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whilst the man of science was busy hours and a quarter, undoubtedly the measuring a base-line to ascertain most extraordinary as well as the the heights of some mountains, his most speedy stage upon any route in Samoyede companions suddenly dis. Russia.” Thence, onwards to the appeared with their tent and their frontier line. We followed the crowd reindeer, leaving him with three ill- that pressed forward towards a narequipped sledges and a few Ostyak row door in the front of a long wooden attendants, and with no choice but to building. This admitted us into the make the best of his way back to inner quadrangle of a Russian ware. Obdorsk, whence he soon afterwards house. A corresponding door, at the returned to Tobolsk. There he opposite side of this court, opens just passed his Christmas, and then re- upon a wooden barricade, which sumed his journey; but this time in a constitutes the barrier of China. In southerly direction. After having this there is a wide portal, ornamented penetrated to sixty-seven degrees with pillars, and displaying the Rusnorth, the region of eternal frost, he sian eagle above it, along with the struck south wards to the latitude of cipher of the reigning Emperor, the Land's End, making a dip into Nicholas the First, by whom it was China, which furnishes some of the erected. On passing this gate, the best chapters in his book.
change is immediate and striking,Irkutsk, the last town of importance from Russian sobriety of aspect and north of the Chinese frontier, consists hue to the gaudy finery of China. of nineteen hundred houses, fifty being Maimachen, the name of the Chinese of brick, and the remainder of wood, town visited by Mr. Erman, has a and is probably the cheapest place in very masquerading air to a European the civilized world as regards articles eye. The walls on either side of of food. We say “ civilized,” because, the streets do not look like house although situate in a barbarous region, walls, the roofs being flat and invisiand possessing a population of a very ble from the street. “ Indeed, they are motley character, ihe town has much nearly altogether concealed by the that is European in its aspect and gay-coloured paper lanterns and flags usages. It possesses an exchange, with inscriptions on them, hung out government factories, where newly- on both sides of the way. Cords, arrived convicts are employed, a with similar scrolls and lanterns, are school of medicine, a gymnasium, likewise stretched from roof to roof and a handsome parade-ground. In across the street. These dazzling dethe market, formed of wooden booths, corations stand out in glaring contrast the stores of food were enormous with the dull yellow of the ground and Beef cost about a halfpenny a pound; walls. In the open crossings of the of flour one penny would purchase streets, which intersect each other at nearly eight and a half pounds; par- right angles, stood enormous chafing. tridges and heathfowl were sold at dishes of cast-iron, like basins, upon five farthings a-piece. But we are in a slender pedestal four feet in height. haste to get among the Celestials. The benches by which they were First comes a gallop across More surrounded were occupied by teaBaikal, a large lake just beyond drinkers, who sat smoking from the Irkutsk, on which the Russian gov- little pipes they carry at their girdles, ernment maintains an armed flotilla. whilst their keitles boiled at the comThis gallop is a fine bit of helter- mon fire.” Mr. Erman had the good skelter over ice brilliant as glass. fortune to be on the frontier at the “ There was no snow upon the ice, period of the Chinese festival of the so that its surface shone like a polished White Moon, which is in fact the cemirror in the moonlight. The horses lebration of the new-year, and he had that were put under our sledges in the still greater luck to be invited to Kadilnaya had to be held on each share in it at Maimachen. He found side till the very moment of starting, the town in its gayest costume. The when they broke at once into full expenditure of flags and lanterns was gallop, which they kept up till we prodigious. The scrolls usually conlanded on the further shore. We tained the names of the families be. completed seven German miles in two fore whose houses they were hung
coupled with words of auspicious im- other guests, preceded by the uproariport, as gladness, riches, wisdom, &c. ous orchestra, marched off to dinner There was a great firing of crackers at the house of the sarguchei or chief and rockets, partly to celebrate the officer of Maimachen. This gentleday, but chiefly in honour of the man, a tall, thin person, of stern counguests. Before dinner the latter were tenance, dressed in gray velvet, had a diverted by a theatrical representa- white button on the crown of his tion. Maimachen boasts a regular black felt hat, indicating his rank, and company of actors, and upon this a chalcedony ring, an inch wide, upon great occasion they did their best. his right-hand thumb, this being a Their orchestra was of a rather violent mark of official dignity. “ His nails," description, consisting of “ wooden says our traveller, “did not extend drums, shaped like casks, brass cym- above half an inch beyond the tips of bals, and plates of the same metal, his fingers, his personal vanity being or gongs, held by a string and beaten in this respect subdued, as might be with knockers, and wooden truncheons, expected in a man of sober mind, and of different sizes, which they used as mature years.” The man of short castanets.” There were no actresses ; nails and sober mind was exceeding but the deficiency was not to be de- hospitable, welcomed his guests in a iected, the younger and more delicate soft and sonorous voice, and sat down men personating women to the life by with them to dinner at tables covered the aid of wigs and long tresses of with scarlet cloth. The regale that black hair, but especially by curls followed might have caused a Europressed flat upon the forehead. Masks pean chef to pale his ineffectual fires were not used, but paint was in abun- from sheer envy. It began, oddly dance ; in some cases with a view to enough, with fruits, sweetmeats, and represent spectacles, mustachios, &c.; tea. These discussed, a piece of fine in others to conceal the human features, paper, for a napkin, and a pair of or give them a monstrous aspect. “One ivory chopsticks were laid before each face was covered with coloured rays, guest, and the tables, which were six issuing from the mouth. The same feet wide, were covered over thickly actor had also a feather on his head with small porcelain plates full of all in Chinese comedy the conventional manner of complicated edibles. Fat mark of a ghost or apparition. An- abounded in the dressing, to neutralize other wore a golden helmet, which which weak vinegar was used. The constituted him a warrior. Several first series of saucers duly honoured, kept beating themselves incessantly a second was brought in and put on on the hip with a cane, and by so the top of its predecessor. Others doing intimated that they were on followed, and as the previous stratum horseback.” The play itself was more was never removed, there soon arose like a game of romps than any regular upon the table a lofty pile of gastrodramatic representation. Little was nomical curiosities. Pipes and chowsen, said; but on the other hand, there was a Chinese spirit distilled from rice, a deal of dancing, drumming, and concluded the feast, as the strangers running about. Mr. Erman could make thought ;-but they were vastly misneither head nor tail of the proceed- taken. The soup course bad still to ings. By way of experiment, how- come, and that was followed by an ever, he made some tender gestures infusion of cabbage-leaves, drawn out 10 one of the pseudo-ladies, who ac- of an urn by a cock, and drunk steamknowledged them in the most amiable ing hot. How a dinner commencing manner, and after that the horsemen with preserved apricots, and concludwithoui horses paid him much atten- ing with cabbage water agreed with tion, pointing with their sticks to his German stomachs, Mr. Erman does spectacles, and trying to touch them not inform us. After managing to as they passed. All this greatly di- taste upwards of a hundred dishes, he verted ihe Mongol audience, evidently went to visit the temple of Fo, whose delighted to see a real counterpart to court was guarded by two clay lions the painted spectacles of some of the painted green, whilst at his shrine actors.
were deposited, on account of the The play over, Mr. Erman and the festive season, a prodigious heap of
delicacies. Whole sheep without the is something agreeable also in the skin, plucked chickens, pheasants, and feel of them. Here, in Maimachen, I guinea-fowls, in their natural posi. saw some of these balls made of glass, tions, and glistening with fat, lay striped green and white, and hollow, in hillocks at the feet of half-a-dozen containing within them a little lump grotesque and indecent idols. On a of clay, which rattled with every long table a wal of offerings was motion.” The musk and perfumes, built up, consisting of dressed meat however abundantly used, are all and cakes of every kind, the whole insufficient to counteract a very pecu. surrounded with an elaborate Jattice- liar and unpleasant smell attributed work of while dough, five or six feet by Mr. Erman to the Chinese. He high, the openings of which were first perceived it at the theatre, and filled with dried fruits and contec- took it to arise from an inordinate tionery of the finest kind. Perfumed addiction to leeks on the part of candles burned before the disgusting actors and audience, whose breath idols, and brass discs hung from the and clothes were infected with the ceiling, and were struck with clappers disagreeable odour of that bulb. But when any bearing offerings approached. he was subsequently induced to regard
The contents of the shops at Maima- it as a national taint, a Chinese exba. chen gave Mr. Erman a very high lation, not to be overcome by any opinion of Chinese skill and ingenuity. amount of artificial perfume, and He saw scientific instruments of great whose cause is matter of inquiry for merit, very clever clockwork, paint. the chemist. Doubtless the Chinese ings drawn and finished with the would get rid of it, were it possible so greatest care, (although highly objec- to do, for the care they bestow on tionable by the indelicacy of their personal beauty and elegance is very subjects), porcelain, sculpture, bowls, great. Another striking defect in the vases, and figures of various kinds of inhabitants of Maimachen is to be
“ There were large spherical found in their black and decayed bowls, and oval vases, of chalcedony teeth. The cause of this Mr. Erman and agate, and reliefs cut in corne. suspects to be the solution of copper, lians, nephrit, and other coloured produced by the empyreumatic oil of stones. Of the latter kind, the most tobacco in the bronze mouth-pieces comnion are flowers, the several parts of their pipes. of which are formed of various and At a post-house upon his road back tastefally selected stones, and then to Irkutsk, Mr. Erman and his party ceruented with mastic on a foundation were met by a deputation from no of stone. For many these articles, Jess a personage than the Khamba highly elaborate, and at the same Lama, the high-priest of the Buraets, time quite useless, the merchants of a Mongolian tribe closely allied in Maimachen asked four thousand tea- language and customs to ihe natives bricks, (a standard of currency), or of the northern provinces of China. about two thousand five hundred The embassy consisted of four lamas Russian dollars. In this we saw a or priests attired in scarlet robes and proof of luxury and profuse expendi- bright yellow hats. They brought ture amongst the Chinese.
Many an invitation to a grand festival, other branches of industry indicated which was readily ’accepted, and a enervation and effeminacy of man- very remarkable business it proved 10 ners :" musk, for instance, and other he.' The discordant theatrical music perfumes, enclosed in lille bags, and at Maimachen was a mere trifle comconsidered indispensable appendages pared to the monstrous noise made to a young man's dress. A curious by the Buraet kelile-drums, so large plaything considered equally essen. that they were dragged upon four tial, is composed of two polished balls, wheels, and by copper trumpeis ten about an inch in diameter, which the feet long, borne by one
man and men always carry with them. These blown by another.
" The grave preare taken in the right hand, at idle lude of ihe wind instruments was like times, and rolled and rubbed one over a roaring hurricane, and the chorus the other with the fingers; the noise of brass gongs, drums, &c., resembled they make amuses, and perhaps there the crash of a falling mountain.” In
this place we find some curious and and resistance of their frozen soil, the interesting details respecting the Yakuts are a prosperous people, hav. Buddhist religion and priesthood, ing attained a considerable degree of after which Mr. Erman returns to civilization, aud amongst whom crime Irkutsk, and resumes his journey is rare, although the influence of eastward, through the valley of the Russian example and contact daily Lena, to the land of the Tunguzes renders it less so. There is much and Yakuts. The chief town of the interest in Mr. Erman's account of latter people, Yakutsk, is two degrees them, and of the wandering Tunguzes, to the south of Beresov, which Mr. Er- the last tribe with which he consorted man had visited on his way to Obdorsk; before his arrival at Okhotsk. Here but, nevertheless, the cold is far more his reception was not very flattering. severe at the former place, where “We were looked at with much frozen earth is found near the surface curiosity from all the house-doors on all the year round, and the same con- the way, for the devout elders of the dition of the ground continues to the place had been filled with anxious depth of six hundred seet. “ The forebodings by the accounts of the inhabitants of the Swiss Alps would arrival of a foreigner. They signed not unjustly think themselves lost if themselves with the cross whenever they were compelled to live at the he was mentioned. And I learned toheight of ten thousand feet, or two day that they had fears of war, conthousand three hundred feet above scription, and other calamities.” Nor the hospital of the great St. Bernard, was their alarm abated by learning that and there to suppori and clothe them- "the heathen foreigner wore snowselves by keeping cattle, and with the shades (spectacles) even in thick wea. productions of the surrounding moun- ther, and that he carried a dog in the tains; yet they would then, and not sledge with him. Thus the return to until they arrived at that height, be civilized man was marked in the first settled on ground having the same instance by the encounter of intolerant temperature which I found here superstition, and it was necessary to amongst the Yakuts, who are rich forget the nobler trails of the wilderin cattle. It would seem, therefore, ness before we could become reconas if that succeeded in Siberia which ciled to the Russians of Okhotsk.” At was impossible in Europe, if we did which place Mr. Erman's narrative not take into account that the same ceases. We await with interest its proconstant temperature of the ground mised continuation-an account of his may be made up at different places of adventures in Kamschatka, California, very different elements.” Notwith- and the Pacific. standing the severity of their climate
THE SCOTTISH DEER FORESTS.
We would that, like stout Lord most fatal delusions as distinct princiPercy of yore, it were in our power at ples of right, and then shrinks, tremthis present moment to chronicle a bling and aghast, from the inevitable vow that we should forth with take result of their development. our pastime for three summer days on We do not want-in this article at the pleasant hills of Scotland. Alas least—to be political, and we vow that for us, that we are doomed, from we took up our pen three minutes ago divers causes, to absent ourselves from in a spirit of perfect good will and felicity awhile, and, amidst the heat harmony towards all manner of men. and noise of London, listen with in- But the hoarse bawling of these cannitense disgust to the brutal bayings of bals has somewhat ruffled our temper, the Chartists! This very night, we dispelled for the moment our dreams hear, the ignoble hunt is to be up in of the mountains, and forced us back Bishop Bonner's fields. Crowds of to the sterner realities of popular dirty, unshaven, squalid ruffians, who tumult and the truncheon. If this have not the strength to use the pike, sort of thing lasts, we shall indubitbut the will to employ the knife of the ably emigrate. Assassination, as reassassin-fellows whom even Cobden commended by the modern Hamilcar, would be chary to recognise as his is by no manner of means to our quondam supporters, defenders, and taste: Our opinion coincides with dupes—not unmingled with foreign that of the gracious Captain of Knockpropagandists, whom even France, in dunder, and, were we promoted to a the fury of her revolutionary tornado, judicial function, the chiel they ca' repudiates—are thronging to the place ihe Fustler” should ere long fusile in of rendezvous, where, doubtless, their a tow. Neither are we at all disposed souls will be worthily regaled by the to fraternize with the milder Cuffeyravings of some rascally vendors of a fellow, by the way, who is not withsedition, blasphemy, and ireason. Then out some redeeming scintillations of will ensue the usual scene which for humor. We have no wish to be nights has disgraced the metropolis. introduced to him even at a mesmeric Some unfortunate tradesman, whose soiree ; and, acting upon the principle curiosity has been stronger than his of Jacquey, we shall pray heaven 10 prudence, will be fixed upon as a decrease our acquaintance, and put "special" or a spy—the cowards, pre- the Tweed as speedily as possible besuming upon their numbers, and the tween ourselves and the partisans of apparent absence of all executive O'Connor. We hope the Lord Propower, will attempt a deliberate mur. vost, though discomfited in his Police der—the police will sally from their Bill, has been looking after the tranhiding place to the rescue—there will quillity of the Calton. If not, we be a storm of brickbats, a determined must move farther north, and finally charge with the baton, a shop or two locate ourselves somewhere in the will be gutted, some score of craniums vicinity of
Dalnacardoch. The cracked, and to-morrow morning the deuce is in it, if the revolutionary greasy patriots, at the bar of Bow mania has penetrated to that sequesStreet, will read their recantation, and tered region ! No son of the mountains in the face of overwhelming evidence has ever yet given in his adhesion to to the contrary, protest their loyalty the Charter—ireason hath not slained to the Queen. Such are the pastimes the tartan, and no republican pins of merry England in the month of have ever been exposed beneath the June, and such the results of that checkered margin of the kilt. There enlightened policy which yields every is loyalty at least in the land which thing to popular clamor, adopts the was iraversed by Montrose and Dun
Lays of the Deer Forest, with Sketches of Olden and Modern Deer Hunting, &c. &c. By JOHN Sobieski and Charles EDWARD STUART. 2 vols. 8vo. William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh and London.