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" Aside he turned

his own end of a large human bone. were two by the then unknown GillThe brutality of the conception ren- ray. In one of them, “ King George ders such a caricature as this far more runs towards the admiral, with the unpleasant than the coarse, but gene- reward of a baron's coronet, and ex. rally good-humoured quizzes subse. claims, (in allusion to Rodney's recall quently executed by Gillray on royal and elevation to the peerage), · Hold, foibles and economy. Some of our my dear Rodney, you have done older readers may remember these. enough! I will now make a lord They were published towards the end of you, and you shall have the happiof the last century. Half-a-dozen are ness of never being heard of again !"" excellently well copied on pages 205 Probably these maiden efforts atto 211 of Mr. Wright's second volume. tracted little notice, for some time There is “ The Introduction ”—George still elapsed before Gillray made much III. and Queen Charlotte receiving use of his pencil for the public amusetheir daughter-in-law the Princess of ment. In this same year of 1782, Prussia, and bewildered with delight however, he brought out a clever at the golden dowry she brings. Then caricature of Fox, who had just rewe have the King toasting his muffins, signed his foreign secretaryship on and the Queen frying her sprats; and Lord Shelburne's coming to be prime again (the best of them), the royal minister, vice Rockingham, deceased. pair out for a walk, and majesty over. In this print Charles James is reprewhelming an unlucky pig-feeder by a sented, as a sort of parody on Milton's volley of interrogative iterations. But Satan, gazing with envious eye at few caricatures bear description, and Shelburne and Pitt, as they count their least of all Gillray's, where the design money on the treasury table. is often of the simplest, and the humour of the execution everything. Gillray's first attempts at carica

For envy, yet with jealous leer malign

Eyed them askance." ture were on the occasion of Lord Rodney's victory over De Grasse. It The expression of Fox's face is excel. will be remembered that, when the lent, and the likeness good, but yet it North Administration went out in wants something of the raciness of 1782, one of the first acts of their Gillray's later works. Fox and Burke Liberal successors was to recall Rod- were the great butts of the satirists ney, a stanch Tory, on pretext of his at this particular moment, and also in not having done all he ought to have the following year, on the occasion done with the West Indian fleet of their coalition with Lord North. England was badgered by her nume. James Sayer, then in full force as a rous enemies, and her affairs looked caricaturist, and anxious to curry faaltogether discouraging, when sud vour with his patron Pitt, to whom den news arrived of the triumph he was subsequently indebted for more which established her sovereignty of than one lucrative place, was very sethe seas. Ministers found themselves vere upon them; and the power of in an awkward predicament. It was caricature at that time must have neither gracious nor graceful to per- been very great, if it be true that Fox sist in the victor’s recall, and yet, admitted the severest blow received what else could be done? His suc- by his India Bill to have been from a cessor, Admiral Pigot, had already drawing of Sayer's. It was a cry of sailed. Too lałe, an express was sent the day that Fox aimed at a sort of to stop him. A cold vote of thanks Indian dictatorship for himself, and was given by both Houses to the vic- the satirists gave him the nickname torious Rodney, and he was raised to of Carlo Khan. In the caricature in the peerage, but only as a baron, and question, entitled " Carlo Khan's was voted a pension of but £2000 Triumphant Entry into Leadenhall a-year.” Such shabby reward for an Street,” • Fox, in his new character, achievement of immense importance is conducted to ibe door of the India was, of course, not suffered to pass House on the back of an elephant, unnoticed by the late ministry, now which exhibits the hull faro of Lord the Opposition. A fleet of caricatures North, and he is led by Burke as his was launched, and amongst them imperial trumpeter; for he had been

the loudest sapporter of the bill in the equally exaggerated and ugly. And House of Commons. A bird of ill. the frivolity and extravagance of the omen croaks from above the would-be time kept pace with the follies of dress. monarch's doom.” On the other side There was a rage for strange sights of the question, several good carica- and extraordinary exhibitions; and tures also appeared, levelled chiefly the Londoners, especially, carried at William Pitt, then on the eve of this passion 10 an extent that renhis prime ministership, and amongst dered them easy dupes of charlatans these were three, published anony- and impostors. “ It stands recorded mously, which Mr. Wright is probably in the newspapers of the time, on the not mistaken in attributing to the pen- 9th of September 1785,– Handbills cil of Rowlandson.

were distributed this morning that a The imitation of French fashions bold adventurer meant to walk upon and manners, and even of French pro- the Thames from Riley's Tea Gardens.' fligacy, already noticed as gaining We are further informed that, at the ground in English society about the hour appointed, thousands of people middle of the eighteenth century, had had crowded to the spot, and the river reached the highest pitch towards its was so thickly covered with boats, that close. Nothing could be more absurd it was no easy matter to find enough than the dresses of 1785, the enormous water uncovered to walk upon.” Of hats and prodigious buffonts and course the thing was a mere trick, and buckram monstrosities of ihe women, the Cockneys had their disappointexcept perhaps the rush into the op- ment for their pains. Then balloons posite extreme which took place at were the crotchet of the hour, and the commencement of the French Re- they also came from France, where volution. One of the caricatures of they had been brought to a certain 1787, under the title of “Made. degree of perfection, but where it was moiselle Parapluie,” shows us a young soon found they were more positively lady serving as an umbrella, shelter- dangerous than probably useful; for ing a whole family from a shower in May 1784, “a royal ordonnance beneath the tremendous brim of her forbade the construction or sending hat, (a regular fore-and-after), and up of any aërostatic machine, with under the protecting shadow of out an express permission from the a protuberance, concerning whose king, on account of the various dan. composition (crinoline not having gers attendant upon them; intimating, then been invented), future ages however, that this precaution was must remain in deplorable dark- not intended to let the sublime discov.

Then, everything was sacri- ery' fall into neglect, but only to conficed to breadth in costume. Pass fine the experiments to the direction we over six or seven years, and the of intelligent persons." In Eng. lady of fashion who, at their com- land, the fancy for them increased, mencement, could hardly get through and was the subject of various caricaa moderate-sized door. way, might al. tures and pamphlets, until the death most glide head-foremost through the of a couple of Frenchmen, thrown keyhole. A thin scanty robe, cling- to the earih from an immense height, ing close to the form, a turban and a cooled the soaring courage of the single lofty plume, a waist close up aëronauts. A more destructive and under the arms, a watch the size of a permanent folly was the passion for Swedish turnip, with a profusion of gambling, which, in spite of the seals and pendants, compose the attacks of the press, of grave censure fashionable female attire of that day. and cutting satire, pervaded all ranks of The dress of the men, is equally ridi- society. There was a perfect fury for culous, both in cut and material, the faro; and ladies of high fashion, and great rage then being for striped stuffs, of aristocratic naine, thought it not known as Zebras, and employed for beneath them to convert their houses coats as well as for the absurd panta- into hells. Three of these sporting loons, puffed out round the hips and dames, who had made themselves à buttoned tight on the leg, in vogue name as keepers of banks, to which amongst the beaux of the period. they enticed young men of fortune, were The modes that succeeded these were popularly known as “Faro's daugh




ters." Lord Kenyon, when deciding of invincibility which she gathered on a gambling case, pledged himself, from subsequent victories in the field ; in a moment of virtuous indignation, and the positive assertions of France, to sentence the first ladies in the land that she had but to throw an army on 10 the pillory, should any be brougbt the English coast to secure prompt before him for a similar offence. Not and powerful co-operation from the long afterwards, several titled gam- Jacobin party, caused considerable blers were actually arraigned at bis alarm in the country. To kindle true tribunal, but he forgot his threat, and patriotism, and raise the courage of let them off with a fine. The hint, ihe nation, recourse was had to loyal however, was enough for Gillray, songs, and anti-French caricatures. then in his glory, and for his brothers The anti-Jacobin lent efficient aid, of the comic brush, and the moral and Giliray put his shoulder to the exposure and castigation which · Faro's wheel. The periodical and the daughters' endured at the hands of artist were a host in themselves. the caricaturisis, can have been hardly Clever verses, and pointed caricatures, less slinging and annoying than followed each other in quick succession. actual exposure to the hooting and Soon Buonaparte betook himself to pelting of the mob. General demo. Egypt, the victory of the Nile spread ralization, the natural consequence of rejoicing through the land, and carigambling, characterised this period. catures caught the exultation of the Men and women, ruined at the board hour. John Bull was represented at of green cloth, recruited their finances dinner forking French frigates down as best they might; and when no his capacious gullet, and supplied with other resource remained, the latter the provender, as fast as he could bartered their reputation, and the for- devour it, by Nelson and other mer took to the road. Those were nautical cooks. Buonaparte, stripthe palmy days of highway robbery. ped to the waist, with “ We are in a state of war at home mous cocked hat on his head, and that is shocking," writes Horace the claret flowing freely from his nose, Walpole in 1782. “I mean from the receives fistic punishment at the hands enormous profusion of housebreakers, of Jack Tar. The suppression of the highwaymen, and footpads; and, Irish rebellion of '98, and the death what is worse, from the savage bar- of General Hoche, who had replaced barities of the two latter, who commit Buonaparte as the threatened invader the most wanton cruelties. The of the British Isles, confirmed the grievance is so crying, that one dares feeling of security our naval triumphs not stir out after dinner but well had inspired. The Peace of Amiens armed. If one goes abroad to dinner, set the wags of the pencil on you would think he was going to the new track, and Monsieur Francois relief of Gibraltar.” Sixty-two years was represented as imprinting ago, in January 1786,“ the mail was first kiss these Ten Years” on the lips stopped in Pall Mall, close to the of burly, blushing Britannia, who, palace, and deliberately pillaged, at so whilst accepting the salute, hints a early an hour as a quarter past eight in doubt of her admirer's sincerity. The the evening.”

doubt was justified by the rupture that After having for some years drawn speedily followed. The camp of their principal themes for satire from Boulogne was formed; the French the social follies and political dissen- army were reminded of the pleasant sions of their countrymen, the English pastime, in the shape of rape and caricaturists and song-writers found robbery, that awaited them in the “ fresh fields and pastures new” in island famed for wealth and beauty. foreign menaces and threatened inva- On this side the Channel nothing was sion. In their usual presumptuous left undone that might increase English tone, French newspapers and procla- contempt and hatred for the blustering mations spoke of the conquest of Eng. bullies upon the other. Individuals land by the conqueror of Italy, as of and associations printed and dissemia project whose realization admitted nated “ loyal tracts,” as they were not

the smallest doubt. This called. “ Every kind of wit and humour country had not then that confidence was brough into play to enliven these


“ The

sallies of patriotism ; sometimes they not keeping him better supplied with came forth in the shape of national ships; whilst the unfortunate conplaybills, sometimes they were coarse structor, with hair on end and a and laughable dialogues between the shrug to his ears, excuses himself upon Corsican and John Bull.” Libels on the ground that, as fast as he builds, Buonaparte, burlesques on his acts, the English capture. It is to be reparodies of his bulletins, accounis of marked that hardly any of the caricaThe atrocities of his armies, were daily tures of Napoleon at:empt a likeness put forth, mingled with countless of him. They usually represent him songs and tracts of encouragement as a lantern-jawed, disconsolate-lookand defiance. Some of these were ing wretch, with a prodigious cockedspirited, but, generally, the substance hat and plume of feathers--that is to and intention were better than the say, quite the contrary, both in head form—at least so they now appear to and head-dress, of what he really was. us, who read them without the addi. Both Gillray and his successors seem tional savour imparted by the appro- to have preferred sketching him as priateness of their time of production. the received personification of a Gillray keeps better, and one still Frenchman, to giving a burlesque must smile ai bis John Bull, standing portrait or real caricature of the man. in mid-Channel with trousers tucked We trace this peculiarity in many inup to his thighs, offering a fair fight stances, up to the year 1814, when to his meagre enemy, who contem. George Cruikshank, in depicting a plates him with a visage of grim dis- Cossack snuffing out Boney,” an may from above the triple batteries allusion to French disasters in Russia), of the French coast. It is said that still represents the then plump EmpeBuonaparte was much annoyed by ror as a lean, long-chinned scarecrow, personalities levelled at himself and with sash and feathers. Rowlandson his family, in some of the caricatures does nearly the saine thing, in his of 1803. They were often very vulgar print of Napoleon's reception coarse, and conveyed unhandsome in the island of Elba; and the only imputations on the conduct of his fe. caricature reproduced by Mr. Fairmale relatives; some of whom-rather holi, in which is preserved the general flighty dames, if all tales be true— character of the Emperor's head, is gave by their conduct plausible an anonymous one, where the head is grounds for such attacks. Napoleon placed on a dog's shoulders, and himself was represented in every Blucher the Brave,” by a rough odious and contemptible shape that grasp on the nape of the quadruped's could be devised, -as a butcher, a neck, extracts “ the groan of abdication pigmy, an ogre, and even as a fiddle, from the Corsican Bloodhound.” Protransformed by an abominable pun bably the classic regularity of Napointo a base villain, upon which John leon's countenance discouraged the Bull, a complacent smile upon his caricaturists from attempting his honest face, plays with sword instead likeness. They were deterred by the of bow. This was after Maida, when difficulty of burlesquing a face whose the British army had begun to share grave expression and perfect propor. the high esteem in which repeated vic- tion gave no hold to ridicule, and tories bad long caused our fleets to made it pretly certain that he be held. A droll caricature, by general resemblance would be sacri. Woodward,


Napoleon ficed 10 the exaggeration of even a abusing his master shipwright for single feature.


It is some time since we had a leans) his first very sudden, very gossip about French literature and brilliant, and not altogether deserved literateurs. The fact is, that, since the success as a dramatist was mainly blessed days of February drove crest- due. Equally well known is it that fallen monarchy from France, and the popular writer was the favoured began the pleasant state of things and intimate associate of two of Louis under which that country has since Philippe's sons--the Dukes of Orleans so notably flourished, literature has and Montpensier. Take, in conjuncbeen at a complete stand-still in the tion with these facts, M. Dumas' land beyond the Channel. We refer established reputation for steady con. especially to the light and amusing sistency, gravity, and gratitude, and class of books it has been our habit of course it is impossible to believe occasionally to notice and extract that he ever acted so basely to his from. With these the revolution has benefactors. But, even admitting replayed the very mischief. Feuilletons publican predilections on his part, his have made way for bulletins of bar. love of liberty would assuredly prericade contests, for reports of state vent his constraining those well-known trials, for the new dictator's edicts stanch supporters of the right divine, and proclamations. The rush at the Messrs. Athos, Artagnan, and ComCabinets de Lecture has been for lists pany, who, if set down in Paris in of genuine killed and wounded, not 1848, would have played the very deuce for imaginary massacres, by M. Du- with the young republic. The giant mas' heroes, of hosts of refractory ple. Porthos would have stridden along beians, or for the full and particular the boulevards, kicking over the baraccount of the gallant defence of ricades as easily as he raised, singleBussy d'Amboise, against a quarter of handed, the stone which six of the a hundred hired assassins-all picked degenerate inhabitants of Bellisle were men-at-arms, and all setting on him unable to lift, (Vide " Le Vicomte de at once, but of whom, nevertheless, Bragelonne ;”) whilst the astute Gascon be slays twenty-four, and only by the Artagnan would have packed General twenty-fifth is slain. And, by the Cavaignac in a magnified bonbon-box, bye, what pity it is that a few of our with air-holes in the lid, and Copafriend Alexander's redoubted swords- hine-Mège or Chocolat-Cuillier on the men could not have been summoned label; and would have conveyed him from their laurel shaded repose in Père on board a fishing smack, there dela Chaise, to avert the recent catas- taining him till he pledged his honour trophe of the house of Orleans. Just that ihe king should have his own a brace and a half of his king. making again. And, upon the whole, and mousquetuires would have done the whatever budding honours and civic trick in a trice. Rumour certainly crowns M. Dumas may anticipate unsays that, in February last, a tall dark. der the genial reign of republicanism, complexioned gentleman, with a bran- it would have been more to his prenew African Kepi on his martial brow, sent interest to have stuck to a foil, freshly unbuttoned, in bis narchy, and led his legions to its strong right hand, and a yell of liberty rescue. Under the new regime his upon his inassive lips, was seen to occupation is gone; his literary merhead a furious assault upon the Tui. chandize vainly seeks a market. Paleries, at a time when that palace ris, engrossed by domestic broils was undefended. Ill-natured tongues and political discussions, by its anarhave asserted that this adventurous chy, its misery, and its hunger-no forlorn-hope leader was no other than longer cares for the fabulous the author of Monte Christo; but of ploits of Gascon paladins, and of prithis we credit not a syllable. It is vates in the Guards, who make thrones notorious that M. Dumas is under the to totter, and armies to fly, by the deepest obligations to the ex-king of prowess of their single arm. But M. the French, to whose kind and effica. Dumas is not disheartened. When the cious patronage (when Duke of Or- drama languishes, and the feuilleton

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