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means, of his small domain. On the possession of property, and by no fact of this possession are concentrated means the naïf individual the Parisian all the mainspring motives and agen- had been accustomed to believe him, cies of his whole existence-in this his according to his text-books of raudeindustry, his talent, his cunning, his villes and melodramas.

The agents thoughts, his affections, his very love of communistic doctrines were forced for his children, to whom he hopes to to retreat in dudgeon, to declare the transmit it. The great mobile of the French peasant the most ignorant and character of the French peasant is pig-headed animal upon earth, still self-interest in this respect. The under the yoke of the tyrants, and doctrines, then, which preached that endoctriné by the aristocrats ; and to the possession of all landed property avow that the departments were not by individuals is an infamous spolia- ripe for the enlightenment of commution of the respublica, filled the country nism, perhaps even to denounce them people in the provinces with the live- as infamously reactionary. Certain liest alarm, and contributed to estab- it is that communistic doctrines found lish a still greater hatred to a state of no enthusiastic disciples in the counthings that tended to produce results so try ; or, if the propagandism made fatally detrimental to all that they held any steps, it was after the fashion so dear. The Parisian, almost as blindly characteristically depicted in a cariignorant of the state of his own coun cature published by the Charivari, in try-which, in his theory that Paris is which a peasant appears before the all France, he looks upon with in- 'mayor of his commune to say, that, difference, if not contempt--as he is since a general parlage des biens is to proverbially utterly ignorant of every take place, he puts down his name for other country beyond the frontiers the château, but makes a most wofully of France, even the most neighbour- wry face upon hearing that his own ing-and, in fact, of everything that field has been already divided among touches upon geography or the state the paupers of the village. The propaof nations, of which he has only the gation of communism, then, only exvaguest and most incorrect notions- cited fears instead of hopes, consterthought that all his wild fraternity nation instead of joy, and tended still schemes, developed and accepted by more to indispose the country people, those who possessed nothing, in the and excite their aversion and disconcapital, would be received with en- tent towards a state of things likely to thusiasm also by the “miserable, become so prejudicial to their interests : oppressed, and tyrannized inhabitant more than ever, they were disposed to of the fields and plains :" such was revolt. the language used, and eagerly caught In this state was the feeling of the up. The Parisian soon found, by ex- country at large when the general perience, that he had made a gross elections came on, accompanied by all mistake. The emissaries sent down the violence of party manæuvre to into the provinces by the professors and support the principles of ultra-republihigh-priests of communism, or by the canism, advocated by the unscrupulous ultra clubs, and supported, there is minister of the nation ; but all these every reason to believe, by the mem- efforts tended only to indispose it still bers of the government before alluded more, and to call forth, in spite of the to, met only with the most active desperate opposition made, its sense repulsion. Their Utopian ideas of in favour of respect of property, order, universal fraternity and spoliation of and moderatism of views in the reproperty were “scorned, scouted, and public, if republic there was to be. opposed :" themselves were hooted, As is well known, an immense mapelted, almost lapidated as incendiary jority of those men of moderate prinenemies of the peasant. “The inno- ciples, whom all the ill-judged and cent and humble inhabitant of the hateful efforts of the violent and reckfields” was indignant, insulted, ag. less republicans at the head of affairs grieved, that he should be contemp- had so greatly contributed to form tuously considered “miserable and into a decided, self-conscious, and oppressed:” he showed himself in the compact party of opponents, was relight of the landed proprietor, the turned to the Assembly. Most of the most avariciously interested in the leading men of the liberal party under

the former dynasty, who had stood of demons upon it, in the shape of re-
forward as friends of progressive re- volutionary emissaries and agents. It
form, but not as opponents to the forgets still less the scenes of Limoges,
constitutional monarchy principle, where a mob were turned loose into
were likewise elected, with great ma- the polling house to destroy the votes,
jorities, by the suftrages of the people. drive out the national guards, disarm
The country declared its will to be these defenders of order and right, and
against the views of the principal and form a mob government, to rule and
stirring influence which emanated from terrorize the town, while Master Com-
the reckless man who governed the missary looked on, and told the people
interior affairs of the country in the that it did well, and laughed in his
capital. But it did not forget, at the sleeve. It forgets still less the fury
same time, and it still bears an in- of the disappointed upon the result of
veterate grudge to the violent agents the elections, their incitements to in-
of that ultra-republicanism, chiefly surrections, their preachings of armed
concentrated in Paris, who had filled resistance for the sake of annulling the
the country with disorder, tumult, elections, obtained, it must never be
terror, and, in some cases, bloodshed, forgotten, by universal suffrage, in face
by the atrocious and outrageous means of their culpable manœuvres: the
it placed in the hands of a riotous mob emissaries again sent down from the
to overawe them, and sway the direc- clubs, and with an apparent condiv-
tion of the elections, and by the base ance of certain ultra-members of the
maneuvres employed to attain their government, from the charge of which,
ends. It does not forget the despotism now more than ever since the conspi-
of certain commissaries, who, after racy of the 15th May, they will scarcely
having their own lists of ultra-demo- be able to acquit themselves: the
cratic candidates, whom they intended efforts of these emissaries to make the
to force down the throats of the elec- easily excited and tumultuous lower
tors, printed, threatened the printer, classes take up arms, and the bloody
who should dare to print any other, conflicts in the streets of Rouen: the
with their high displeasure, and caused complicity of the very magistrates ap-
them to shut up their press. It does pointed by these members of the go-
not forget the seizure of those papers vernment—the terror and the blood-
that proposed moderate candidates, shed, and then the cry of the furious
with every attempt to strangle in ultras that the people had been treach-
practice that liberty of the press which erously assassinated—the conspiracies
was so clamorously claimed in theory. and incendiary projects of the van-
It does not forget the voters' lists torn quished at Marseilles, the troubles of
from the hands of voters by a pur. Lisle, of Amiens, of Lyons, of Aubus-
posely excited mob. It does not forget son, of Rhodez, of Toulouse, of Carcas-
the odious inanæuvre by which agents sonne--why swell the list of names ?
were largely paid and sent about to --of almost every town in France, all
cry“ Vive llenri V." in the streets of with the same intent of destroying those
towns, in order to induce the belief elections of representatives which the
in a Bourbonist reactionary party, country had proclaimed in the sense
and thus rouse the passions and feel- of order and of moderatism. It
ings of the flattered and declamation- forgets still less the danger of that
intoxicated mob against the moderates, same 15th May, when the govern-
regardless of the consequences—of ment was for a few hours overthrown,
the animosity and the bloodshed. It by the disorderly, the disappointed,
does not forget the intimidation, the the discontented, the violent ultra
threat of fire and sword, the opposition republicans, the conspirators of Paris,
by force to the voting of whole villages —when some of those, who had
suspected of moderatism—the collision, been formerly their rulers, were
the constraint, the nflict, the vio- arrested as accomplices, and oth
lence. It does not forget all this, still in power can scarcely yet again
nor also that it owes the outrage, avoid the accusation and conviction
the alarm, and the suffering, the of complicity.
ruin to peace and order, to commerce, All the other troubles of this dis-
to well-being, to fortune, to that tracted country, since the revolution
central power which turned a legion of February, may be passed over-the

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ruin to commerce, the poverly, misery, in a very striking manner in the affair and want, the military revolis excited of the 15th May. One of the conby the same emissaries to cause di- spirators got possession of the electric visions in the army, as likewise the telegraph at the Home Office, and unhappy troubles of Nismes, where sent down despatches into all the prothe disturbances took a religious ten· vinces, to inform the country that the dency—as a conflict of creeds between Assembly was dissolved, and the new Roman Catbolics and Protestants, government of the ultra-anarchist rather than a political or even a party had taken the reins of power. social character, although they still İnstead of being awed into submission bore evidence of the disorder of the as heretofore, instead of calmly and times and the disturbance of the resignedly accepting the fait accompli country. The elections, then, con as was their wont, the departinents tributed more powerfully than ever to immediately rose to protest against the fermentation, the discontent, the the new revolution of Paris. Before mistrust, and the ill-will of the a counter-despatch could be sent down country.

into the provinces, to let them know In this state of France, with the that the former order of things was feeling of impatient jealousy and restored, the national guards of all irritation against tyranny and des- the great towns were up and out, with potism expressed by the departments the cry“ to arms !” and it was resolved towards the capital, with the evident to march upon Paris. It was not only disunion between the provinces and in the towns within a day's journey Paris, what are likely to be the des- of the capital that the movement was tinies of the Republic hereafter ? spontaneously made. In the farthest Again it must be said- who can tell, parts of the country, from the cilies of who foresee, who predict? The Re. Avignon, Marseilles, Nismes, and all public has been accepted, and is main. the south of France, the national ia: ned, from a love of order and the guards were already on status quo : but there is no enthusiasm, towards the capital, before the in. no admiration for the republican form formation that declared the of government throughout the country satisfactory result of the day could be at large; there is, at most, indif. made public. It is more than proference to any government; what- bable, then, that, should a desperate ever it may be, provided it but faction ever seize upon the power, or insure the stability and prosperity of even should a close conflict of parties the country. If an opinion may be further endanger the safety of the hazarded, however, it is, that the country and its tottering welfare, that danger to the present established form the provinces would again take up of things will not arise so much from arms against Paris, and that a civil war the conflict of contending parties in would be the result. the capital, as from the discontent, This is rather a suggestion hazarded, disaffection, jealousy, and, perhaps, than a prediction made, as to the final outbreak and resistance of the future fate of the French republic. departments. Terrorism has had its Whatever that future may be, an day; and it would be difficult, if not uneasy submission on the part of a impossible, to apply the system once great anti-republican majority to the again to the country in its present active agency of a small republican state. What other means will the minority—but, at the same time, a violent possess—what coercive mea- desire of maintaining a government, sores, if, when parties come to an whatever it may be, if supportable, issue, the wearied and disgusted for tranquillity's sake; a feeling of country should rise to protest against humiliation and degradation in this the disorders of Republican Paris ? utter submission to the will of Paris There seem at present to be none. throughout the country--but, at the The result of such an outbreak would same time, an apparent growing debe inevitable civil war. The strong termination eventually to resist that instance before alluded to, of the de- will, should it at last prove intolerable iermination of the departments to-such is the present state of Republic assert a will of their own, was given can France.

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VOL. LXIV.

COLONIZATION.

AUSTRALIA is the greatest acces- tion to the British possessions : the sion to substantial power ever made conquest of the Cape has drawn a large by England. It is the gift of a Conti- body of settlers to its fine climate; nent, unsiained by war, usurpation, but Australia remained, and remains, or the sufferings of a people. But for the grand future field of British even this is but a narrow view of its emigration value. It is the addition of a terri The subject has again come before tory, almost boundless, to the posses- the British public with additional insions of mankind; a location for a new terest. The Irish famine, the British family of man, capable of supporting a financial difficulties, and the palpable population equal io that of Europe; hazard of leaving a vast pauperism to or probably, from its command of the grow up in ignorance, have absolutely ocean, and from the improved systems, compelled an effort 10 relieve the not merely of commercial communi- country. A motion has just been eation, but of agriculture itself, capa- made in Parliament by Lord Ashley, ble of supplying the wants of double giving the most startling details of the the population of Europe. It is, in infant population ; and demanding the fact, the virtual future addition of three means of sending at least its orphan hundred millions of human beings, who portion to some of those colonial posotherwise would not have existed. sessions, where they may be trained And besides all this, and perhaps of a to habits of industry, and have at higher order than all, is the transfer least a chance of an honest existence. of English civilization, laws, habits, in- We shall give a few of these details, dustrial activity, and national freedom, and they are of the very first importto the richest, but the most abject coun ance to humanity. On the 6th of June tries of the globe ; an imperial Eng. Lord Ashley brought in a resolution, land at the Antipodes, securing, in “ That it is expedient that means be vigorating, and crowning all its benefits annually provided for the voluntary by its religion

emigration, 10 some one of her MaWithin the last fifty years, the jesty's colonies, of a certain number of population of the British islands has young persons of both sexes, who have nearly trebled; it is increasing in been educated in the schools, ordinarily England alone at the rate of a ihou- called • ragged schools,' in and about the sand a day. In every kingcom of the metropolis.” Continent it is increasing in an im In the speech preparatory to this mense ratio. The population is be- resolution, a variety of statements coming too great for the means of were made, obtained from the clergy existence. Every trade is overworked, and laity of London. It was ascerevery profession is overstocked, every tained that the number of children, expedient for a livelihood threatens to either deserted by their parents, or be exhausted under this vast and per- sent out by their parents to beg and petual influx of lile; and the question steal, could not be less than 30,000 in of questions is, How is this burthen to the metropolis alone. Their habits be lightened?

were filthy, wretched, and depraved. There can be but one answer.-Emi. Their places of living by day were the gration. For the last century, com- streets, and by night every conceivable mon sense, urged by common neces- haunt of misery and sin. They had sity, directed the stream of this no alternative but to starve, or to emigration to the great outlying re- grow up into professional thieves, gions of the western world. North perhaps murderers. Of the general America the chief recipient. population, the police reports stated, Since the conquest of Canada, annual ihat in 1847 there had been taken thousands had directed their emigra- into custody 62,181 individuals of

was

Journal of an E.cpedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia, &c. By LieuteColonel Sir T. Mitchell., Surveyor-General, &c. 1 vol. London: Longmans,

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both sexes and all ages. Of these, public mischief, and end in individual 20,702 were females, and 47,479 males. ruin. Lord Ashley's suggestion is, Of the whole, 15,693 were under that the plan shall be first tried on the twenty years of age, 3,682 between moderate scale of sending 500 boys, fisteen and ten, and 362 under ten. and 500 girls, chosen from the ragged Of the whole, 22,075 could neither schools of London, under proper suread nor write, and 35,227 could read perintendents, to the most fitting of only, or read and write imperfectly. the colonies; hy which we understand

The average attendance last year in Australia. The plan may then be the “ ragged schools” was 4000. Of extended to the other parts of the these, 400 had been in prison, 600 kingdom, to Scotland and Ireland. lived by begging, 178 were the children He concluded by placing his motion of convicis, and 800 had lost one or in the hands of government, who, both their parents, and of course were through the Home Secretary, promised living by their own contrivances. Out to give it all consideration. of the 62,000 there were not less than It is certainly lamentable that such 28,113 who had no trade or occupa - statements are to be made, and we tion, or honest livelihood whatever ! have little doubt that the foreign jour

The statement then proceeded to nalist will exult in this evidence of consider the expense to which the what they call “ the depravity of nation was put to keep down crime. England." But it is to be rememIt will perhaps surprise those readers bered that London has a population who object to the expenses of emi- of nearly two millions--that all the gration.

idleness, vice, and beggary of an island

of twenty millions are constantly In 1847. The expense of Park

pouring into it—that forcign vice, idle. hurst Prison was £14.349

ness, and beggary contribute their Of Pentonville Prison, 18,30% share, and that what is abhorred and In 1846. Of County Gaols, 147,145 Of County Houses of

corrected in England, is overlooked, Correction

160,841

and even cherished abroad. It is also Of Rural Police,

180,000 to be remembered that there is a conOf Prosecutions for

tinual temptation to plunder in the Coining,

9,000 exposed wealth of the metropolis, and In 1847. Of Metropolitan Po

a continual temptation to mendicancy lice,

363,164 in the proverbial humanity of the

people. The whole but few items, yet amount Siill, crime must be punished whereing to a million sterling annually. In ever it exists, and vice must be re. this we observe the Millbank Peni- formed wherever man has the means; tentiary, an immense establishment, and, therefore we shall exult in the Newgate, the Compter, and the va success of any judicious plan of emirious places of detention in the city, gration. are not included; and there is no notice It happens, at this moment, that there of the expenses of building, which in is an extraordinary demand for emithe ins ance of the Penitentiary alone gration ; that every letter from Ausamounted to a million.

tralia calls for a supply of human life, Yet, to dry up the source of this and especially for an emigration of tremendous evil, Lord Ashley asks females,—the proportion of males to only an expenditure of £100,000, an- females in some of the settlements nually, to transform 30,000 growing being 9 to 1, while the numbers of I thieves into honest men, idlers into females predominates, by the last census cultivators of the soil, beggars into in England. possessors of property, which the ge There is a daily demand for addi. nerality of settlers become, on an tional labourers, artificers, and houseaverage of seven years.

hold servants, and with offers of wages There can be no rational denial of which in England neither labourer the benefit and even of the

nor artisan could hope to obtain. sity, of rescuing those unfortunate Thousands are now offered employ. creatures from a career, which begin- ment, comfort, and prospective wealth ning in vice and misery, must go on in in Australia, who must burthen the

neces

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