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bold orator unsparingly bestowed. from a fate far worse than simple Judging from the occasional hisses, assassination : and this century and the speaker seemed no favourite either year have likewise been reserved for with the members of the extreme the unexampled abomination of left or with the galleries ; but proba- Christian men adopting cannibalism, bly he was used to such manifesta- and feeding upon huinan flesh, as was tions, for he went through his work the case not a month ago at Messina ! undauntedly. I asked his name. It Well might Madame Roland exclaim, was Felix, Prince of Lichnowsky. "O Liberty ! what things are done
Poor Lichnowsky! a few weeks in thy name!" Poor Lichnowsky! after I saw him in the Assembly, he Better had he fallen on the fields of was barbarously and brutally mur- Spain, in the combat for honour and dered by savages at the gate of Frank- loyalty, with the red steel in his hand, fort—the flesh cut off his arms with and the flush of victory on his brow, scythes—his body put up as a target than have perished só miserably by for their balls—and every execrable the hands of the cowardly and rascal device of ingenuity employed to pro- rout of the free city of Frankfort! long his suffering. O'ye who wink “ That's Žitz of Mayence,” said the at revolutions abroad, and who would professor, as a heavy-looking demastimulate the populace to excess-ye gogue stumbled clumsily up to the who, in days past, have written or tribune. been privy to letters from the Home “Oh! that's Zitz, is it?" replied I. Office, conniving at undeniable treason “ Well, professor, I think I have had --think of this scene,and repent of your quite enough of the Assembly for one miserable folly! In a civilized city- morning, and as I feel a certain cravamong a Christian and educated po- ing for a cigar, I think I shall leave pulation—that deed of hideous atro- you for the present." city was perpetrated at noon-day: “Won't you dine to-day at the the young life of one of the most ac- Swan ?" said Klingemann, “most of complished and chivalrous cavaliers of my friends of the left frequent the Europe was torn from him piecemeal, table-d'hôle there, and I should like to in a manner which humanity shudders introduce you to Zitz.” to record, and for no other reason “ Thank you !" said I, “I shall be than because he had stood forth as punctual, and pray keep a place for the advocate of constitutional order! me;" and so for the present we parted. Liberal historians, in their commen “The dunderheads !" thought I, as. taries upon the first French Revolu- I emerged into the street and lit an tion, spare no pains to argue us into undeniable Havannah, “here is a the conviction that such tragedies as nation which, for thirty years past, that of the Princess de Lamballe could has been eating its sauer-kraut and not be enacted save amongst a people sausages in peace, paying almost no degraded and brutalized by long cen- taxes, and growing its own wine and turies of misgovernment, oppression, tobacco, about to be plunged into and superstition. They have lied in irretrievable misery and ruin, by a saying so. A pack of famished wolves set of selfish hounds who look to is not so merciless as a human mob, nothing beyond their stipend of five when drunk with the revolutionary florins a day! Heaven help the idiots ! puddle; and were the strong arm of what would they be at? They have the law once paralysed in Britain, we got all manner of constitutions, liberty should inevitably become the specta- of the press—though there is not a tors, if not the victims, of the same man in Germany who could write a butcheries which have disgraced al. decent leading article—and a great most every country in Europe now deal more freedom than is good for clamouring for independence and them already. And now the world is unity. The sacerdotal robes of the to be turned upside down, because a Archbishop of Paris—the grey hairs parcel of trash, not a whit more reof Major von Auerswaldt—the sta- spectable than Cuffey and his contion and public virtue of the Counts federates, and very nearly as stupid, of Lamburg, Zichy, and Latour- have taken the notion of unity into could not save these unhappy men their heads, and are resolved to build.
up, with rotten bricks, the ricketty parliament?" asked a deputy of the structure of an empire. Nicholas, name of Neukirch, next whom I was my dear friend, there is work chalked seated. “It must be an interesting out for you, and ready. If these scum sight for an Englishman to behold the presume to meddle with their neigh- aspirations of our rising freedom.” bours, they must be crushed like a Oh, charming !" I replied : “and hive of hornets; and I do not know such splendid oratory-we have noany foot so heavy and elephantine as thing like it in the House of Com
mons." Pondering these things deeply, I “Do you really think so ?” said strolled on from shop to shop, glean- Neukirch, looking absurdly gratified. ing everywhere as went statistics “I do indeed. The speech which touching the manner in which our I had the privilege of hearing this free-trade innovations have affected morning from the gentleman oppothe industry of Great Britain. For a site—" here I bowed to Simon of year and a half, the boot and shoe Treves, who was picking the backtrade has been remarkably thriving; bone of a pike—“was equal to the the London market being the most most elaborate efforts of our greatest profitable in the world, and no- orator, Mr. Chisholm Anstey. It is thing but British gold exported in not often that one has the fortune to return. As to cotton manufactures, listen to such talent combined with Belgium and Switzerland have the patriotism !" monopoly of Southern Germany. The “You speak like a man of sense,” trade in Bohemian glass is rapidly said the flattered Simon. “I believe superseding at home the labour of the that I have given those infernal silversmith. A complete service, so princes their gruel. Lichnowsky had beautiful that it might be laid out on better hold his peace, for the time is the table of a prince, costs about thirty coming when a sharp reckoning must pounds ; and the names of the British be held between the aristocrats and magnates, which the dealer pointed the people.” to with ineffable triumph as purchas “ Potz tausend !" cried Zitz, “ do ers, were so numerous as to convince they think to lord it over us longer me that the deteriorating influence of with their stars and ribbons? I hold free trade was rapidly rising upwards. myself to be as good a man as any The same may be said of the cutlery, grand-duke of them all, and a great which is now sent to undersell the deal better than some I could name product of the British artisan in his who would give a trifle to be out of own peculiar market. When we Germany." couple those facts, which may be “ And how does the cause of demolearned in every Continental town, cracy progress in England ?" asked with the state of our falling revenue, Neukirch. “ We are somewhat surand the grievous direct burden which prised to find that, after all the preis imposed upon us in the shape of paration, there has been no revolution property and income tax, it is difficult in London.” for any Briton to understand upon “ As to that,” said I, “ you must what grounds the financial reputation hardly judge us too rashly. Two of Sir Robert Peel is based, or to distinguished patriots, called Ernest comprehend the wisdom of adhering Jones and Fussell, were desirous of to a system which sacrifices every- raising barricades ; but, somehow or thing in favour of the foreigner, and other, the plan was communicated to brings us in return no earthly recom- Government, the troops refused to frapense or gain.
ternize, and the attempt was postI duly kept my engagement at the poned for the present.” Swan, and was introduced by the “I see !" cried Zitz, “ Russian inProfessor to Zitz, Gervinus, and some fluence has been at work in England more of the radical party. The din. too. Nicholas has been sowing his ners at the Swan are unexceptionable; gold, and the fruit is continued indeed, out of Paris, it is impossible tyranny.” to discover better.
“ The fact is," said I, “ though I “What do you think of our German would not wish it to be repeated, that
a good many of us are of opinion that ing peace and war, of regulating we have no tyranny at all, but rather coinage and customs, and, in fact, of more freedom than is absolutely neces- exerting every royal prerogative?" sary for our happiness.”
Always with consent of the Ger"No tyranny!" shouted Zitz; “is man parliament,” said Zitz. “You there not a chamber of peers ?" may believe we are not such fools as
“ Too much freedom!" roared Simon to substitute one tyrant for thirtyof Treves; “have you not an Esta- eight.” blished Church ?"
Then, gentlemen, it appears to “ Is not your sovereign a niece of me that your whole scheme, upon the odious despot of Hanover ?” asked which I am not qualified to express Neukirch.
an opinion, resolves itself into one of “ Is there not a heavy tax on to- extensive and entire mediatisation. bacco?" inquired my friend and pre- If the Emperor of Austria and the ceptor Klingemann.
King of Prussia have no power to de“Gentlemen all,” said I, “ these clare peace or war—if their armies things musi perforce be admitted. are to obey the orders of the central We have a chamber of peers, and are power at Frankfort—it will follow, as thankful for it, because it curbs de- a matter of course, that their kingly mocracy in the Commons. We privileges are at an end. The interhave an Established Church, and we change of ambassadors with foreign honour it, because it has taught the states will be a ceremony so clearly people to fear their Creator and to futile that it must at once be abanreverence their queen. Our sovereign doned, and the monarchs will become is a niece of the King of Hanover, merely the first of a titular nobility.” and she has no reason whatever to be “ That is the inevitable and glorious ashamed of the connexion. And as consequence!" cried my new acquainto the article of tobacco, I may remark tance; Neukirch. “You see the whole to my learned friend the professor, subject in its proper light. First, we that revenue must necessarily be clip the wings of the princes till they raised, and that, moreover, I bave not can do no more than hop about their smoked a single decent cigar since I own home-yards; then we control the set foot in Germany."
proceedings of the Reichsverweser by “These are reactionary doctrines,” a parliament elected on the principles growled Zitz; “I fear you are no true of universal suffrage ; and finally, we friend of the people."
can eject the puppet if necessary, and “A firmer one never sat under the resolve ourselves into a pure demosign of Geordie Buchanan,” said I; cracy." “but I suspect your estimate of the “One thing, then," said I, "is only people is somewhat different from wanting for this desirable consummamine. Pray, Herr Neukirch, will you tion, and that is, the consent of the pardon the curiosity of a stranger, if princes. I admit that you may have I ask one or two questions upon points little trouble with Baden, Würtemwhich I do not thoroughly compre- berg, and the like, but what say hend? I observe, from the tenor of Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria to this the proclamations issued by Herr wholesale abdication of their thrones ?” von Soiron, that you contemplate the “ We don't affect to deny that there erection of one free, united, and indis- may be a crisis approaching. Austria soluble Germany."
has her hands full for the present with “ That is precisely our object.” Italy and Hungary, and has given no Then, am I right in holding that definite reply.
But the clubs are the Reichsverweser concentrates in strong and active at Vienna, and on his own person the whole power and the very first opportunity you will see puissance of the different states ?” a general rising. “Anarchy first“ Just so.
He is president of Ger- order afterwards,' is our motto. Then, many."
as to Prussia, we do not want to push “So that with him and his council on matters too rapidly there. The rest the whole responsibility of dis- king has been playing into our hands; posing of the troops of the confede- and, to tell you the truth, we depend ration, of making treaties, of proclaim- upon him alone for the continuance
of our five florins a day. So that, in nised as the ruling principle—and the the meantime, you may be sure we scheme of German confederation and shall be moderate in that quarter. empire contemplated nothing elseBavaria may do as she pleases. If these countries would fall to be exthe others yield, that power must ne- cluded, since, by language and race, cessarily succumb.”
they form part of a totally different “ Then I want to understand a little branch of the European family. But about the justice of your cause. You before the ink on their proclamation have claimed Schleswig-Holstein as of strict unity and independence part of Germany, and you have sent was dry,—that proclamation conGerman troops, for the purpose of taining the following remarkable recovering it as your right?"
words, “The Germans shall not be “Quite true."
induced, on any consideration, to “And at the same time Germany, abridge or deprive other nations of or you as its representatives, have that freedom and independence which acknowledged the right of all foreign they claim for themselves as their own nations to their own independence ?" unalienable right,"—we find the Ger6 We have."
mans calmly annexing Polish Posen “ Then, will you have the kindness to their league, proposing to include to explain to me how it is that your Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia in the philanthropic parliament, holding such limits of the empire, and by their principles, has not thought proper to official congratulatory address to insist that every Austrian soldier, be- Radetsky, giving national countelonging to the confederation, should nance to the war of subjugation in be immediately withdrawu from Lom- Lombardy. Even were their case bardy and Hungary? How is it that otherwise good, such acts as these General Wrangel, in the north, has form an irresistible argument against ceased to be a Prussian, and become their present claim for Schleswig; for a German soldier, whilst Marshal upon no principle whatever are they Radetsky, in the south, is fighting entitled to add, on one side, to the poswithout remonstrance at the head of sessions of the empire by foreign an. troops which you claim as your own, nexation, and on the other to repudiate and against that independence of a annexation, when in favour of a foforeign nation, which you have thought reign power. proper expressly to recognise? If But it is useless, in their present Germany claims Schleswig on the state, to demand explanation from the ground of unity of race and language, Germans. They are like men who, how can she, at the same time, coun- in attempting to cross a ford, have tenance a subordinate German power been carried off their feet by the in infringing the very principle which swollen waters, and are now plunging she has so determinedly proclaimed ?” in the pool, unable to reach the shore.
Neither on this occasion, nor on Imperium in imperio is clearly unatany other, could I obtain a satisfactory tainable. German unity, as at prereply to the above question. In fact, sent contemplated, with a common from the very beginning, the conduci army, common taxes, and common of the men who have put themselves constitutions, under one central goat the head of the present movement, vernment, can only be achieved by an has been checkered by contradictions entire prostration of the princes, and of the most glaring and obvious kind. the abolition of the kingly dignity. On the fifth of May, the present vice- Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Bavarial
, president, Von Soiron, put forth an and all the states, must be blotted address to the inhabitants of Bohemia, from the map of Europe, their boundaMoravia, and Silesia, calling upon ries erased, their conditions forgotten, them to co-operate and join with the and their names for ever proscribed. German confederacy, and to send re The republican party know this well, presentatives to the union. Two of and it is in this conviction that they these states are comprised in the are still labouring on, taking advantage Austrian, and one in the Prussian of the unhappy state of Austria in redominions; but none of them are Ger- lation to its foreign possessions, symman. If nationality is to be recog- thizing with the Hungarian revolt,
and exciting the clubs at Vienna; he declared himself to be an Imperial whilst, at the same moment, they are and not a Prussian commander, canavailing themselves to the utmost of not but have had a powerful effect in the weak and foolish blunder com- sapping the loyalty of the troops. If mitted by the king of Prussia, and Wrangel took that step in consequence appealing to his own declaration in of secret orders from his master, as is favour of German unity, whenever he by no means improbable, he may be shows the slightest symptom of re- personally absolved from blame, but ceding from the popular path. There only by shifting to the royal shoulders is hardly a shade of difference between such a load of obloquy and scorn as the opinions entertained by a large never monarch carried before. If, on mass of the Frankfort parliament, and the contrary, Wrangel did this on his those professed by Hecker and Struve, own authority, the Prussian governthe leaders of the Baden insurrections. ment has evinced lamentable weakness, The aim of both parties was the same; in not having him tried by a court-marbut the insurgents sought to attain tial, and shot for audacious treason. their end by a speedy and violent pro If the monarchies of Germany are cess, for which the others were not to be preserved, it must be through prepared. They proposed to under- the resolution of the troops. A conmine the power of the sovereigns by gress is at this moment obviously ima continued course of agitation, to arm possible, nor can it be attempted until a burgher guard throughout Germany, the Frankfort parliament has run its as a countercheck to the troops, and, course—a consummation which some wherever it is possible, to seduce the people think is not only devoutly to latter from their allegiance. In this be desired, but very near at hand. latter scheme, as recent events have Things have now gone so far, that it shown, they have been unfortunately is difficult to see how any kind of too snccessful; and the military system order can be restored, without the of Germany had afforded them great disastrous alternative of commotion facilities. The German regiments are and civil war. There are again sympnot, as is the case in Britain, trans- toms of republican gatherings in the ferred from town to town, and from north, which Prussia cannot this time province to province, in a continual overlook, without sacrificing the fraground of service. They are quartered ments of her honour. At Vienna, for years in the same place, make the insurrection has been successful. alliances with the town-fólks, and be- The emperor has, a second time, come imbued with all their local and quitted Schönbrunn, and has openly prevalent prejudices. They are, in announced that, when he next returns fact, too much identified with the to his capital, it will be at the head of populace to be thoroughly relied on an avenging army. There is nothing in the case of any sudden emeute, improbable in this announcement. and too much associated with the The Austrian army is less liable to the landwehr or militia, to be ready to impairing influence already noticed act against them. Let those who than that of any other German state; have not reflected upon this serious and though there never was a time element of discord, consider what in when its services were so urgently all probability would be the state of required at so many menacing points an Irish regiment, if quartered perma as at the present, there may yet be nently among the peasantry of Tip- strength enough left to crush the inperary-exposed, not for a short time, surgent capital. Of course, in such an but for years, to the baneful influ- event, all men may be prepared to ences of agitation and deliberate se- hear from the liberals the same howl duction, and never having an oppor- of horror which issued from their symtunity of contemplating elsewhere the pathizing throats, when the populace of advantages of order and obedience? Naples manfully and boldly espoused The circumscribed dimensions of some the cause of their legitimate sovereign. of the German states has increased Sicilian cannibalism can be pardoned, this evil enormously; and the ex- but Neapolitan loyalty, never ! ample set by General Wrangel, when, It is a vain dream to associate in the case of the Swedish armistice, German unity with the existing sys