenius, who, vigorously striking out a ness, wrote on beauty, and great moral idea, might have been the thorough bad painter,' he was a great founder of a new school. We mean and original artist, both painter and Hogarth He was, however, too ad- engraver, whose works, coming home to venturously new for the age, and lest every man's understanding and feelno successor; nor is even now the ings, and applicable to every age and greatness of his genius generally country, can never lose their relish
and interest. They are chiefly known Eycks, to the time of Rubens; nor to the public bý bis eichings and the influence which the brothers Van engravings, which, however, convey Eyck had upon art sufficiently, disa very imperfect idea of the beauty cussed. We propose at some future and expression of the original panic day to treat more at length on this ings." We only object 10 stress laid subject, and 10 make extracts from upon his humour, wbich is not his, or Michiel's very interesting little volume, at least his only, characteristic. He was his Peintres Brugeois.” Even in the a great dramatist of human life; hu- short account of Van Eyck's invention, mour was the incidental gift, tragedy Mr. Cleghorn is somewhat careless, in the more essential. Who had more the omission of one iinportant little humour, more wit than Shakspeare, word, sue, in bis extract from Vasari, and who was ever so tragic, or so who does not exactly describe the employed his humour as to set it invention as “the result of a mixture beside his most tragic scenes, with an or vehicle composed of linseed oil or effect that made the pathos deeper? nut oil, boiled up with other mixtures,” In such a sense was Hogarth “comic.” but “ with other mixtures of his own." His • Marriage à la Mode” is the Vasari says, “e aggiuntovi altre sue deepest of tragedies.
misture fece la vernice,” &c. We turn to Mr. Cleghorn's two in In the following remarks on Greek teresting and very useful volumes. sculpture we find something consonant They give a compendious, yet, for ge to ihe ideas we have ventured neral use and information, sufficiently express :-elaborate view of architecture, sculp is A remarkable difference is obsery. ture, and painting, from their very able in the female ideal, the result of origin to their present condition. That refined delicacy and purity of We know of no work containing so laste evinced on all occasions by the complete a view. If we are disposed Greeks. They neither increased the at all to quarrel with his plan, it is stature, nor heightened the contours that in every branch he comes down of their heroines and goddesses, conto too late a time. And as it is always vinced that in so doing they must the case with writers who find them- bave sensibly impairert the beauty, selves committed to the present age, modesty, and delicacy of the sex. he evidently finds himself encumbered In this the Greek sculptors conformed with the detail which this part of his to the rule inculcated by Aristile, plan has forced upon him. In matter and uniformly observed in the Greek it will be often found ihat the present tragedy, never to make woman overage overpowers all preceding, when step the modesty of the female chaeven it is vasily inferior in import- racier. The Medicean Venus is but a
Nor is it very easy to avoid a woman, though perhaps more beauti. bias in speaking of contemporaries; ful than ever woman appeared on nor can a writer safely depend upon earih. Another peculiarily is very his own judgment when he looks too striking. While a great proportion nearly and intimately on men and their of the male states, whether men, works, and fears the giving offence heroes, or gols, were naked, or nearly by omissions, or by 100 qualitied so, those of the other sex, with the praise. His divisions into schools, exception of the Venuses, Graces, and with general remarks on each at the Hours, were uniformly drapeil froin end, give a very clear view, when head 10 foot. Even the three Graces taken together, of ihe bistory of these by Socrates, described by Pausanias arts; and we are rejoiced to see them as decorating the entrance 10 the architecture, sculpiure, and painting Acropolis, were clothed in imitation of -ihns in a manner linked in history, the more ancieit Graces.” As in this as they were formerly in the minds and exception of the Venuses and Graces, genius of the greatest men. In this Mr. Cleghorn seems to have in some he follows the goo:) course_led by degree misapprehended the passage Vasari. In his account of the Flemish relating thereto in Pausanius, who and Dutch schools, there is a strange distinctly says ibat he knows not who omission of the early Flemnish painters first sculptured or painted them naked, preceding and subsequent to the Van but it was after the time of Socrates.
These Graces of Socrates, by ihe hye, Marones.” Munificent paironage will may be the genre of whom he speaks in often raise what that which his dialogue with Theodola, who, he passes under the name of liberty will says, will not let him rest day nor night. often destoy.
The number of nude Venuses would, “In the most favoured periods of it may be suspected, scarcely justify the fine arts, we find patronage ei!her the elegant compliment in the epi- dispensed by the sovereign, the state, gram in the Anthologia
or the priesthood; or, if a commonΓυμνην ειδε Παρις με και Ανχισης και
wealth, by the rulers who lead the Αδωνις,
revenues at their command. Possess. Τους τρεις οιδα μονους: Πραξιτέλης δε in taste and knowledge themselves, ,
and appreciating the importance and Paris, Anchises, and Adonis—Three, dignity of ait, they selected the arThree only, did me ever naked see ;
tists whom they deemed best fitted for But this Praxiteles--when, where did he?
the purpose. The artists, again, reOur author censures the school of specied and consulted their patrons, Bernini, we should have thought between whom there reigned a mutual justly, remembering much that has enthusiasm, good understanding, and been said on the subject of ihe unfit- respect. Such were Pericles, Alexanness of the ponderous material 10 der the Great, Julius Cæsar, Augusrepresent lighi action, if we bad not tus, Hadrian, Francis I. of France, seen the Xanthian marbles brought Julius II. Lorenzo and Leo X. of the to this country by Sir Chrales Fel- Medici, the nobles and rulers of the lowes, and now deposited in the Bri- different Italian cities and commontish Museum. The female stalues wealths, the Roman Catholic church that stood in the Tomb Temple are and clergy, Charles I. of England, exquisite, and perhaps equal to any Louis XIV. of France-and in our Grecian art, yet are ihey represented own times the late and present kings with flying drapery. it is difficult of Prussia, the King of Bavaria, Louis to make a rule which some bold Philippe of France, and it is gratisygenius shall not subvert.
ing to add-Queen Victoria
and Most authors on art think it neces. Prince Albert of Great Britain. But, sary to descant upon liberty, as most indispensible as national patronage javourable to its advancement. It is is, it can have no sure or permanent difficult to detine what liberty is, so that foundation, unless it be likewise supevery example may be disputed. If ported by the aristocracy and wealthy we take the age of Pericles, when the classes. Instead of emanating, as in wonders of Phidias were achieved, we
the continental states, from the sovemust not forget that Phidias himself reign and government, patronage in was treated by the Athenians with Great Britain may be said 10 have such indignity that he left ibem, and originated with the middle ranks, and, deposited his finest work at Corinth. to have forced its way up to the The re public suspected him of thieving higher classes, and even io the governthe gold, and he had the precaution, ment itself.” knowing his men, to weigh the melal, There are interesting yet short and work it so as to be removable. chapters on mosaic, tapestry, and We must not forget that Pericles, who painted glass; subjects now demandfortunately in manner governed ing no little public attention, coming Athens, was obliged to plead on his again as we are 10 the taste for decoraknees for the life of Aspasia, whose tion. The ladies of England will be offence was her superior endowments. pleased 10 find their needle. work so When Alexander subjugated Greece, seriously considered. Happy will it art still flourisbed. Nor was it crushed be if their idleness leads 10 a betler even in the wars and revol:s and sub. and employed industry. Due praise jugations by Cassander, after the death is bestowed upon Miss Linwood, of Alexander. We should not say whose works are ranked with the that the Angustan age was exactly Gobelin tapestry. We remember see. the age of liberty, but it was the age ing many years ago an invention that of literature, The easier solution may promised great things—painting, if it be, “Sint Mæcenales, non deerunt may be so called, in wool work. It