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they were to be dispersed in the pro- surprise. They had not the time to vinces, to be employed upon great consult their sentiments. Notoriously works of public utility—upon rail- anti-republican as has been shown to roads and canals, that stood still for have been the spirit of all France want of hands: while money was in the departments, they accepted, lavishly promised them for this work, however, from old habit," the dictum which the treasury could no longer of Paris: they accepted, as has been afford upon unproductive labour. before remarked, from that species of What was their answer ? That resignation shown in France to a fait they, the people, had made the revo- accompli : they accepted from a wish lution in Paris, that they were the to avoid all further convulsion, from masters of Paris, that Paris was theirs, a love of established order in whatto work in it their work; that, as ever shape it might come from a hope masters of Paris, they were not to be that, whatever the form of governbid to leave it; that leave it they would ment proclaimed and imposed upon not; that if labour failed, money must the country, all would “ go well." be found them at all events, or they And besides, the republic, they were would find means of taking it; in told, was only a provisional form of short, that they would not be degraded government at a moment of crisis, by being sent into the provinces. when no other could be adopted : The workmen of Paris claim, then, upon its future form of government, to be the masters of the capital, and the country, it was said, was to be still more, in their esteem, the masters freely consulted : the provinces were of all France. The people of Paris, not prepared for the ulterior dictum of then, is the people ; it owns no other. Paris, that, without consulting the Now the people, in modern republican nation at all, the republic was to be phrase, and alas! in government considered as definitive ; and that those decrees also, is by no means the na who desired a change would be retion ; it means the lower classes alone. garded as traitors to their country. The people, it has been previously de- But France is not what it was; it is clared, is the sovereign people, whose enlightened by the experience of sucvoice is the voice of God; then, they cessive revolutions. The jealousy reply, by the simplest reasoning, the of the departments towards despotic sovereign people, whose voice is the Paris had long been boiling in men's voice of God-it is alone we: it is the hearts : it did not at first boil over ; lower classes. But there is still ano but when, instead of order and peace, ther deduction to be drawn. Among the provinces found that the new the lower classes it is only the active, government produced only results of the stirring, the discontented, the dis- disorder, animosity, and ruin, the orderly and tumultuous, who come departments began to grumble and forward in evidence as the representa- murmur openly-for the first time tives of this people. And thus it is they seemed determined to show that very clear that the sovereign people, they ought to have, and would have, whose voice is the voice of God, the a will of their own. In the commencesuvereign of France, is a small body ment all was tranquil. In some parts of uneducated, misled, and wrong. of France the republic was accepted, headed men in the capitale So stands if not with that enthusiasm which the account in theory.. And who can lying Parisian papers would have deny that, in theory, they are in truth induced the world to believe, at all the masters? Who shall say when events with a species of contentment, the chances of revolutionary struggles arising from the trust that a more may not make them so in fact ?

equitable popular government would So stands the state of feeling on the relieve the mass from some of those side of Paris—how stands it on the charges which weighed so heavily other side ?

upon them under the former governWhen the revolution of February ment, and remove constraints that broke out, the departments scarcely were painful to them. In other parts, knew theinselves, their wishes, or there prevailed a sort of sullen resigtheir feelings. They had no mutual nation to the establishment of a understanding. They were taken by régime which was dreaded from an


experience of a hateful past, and was according to the tenor of their inrepulsive to its tastes—but it was a structions, which they thought to use, resignation to the fait accompli. Some and attempted to use, with just as thus hoped, and others feared; but much effect. They dismissed functionall combined in assuming an attitude aries in wholesale numbers-put their of quiet expectation.

creatures, or those who cringed and In this state was France, when an worshipped, in their places, with orders imprudent Minister of the Interior, to brow-beat and bully the recalcitrant, pushed on by ambitious, designing, and with the exhibition of high misguided, and reckless men, sent example before their eyes. They down as a scourge upon the country threatened and accused; and when those commissaries of obnoxious these means failed, according to their memory, who were publicly charged fancy, or when they were tou mild to work their will upon the depart- for the taste of Master Commissary, ments as they pleased, by the means the other underhand instruments of they pleased, by whatever oppressive terrorism, already mentioned, were or repressive measures they pleased, employed to make men crouch and provided they worked the suspected treinble. The manner in which mobs and mistrusted departments into a have been excited against the better proper feeling of true republican prin- classes, or those who were suspected ciple, according to the most ultra of moderatism, by maneuvres unetraditional doctrines of old republi- quivocally traced to the agency of the canism. Down upon the country commissaries themselves, and the came the autocratic commissaries with frightful

committed, are these instructions; and, in too many matters of common notoriety and of instances, with the best intentions of newspaper history. The scenes of torturing and tormenting the country, the old Revolution were resorted to, after their own fashion and according although in another form; and not to their own views, to their heart's only supposed anti-republican senticontent. Down they came, with their ment, but moderatism, was endeahistory of the first republic in their voured to be kept down by agents of heads, and the desire in their hearts terror, and the ever-ready riotous of emulating the zeal of those fearful populations of the great towns. representatives of the people of the would be an endless and a useless task last century, who ruled in the depart- to re-transcribe all the scenes of the ments, each a petty, but a bloody violence of an insensate mob, secretly tyrant. To all alike the same violence got up by the republican agents in of disposition must not be attributed : authority, more than secretly connived there were a few more prudent and at, and openly and avowedly excused better-thinking men among the num- and applauded. The rod that the comber-although they, in certain instan- missary bimself could not prudently ces, were afterwards accused in high employ, he placed in the hands of a quarters of mild laxity, and recalled designedly inflamed and infuriated as suspected of moderatism; but the people, to scourge the country to his many were evidently disposed to play will. One of the strongest instances, the tyrant to the life, in their desperate however, may be found in that state measures to twist the country to their of continual terror on the one hand, will. The times, however, were and violence on the other, which for changed ; the spirit of the age no many long weeks bong over the head longer permitted of the same violence. of the doomed city of Lyons. See Messieurs les Commissaires could not there the mob constituting itself into well proceed by the old established illegally armed bodies, sundered from and expeditious method of cementing and inimical to the national guards, the foundations of republics, one and assuming names such as les roraces indivisible, by blood, or erecting the and les dévorants, by which they scaffolding of the edifice on scaffolds. themselves marked their character, Shootings, drownings, and guillotin- ruling the whole city of Lyons by ings, were instruments rather too fear; exacting, spoliating, arresting rough to be accepted_by the man- suspects at will; searching the houses ners of the time. But they had of quiet inhabitants under the pretext other means in their power, and of conspiracies against the republic

that did not exist, and of concealed reign of the Minister of the Interior ; arms, such as they themselves ille- their expenses were supported by gally bore, that never could be found; funds, supplied no one could say by dragging trembling priests from the what hand, although most might dialtar to be confined in cellars, because vine ; their measures were evidently they were suspected of anti-republi- taken in accordance, and in perfectly canism; laying their hands upon good understanding, with the departchurch plate as the property of trai- mental commissary. tors; liberating prisoners arrested for What, however, was the result ? revolt and disorder—arresting the The very reverse from that intended magistrates who had condemned by Messieurs les Commissaires and them; dictating their orders to mili- their supporter, the Minister of the tary officers for the release of soldiers Interior. They over-reached themput under restraint; pulling a general selves, and worked the very effect from his horse, and nearly immolating they attempted to exterminate. Inhim to the wrath of their high justice stead of subjugating the departments in the streets ; commanding the for- to their will of ultra-republicanism by tresses, making barricades at the least the violence of terrorism, they almost opposition to their will, domineering roused the whole better feeling of the over the whole city as masters-a herd country, at first quietly disposed and of power-intoxicated savages—and the resigned, against the very principles commissary looking on, applauding, of republicanism in general. "The sensanctioning their deeds, rubbing his timent at first accepted was soured hands with satisfaction, and approv- and embittered; the discontent and ing them with the words, “ Allez, mes aversion daily increased ; and it was enfans! vous faites bien!" Such scenes more than once openly affirmed that as these, carried to the utmost limits the departments were ready to revolt, of anarchy and excess in Lyons, have and formed the design of marching been exhibited also in almost all the upon Paris. That this subject was great towns of France, with all the actually discussed in large, and not effect of well-applied terrorism. There even secret meetings in the provinces— is scarcely one that has not similar and even in such as had been always outrages, from the violence of an ex- considered ultra-liberal and democratic cited mob, to lay to the charge of him in their opinions, as parts of Norwho was set in authority over them- mandy, for instance-admits of but to work his will, so said the letter of little doubt; and this feeling, although his instructions_but to preserve it was never actually embodied in any peace and order, in a country where living and active fact of resistance, convulsions, collisions, and commo- may be taken as one example in suptions were so infinitely to be dreaded port of the opinion, that the children and avoided-so should his duty have may not always prove so submissive told him. It ought to be said, at the to the dictates of the mother, and may same time, that the acknowledged one day raise their voices and hold authorities of the government were forth their hands to dispute her will. aided in their high revolutionary The open and general outbreak of the mission, and in the extraordinary provinces, which was at one time exmeans they employed in its execution, pected, and was the common topic of by less acknowledged agents, in the conversation in Paris, was suppressed, persons of emissaries from the violent however, by the influence of the betterultra clubs of Paris ; who, arrogating thinking and more prudential men in to themselves the right to the true the country. But the feeling of oppoexpression of the only true feeling of sition and resistance did not fail to Paris—and consequently d fortiori manifest itself in minor demonstraof all France-racked the country with tions. Expostulations were at first their manauvres, their excitements made against the tyranny and the into violence, their bullying threats and flammatory maneuvres of the governintimidations. Unacknowledged by ment commissaries; then broke out government authority as they were, angry remonstrances on the part of the however, their missions were bestowed bourgeoisie, backed by the better and on them by the quondam friends and quieter of the working-classes; and fellow-conspirators, under the former at last, when all these more legitimate

means failed, the populations of seve- strong, that the Messieurs les Commisral of the larger towns rose against saires, or rather, les Citoyens Commisthe provisional despot, who played the saires, were obliged to give way before autocrat and the tyrant in the name of the expression of popular indignation. “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity." The departments then, for the first

The national guards took up arms time, have begun to show that they to demand the revocation and the de- are determined not to be treated as parture of the obnoxious commissary. the mere humble serfs of the capital, The commissary, in opposition, acted that they are resolved to have a will the self-same part of which a despotic and an action of their own.

The reking has since been so violently accused sults have been such that, even among by the republican journals. As Ferdi- the staunch republicans in the pronand of Naples is said to have excited vinces, and among those who look to the dregs of the populace, the lazza- the republic as the only form of go ropi, to aid him in a reactionary move vernment at present suitable to France, ment in his favour, so did even the re- symptoms of a tendency to a federal publican commissary after the self- system have indubitably sprung up, same system. He caused the mob to of a tendency, in fact, to that system be roused to his assistance, as to that in opposition to which, under the first of the only true democratic friend of reyolution, the title of “one and indithe people; he called upon them to visible," --so little understood at the take up arms and combat in his defence: present day, so constantly repeated by the lazzaroni mob of the departments the herd without any real meaning bewas the weapon he wielded to overcome ing attached to it,-was bestowed upon the resistance of the majority to his will. the republic. The fear of a powerfully In most instances the recalcitrant part organized resistance to the sacred of the provincial populations prevailed. principles of French republicanism,In several of the larger towns, as in unity and indivisibility,—is, at this Bordeaux, Bourges, and many others, very time, one of the bugbears by which the commissary was obliged to take to those in power are terrified and hauntflight: in some the palace of the little ed. But, whether this fear be well tyrant was stormed, he himself was founded or not, it suffices for the premade prisoner, and was taken to the sent purpose, to show that a disunited railroad, and “packed off” back to feeling exists to a great extent bethat Paris which had sent him. In a tween the departments and the capivery few instances only the influence tal; and that, while on the one hand of the commissary gained the day: in the former begin to show a disposition still less was he again returned, to be to resist the overweening influence and enforced upon the department from tyrannical importance of the former, which he had been driven; and in one on the other, a dread is beginning to case he was sent back by the powers be expressed of their growing disconthat were, only to be again ignomi- tent, and a suspicion is constantly niously expelled.

expressed of their increasing tendency In the department of the Ariège, at to reactionary principles, likely to the town of Foix, a journal, founded prove eventually subversive to the under the auspices of the commissaries republic. Among those “ lookersof the government, and professing the on," who proverbially “see the most most violent ultra-republican doc. of the game,” there are some who, trines, was publicly burnt by the ma

in their exceptional and impartial gistrates and most influential persons position as foreigners, are able to see of the place, to show their contempt expressed in letters from the provinces and abhorrence of the principles and

curses, not loud, but deep,” against actions of the authority set over them.

" that detestable, unruly, and insolent Other instances of the general opposi- Paris, that has made alone a hateful tion, either to the commissaries them. revolution, which it imposes on all selves or to the agents they had ap

France." It cannot, however, be said, pointed and supported, on account of at the same time, that any reactionary their violence, their tyrannical mea- feeling against the republic itself, and sures, and their anarchical principles, a republican form of government, are too numerous to quole; and, gene prevails in the country at large. That rally speaking, the feeling was so

which is thought to be stigmatized by


the ultra party with the term of exactions of the republic. It was in “reaction," appears, as yet, to be vain that the government protested nothing but the acceptation of a re- that these measures were necessitated public based upon the principles of by the financial dilapidations of the peace and order; but, at the same dethroned dynasty. Clear-sighted time, an opposition to all views and enough where their own interests are doctrines likely to produce disorder concerned, the French peasants in the and anarchy. "And yet still, in another provinces replied by denunciations of sense, the feeling of the country at that odious Paris. Paris, they delarge cannot be said to be strictly clared, had chosen to make for the republican: the “true men” might be nonce a revolution in which they had in vain sought except in the disor- not aided, and which they had not dederly, tumultuous, excitable, and sired; and then Paris turned to its easily stirred populations of the great own advantage alone the results of manufacturing towns.

that revolution. It had imposed upon Shortly after the appointment of all France, by calling for resources the obnoxious commissaries, several from a country already drained, to be causes arose to increase the discontent lavishly squandered in rewarding the of the departments, not only among idleness of its own tumultuous and the ci-devant upper and middling unruly inhabitants among the workclasses, but among the lower classes, ing-classes, which it dreaded, by the ----particularly in the agricultural dis- establishment of its expensive sotricts, and more especially among that called ateliers nationaux, and by paypeasant population that has so univer- ing fresh troops under the name of sally in France acquired a little pro- gardes mobiles, when the standing perty in land. One of these causes army was already such a burden to was the imposition of the new taxes. the country,—for the sake of draining Under the former régime, France had off and regularizing the worst dregs been crushed down by the weight of its of its own population, and satisfying impositions. One of the first advan- the caprices of a riotous Parisian mob, tages of the republic was announced, that chose to object to the presence of in official proclamations, to consist in the old military force among it, while the removal of taxes, and in the enor- it accepted a new defensive and remous diminution of state expenses pressive force, in addition to the necessarily attendant upon a republi- former, under a new title.

Upon can form of government. Already such questions, of vital importance to the country people looked to a release their own interests, the country people from the greater part of their obliga- of the provinces were not disposed to tions: the system of “no taxes at all,” listen to argument or reason; and in they thought, in their naïveté, was to the discontent at the exorbitant exacfollow; instead of which came very tions of the capital the jealousy of the shortly the decree, begging the country departments towards Paris waxed for the loan of a certain proportion stronger and stronger. of the taxes for the ensuing year Another cause,

which added greatly beforehand, in order to meet the de- to the increasing apprehension and ficiencies in the finances, followed aversion was the preaching of the comup almost immediately by the more munist doctrines in Paris, upon the first imperative ordinance, imposing the establishment of republican principles, additional 45 per cent. in support and the support apparently given to of the increased, not diminished, ex- these wild and spoliating principles by penses of the republican government. certain members of the Provisional In many parts of the country the pea- Government itself. If there be any sant population refused to pay this feeling more alive than any other in additional tax, or responded only to the breast of the French peasant, it is the demand with that equivocal an- that attached to the acquirement and swer, so characteristic of the French the possession of landed property in peasant, “We'll see about it." It however humble a form, be it but a nevertheless, however, refused to pay small field or a tiny vineyard. If he has at the same time the rents of its land- any hope, any ambition, any sentilords, upon the pretext that it was ment, which he thinks worth living for, ruined by the revolution, and the it is the extension, by any and every

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