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She determines to restore Romanism.
purpose she desired that cardinal Pole might be sent over as legate. But Gardiner, who, with Bonner, had been released from the Tower, saw that such proceedings would be too precipitate, as they would have alarmed the possessors of the abbey lands; and he endeavoured to persuade her to proceed with more caution. Finding that the queen's zeal made her unwilling to listen to his crafty, temporizing advice, he wrote to the emperor of Germany, who, at his suggestion, delayed Pole's journey, and advised the queen to proceed with less haste. To this she reluctantly consented. Gardiner was appointed lord chancellor, and had the chief management of affairs committed to him, upon his engaging both to the queen and the emperor, that he would restore the pope's supremacy, and bring back the nation to the profession of that faith, which asserts itself to be the only true belief.
The Romish bishops were restored to their sees. Ridley, the protestant bishop of London, was committed to the Tower for a sermon he preached at Paul's Cross, on one of the two Sundays during which lady Jane Grey was considered as queen, in which he spoke of Mary's aversion to the Reformation, and strongly represented the evils which must ensue, if she obtained the crown. On the other Sunday, Rogers, the vicar of St. Sepulchre's, preached. He confined his discourse to the gospel of the day; but his having preached in public, on that occasion, was not forgotten by his enemies.
Bonner lost no time in taking possession of his see, and publicly attended the sermon at Paul's Cross, on the 13th of August; on which occasion, Bourn, one of his chaplains, preached before him. The preacher extolled Bonner in high terms, and spoke disrespectfully of king Edward. This was very displeasing to the citizens of London, who had experienced Bonner's cruelty in former times, and deeply lamented the death of their beloved monarch. A tumult arose, which the mayor and aldermen endeavoured to repress, but could not, till stones, and even a dagger, had been hurled at the preacher, who would probably have suffered injury, had not Bradford, then a prebendary of St. Paul's, stood forward in the pulpit before the preacher; and by reasoning in a calm and christian spirit, allayed the wrath of the people, while he protected his person; so that he and Rogers were able to
34 The queen's ingratitude to the Suffolk men.
conduct him safely into the grammar school. This they did, screening Bonner under their gowns, and so leading him through the angry crowd; one of whom told Bradford that he would suffer punishment for his kindness, instead of receiving a recompense. This warning was soon fulfilled; and on the Wednesday following, Bradford was committed to the tower, charged with exciting a riot and sedition, which he had in fact allayed at the risk of his life!
The papists eagerly availed themselves of this disturbance; and on the 18th of August, a proclamation appeared, in which the queen declared, that she was of the religion she had professed from her infancy, but did not intend to compel any of her subjects to adopt it, until authorized by common consent (or act of parliament;) but in the mean time, she strictly ordered that none should preach or expound scripture without special license.
A letter was addressed to the bishop of Norwich, commanding him to see to the execution of these injunctions. This was directed particularly against the Suffolk men, who had presumed on the queen's promises and the services they had rendered her, and opposed the introduction of popery.* Upon hearing of this proclamation, they sent some of their number to London, respectfully to remind Mary of her declarations. The answer they_received, plainly showed what was to be expected. Forsomuch, (said she,) as you, being but members, desire to rule your head, you shall, one day, well perceive that members must obey their head, and not look to bear rule over the same." As a practical explanation, one of their number, a gentleman named Dobbe, was put in the pillory for three days! The notice taken of those who had been concerned in supporting lady Jane, was also proportioned to their religious opinions. The lord chief justice Montague had very unwillingly drawn up the letters patent for lady Jane's succession at the express command of Edward
The supplication afterwards addressed by the men of Norfolk and Suffolk to her commissioners, beautifully sets forth the way in which the principles of the gospel always unite the precepts, "Fear God and honour the king;" the following is an extract:
"We profess before God, we think if the holy word of God had not taken some root among us, we could not, in times past, have done that poor duty of ours, which was done in assisting the queen. It was our bounden duty, and we thank God for the knowledge of his word and grace, that we then did some part of our bounden duty."
1553.] Many Protestants committed to prison.
the Sixth; but he was imprisoned for six weeks, heavily fined, and turned out of his office, although he had sent his son with twenty men to assist queen Mary, as soon as the king was dead; while judge Bromley, who had willingly forwarded all Northumberland's views in favour of lady Jane, was made chief justice in his room. But Montague was a protestant, and Bromley a papist! This is noticed, because Romish authors assert, that those who suffered in this reign, were punished for their opposition to queen Mary's accession to the throne; when, in reality, no protestant, however loyal, was allowed to escape; and no Romanist, however strongly he might have taken part against her, unless actually in arms, was punished.
These things plainly showed that Mary did not mean to rest satisfied with the Romish religion, as modified by her father; but tended to compel the nation to that decided profession or popery, which it was notorious she herself had always maintained. It was the more evident, as she already had mass celebrated as formerly, in her own chapel, and prayers for her deceased brother offered up, after the Romish ceremonial; indeed, the service, at the time of his burial, (8th of August,) would have been according to that ritual, had not Cranmer firmly resisted, and buried his master, using the protestant service; which was the last public occasion on which he was allowed to officiate. He was first detained as prisoner in his own house, and the Romanists gave out that he offered to say mass, and was ready to recant. He then published a declaration, stating his firm adherence to the protestant faith, which was eagerly received by the people. Almost every scrivener was employed in making copies; some were brought to the council, who sent for Cranmer, and committed him to the tower. Bishops Hooper and Coverdale, Latimer, Bradford, Saunders, Rogers, and many other active preachers of the gospel, were also committed to prison, during the months of August and September. These sufferings also extended to some of higher rank who maintained the doctrines of the gospel. Strype has preserved an interesting letter to one of this number, who appears to have been lord Russel, at that time a prisoner. The following are extracts: "That lesson which in plenty and brightness we would not learn, it shall be tried how we will learn it in scarcity and darkness; and because we
Romish ceremonies restored.
would not serve God the true way, we shall prove how we can bear the false, aud suffer idolatry before our eyes.”"To bewail the private and common miseries of our days, hath with it a present delight, and also is the only and sure way to attain to the comfort which the promises of Christ in the gospel do bring. Even as Christ doth tell us when he saith, Come unto me, all ye that labour, and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you; and in another place, Happy are they that mourn, for they shall find comfort.'-Now you be in God's own school-house, where you have not so many to trouble you, as when you went wandering in the wide world."
The greater part of the foreign protestants were sent away, and their churches taken from them. Above a thousand English had already left the kingdom, seeing the probability of a severe persecution. Most of them escaped in disguise as servants to the French and German protestants; upon which the council ordered that none should go beyond sea, except they really were foreigners. Among the number that left were several of the clergy, who, having no cures or being dismissed, considered themselves at liberty to depart; while those who had the care of souls, were unwilling to leave their flocks, as a prey to the wolves which had broken into the fold.
In many places, the papists did not wait for the decision of parliament, as to what religion should be followed, but drove away the protestant pastors, and at once restored the mass and its ceremonies.* On the 21st of September, lord Dudley was buried at Westminster, with a grand procession, and all the Romish rites, attended by persons in authority. The coronation took place on the 1st of October, according to the ceremonial used in the days of popery. On the 4th of the same month, the archbishop of York, and several others, were sent to the Tower; and on the next day, the parliament was opened with a solemn mass to the Holy Ghost. The bishops of
The first celebration of the mass in a parish church in London, was at St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, on the 23rd of August. The priest of this parish hastened to show his return to Romanism, by parting with his wife, whom he sold to a butcher. He appears to have been a man of infamous character, and was publicly carted about London, November 24, in the same year, by order of the magistrates. See Strype. The infallibility of the priesthood had not then been fully restored.
The laws against popery repealed.
Lincoln and Hereford, perceiving this popish ceremony about to begin, withdrew, for which they were called to account and deprived of their sees.
Historians state, that the elections to this parliament were managed with much care, to procure the return of persons attached to the Romish religion; and that in many places violence was used for this purpose. One of the first acts passed by this parliament, declared, that Henry's marriage with queen Catherine was lawful, and laid the blame of the divorce entirely upon Cranmer. This was a strong instance of Gardiner's craft and effrontery; since it was a well-known fact, that he had himself been active in promoting the divorce, long before Cranmer was known to king Henry, and had actually been joined with Cranmer, in the later proceedings. But he was now willing to retrace his steps, and forward the queen's design of restoring the Romish religion. He was more anxious to cause the divorce to be set aside by the parliament, as he had promised that it should be done without the pope's authority, which he knew the nation was not yet prepared to acknowledge. This act, also, as a matter of course, set aside the princess Elizabeth's succession to the throne, and was mixed up with other political views, which are noticed in the histories of the day.
Another act repealed all the laws made respecting religion, during the reign of king Edward the Sixth; and enacted, that after the 29th of December, there should be no other form of divine service, than what was used during the last year of Henry the Eighth, which, of course, restored the popish breviaries, the mass, and all its ceremonies. By referring to the account of the Reformation, in king Edward's reign, the reader will perceive how extensive an alteration was now made at once.
Another act was passed against all who should molest
This Act effected more than, to a cursory reader, it would appear to do. Historians who notice the dissolution of the monasteries, have described the horrible vices prevalent therein; as being one cause why the nation willingly joined in their being no longer suffered to continue. The vices nurtured in these hot beds of corruption, had become so notorious, that one of the early measures adopted by Henry, after his quarrel with the Pope, was to pass an act, declaring these crimes to be felonious, and punishable with death. This act was made still more efficient, by an alteration in the reign of Edward; but it was repealed by this statute of queen Mary, and not restored till after her death!