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many others, having paid much attention to the Scriptures themselves, and possessing a critical acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek languages. But the more he read of the Scriptures, the less confidence did he entertain in the tenets he was engaged to support. This state of mind greatly indisposed him to enter the lists with Peter Martyr; but he resolved that at least he would use the disputation as a means of fairly testing the soundness of his own opinions. Truth was, indeed, the sole object of his pursuit, and in this respect his candour and ingenuousness furnish a striking contrast to the perverseness and bigotry of most of the other impugners of the new doctrines. Martyr himself bears ample testimony to the worth of his young opponent: “For my other hot-headed adversaries,” he writes, I am not much concerned for them, but I am troubled for Gilpin, for he speaks and acts with a singular uprightness of heart.” A diligent study of the controversy at last determined him to withdraw from the Romish communion.
Gilpin continued at Oxford till the year 1552, when he was presented by Edward VI. with the vicarage of Norton in the county of Dur. ham, and also obtained, what was granted only to a few—a general license for preaching throughout the country. Soon after entering upon his charge, he felt himself so much embarrassed by doctrinal difficulties, that he resolved to seek the resolution of his doubts by conference with the most eminent foreign divines, both catholic and protestant. But as no excuse appeared to him sufficient to justify non residence in his parish, he resigned his living to a friend before taking his departure for the continent. His maternal uncle, Tunstal, bishop of Durham, viewed his act of resignation as a piece of folly and imprudence. Gilpin excused himself by remarking, that he could not retain the living and his peace of conscience too. “ Conscience !" rejoined the bishop, "you might have had a dispensation !” “But I was afraid," rejoined Gilpin, “ that when I came before the tribunal of Christ, it would not serve my turn to plead a dispensation for not having done my duty to my flock.”
On landing in Holland, Gilpin went first to Mechlin, where his brother George then was pursuing the study of the civil law. George was at this time a zealous catholic, but the visit of Bernard produced an entire revolution in his opinions, and he became soon afterwards one of the warmest advocates or the Reformation. He was subsequently much employed in diplomatic negotiation during Queen Elizabeth's reign, and was highly esteemed both for abilities and integrity. On the accession of Queen Mary, Bernard was offered promotion by his relative, Tunstal, who was now again in power, but he respectfully declined the proffered favour, not being set able to undertake the duties of office in person. After an absence of three years, he returned to his native country. His friends tried to dissuade him from this step, for the Marian persecution still raged; but he was nothing daunted by their representations, and fearlessly pursued what appeared to him the path of duty. His uncle received him with cordiality, and presented him with the archdeaconry of Durham and rectory of Easington. He entered upon his charge with an inflexible determination not only to do his duty to his parishioners, but in the performance of his archdeaconal functions, to omit no opportunity of bearing testimony against the corrupt principles and scandalous lives of the clergy. Such conduct soon procured for him the dislike and opposition of the majority of his clerical brethren, who pronounced him “ an enemy of the church and clergy, and a broacher of new and dangerous doctrines.” For a time his uncle's influence served to protect him, but he was at last obliged to yield to the clamours of his adversaries and resign his archdeaconry. He would have kept his parochial charge, but his uncle refused to separate the two livings; he, however, bestowed on him the valuable rectory of Houghton-le-Spring, which afforded him a sphere of action exactly suited to the turn of his mind. It was an extensive charge, and one of the most ignorant districts in the whole country. Gilpin applied himself with his usual earnestness and assiduity to his new task, and met with his usual reward : the people admired and loved him, while the priests raised a clamour of heresy against him. He was in a short time cited to appear before Bonner, bishop of London, but the death of Queen Mary put a stop to the proceedings of his enemies, and gave him full liberty to pursue his benevolent plans.
At the recommendation of the earl of Bedford, he was now nominated to the bishopric of Carlisle, but he declined the honour, on the ground that he was wholly unequal to the station. The earl employed Dr Sandys, bishop of Worcester, to overcoine his scruples, but without
In the following year, he also declined the provostship of Queen's college, Oxford. He died on the 4th of March, 1583, after a life spent in such unwearied efforts of benevolence and apostolic cha. rity, as to gain for him the honourable titles of Father of the Poor,' and ' Apostle of the North.'
BORN A. D. 1519.-DIED A.D. 1583.
EDMUND GRINDAL was born at Hensingham, in Cumberland, in 1519, and was sent to Magdalen college, whence he removed to Christ's college, and to Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, where he was chosen fellow, uud took his degrees. In 1548, he was appointed senior proctor to the university, and, in the following year, he was chosen Lady Margaret's preacher. He became acquainted with Dr Ridley, bishop of London, who appointed him his chaplain, and elected him to the precentorship of St Paul's. He was next made chaplain to King Edward, and, in 1552, he obtained a stall at Westminster Abbey. After King Edward's death he fled to the continent, and remained there until the death of Queen Mary. On the accession of Elisabeth, he returned to his native land, and soon obtained the notice of the leading friends of the Reformation. He was engaged in preparing the new liturgy which was to be presented to the queen's first parliament. Not long after, he was intrusted with the appointment of one of the commissioners for the royal visitation in the north, who were directed to require the oath of supre. macy, to inspect cathedrals, to notice the manners of the clergy, and to destroy the superstitions, images, &c.
In 1562, the cruel Bonner was deposed from the bishopric of London, and Grindal was nominated to fill the vacant see. He was then appointed one of the queen's ecclesiastical commissioners, and in conjunction with the archbishops of Canterbury, reformed the calendar, and ordered that the ten commandments should be set up at the east end of every church in the kingdom. In 1564, when some of the leading prelates began to display the spirit of domination over conscience, Bishop Grindal was ordered by the queen and Archbishop Parker, to prosecute all those who would not comply with the act of uniformity. He obeyed the mandate, but with so much gentleness and forbearance, that Archbishop Parker complained of him to the queen, who sent him a special letter, commanding him to be diligent in punishing all recusants. In 1570, he was translated to the archbishopric of York, a charge which he found exceedingly burdensome. On the death of Archbishop Parker, he was advanced to the see of Canterbury. Happy would it have been for the established church, had all those persons who possessed power and influence, been of the same character and governed by the same principles as our archbishop. He was deeply anxious to fill the episcopal pulpits with men of piety and of talent, but the head of the church' was of another spirit, and was more solicitous that her mandate should be implicitly obeyed, than that the people should enjoy the faithful dispensation of the gospel. The same year in which he entered on the see of Canterbury, he held a convocation, in which some articles for the regulation of the church were agreed upon. They were entitled “ Articles touching the admission of apt and fit per: sons to the ministry, and the establishment of good order in the churches. In 1576, the encouragement he gave to what was called,
the exercise of prophesying,' displeased the queen. It appears strange that those meetings which were so directly intended and adapted to promote solid knowledge and evangelical preaching among his clergy, and consequently the truest interest of the laity, should have brought upon him the frowns of his sovereign. These “prophesyings,' as they were called, were simply meetings of the clergy, under the superintendence of the archbishop, at which, each in his turn explained some portion of scripture, when a moderator made his observations on what had been said and determined its true sense. Thequeen, however, viewed these meetings as seminaries of puritanism, and took so rooted a dislike to them, that she desired their entire abolition, and gave orders to that effect to Archbishop Grindal. Instead, however, of implicitly obeying her majesty's commands, which he felt to be in opposition to the rights of conscience and the will of God, he wrote a letter to her, in which he remonstrated with her, and exhorted her to leave religious affairs to the bishops and divines of the realm, and not to decide on them in the same peremptory manner as in civil affairs. This letter highly displeased Elizabeth, who knew no law but her own will, and after reiterating her commands, she caused an order to be sent from the star-chamber which confined him to his house, and sequestrated him from his office for six months. The honest archbishop did not choose to comply, and on an application from the lord-treasurer, his sequestration was continued, and some thoughts were entertained of deposing him. This project was, however, laid aside ; yet the sequestration was not taken off until 1582, in which year he lost his sight and resigned his dignity. He obtained the promise of a pension from the queen, but never regained her favour. He died at Croydon in 1583. He was a man far in advance of the intolerant times in which he lived. He was a prelate of profound learning, deep piety and admirable moderation ; mild, affable and generous,-he was universally admired, respected, and beloved by all his protestant brethren. He assisted the French protestants in obtaining permission to open a church in London, which was the origin of the present French church in Threadneedle-street. He was the author of A Dialogue between Custom and Truth,' published in Fox's Acts and Monuments.
BORN A. D. 1517.—DIED A. D. 1587.
This eminent martyrologist was born of respectable parents at Boston in Lincolnshire, in 1517, that memorable year in which Luther coin menced his attack on the papacy. His father died when he was young, and his mother being married again, his early education was intrusted to his father-in-law. When sixteen years old, he was entered at Brazen-nose college, Oxford, and at the early age of 21, was admitted to the degree of bachelor of arts. His talents and his extraordinary acquirements, the fruit of unwearied industry, soon recommended him to general notice, and in 1543 he became M. A. and was elected fellow of Magdalen college. In his youth, he displayed considerable aptness for poetry,—a talent which he exercised in the composition of several Latin plays, founded on sacred history. The one which attracted the most notice, was entitled, “ De Christo Triumphante,' 8vo. published in London 1551, and at Basil 1556. It was afterwards translated by Richard Day, son of the great printer, in the reign of Elizabeth, under the title of Jesus Christ Triumphant; wherein is described the glorious triumph and conquest of Christ over sin, death, and the law,' &c.
The original work has been much admired for its elegant Latinity. But divinity was the great object to which Mr Fox directed his attention. For a considerable period after entering the university, he remained a papist. This was partly the effect of ignorance, partly of prejudice. Neither ignorance nor prejudice, however, could keep him long from the truth. The ardour with which he devoted himself to theological studies corrected the former, and his candour enabled him to triumph over the latter. The diligence with which he devoted himself to the study of every branch of theology, was, indeed, most astonishing. Of this his son, who wrote his life, has given us a most memorable proof. He tells us that his father, before he was thirty years of age, had read over all the Greek and Latin fathers, the schoolmen, and the proceedings of councils and consistories. Such an extensive course of reading, he thought no more than a proper preparation for forming a judgment on the controversies which then agitated the church. In the course of his studies, he became completely convinced of the errors of the Romish church; nor did he stop here,—the same honesty and candour of mind, and the same unfinching spirit of inquiry which had reclaimed him from
popery, led him to see the errors of the English church. He did not escape the suspicious eyes of his bigotted contemporaries. As he was too open to disavow or disguise his change of sentiments, his enemies soon had an opportunity of satisfying their suspicions. In 1545, accordingly, a charge of heresy was brought against him, which terminated in his being convicted of the crime, and in his expulsion from his house,-a very gentle commutation of punishment, as it was generally thought, for the death which such atrocious guilt undoubtedly
merited. Thus a mark of infamy was set upon him; his friends forsook him, not daring to hold intercourse with a heretic; and, what was worse than all, his father-in-law basely took advantage of his helpless situation to deprive him of his patrimony. He was thus reduced to the most abject want, but, at length, obtained a situation, however, in the house of Sir i'homas Lucy of Warwickshir , as the tutor of his children, where he continued till his pupils grew up. It was during his stay here that he married the daughter of a citizen of Coventry. The house of his wife's father afforded him a refuge for a considerable time after he left Sir Thomas Lucy's. He then came to London, where he was again exposed to all the hardships of the most cruel poverty. He was, at length, taken into the family of the duchess of Richmond, as tutor to her brother's children, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, who was thrown into the Tower by the despotic Henry.
In this family living at Ryegate in Surrey, he remained during the rest of Henry's reign, the few years of Edward's and part of Mary's. He was nobly protected by the duke of Norfolk, and according to Woud, was even restored to his fellowship in Magdalen college. The hateful Gardiner, however, now fixed his malignant eye upon him and made every effort to entrap him. The bishop was particularly intimate with the duke of Norfolk, and was incessantly asking that nobleman to introduce him to his tutor. This request was as constantly evaded. At length when the duke saw that his protection would no longer be of any avail, he told Fox they must part, at the same time furnishing him with the nieans of transporting himself to a foreign land. With this Fox readily complied; but as, before he could embark, his bloody persecutor had a warrant out against him, it was with the utmost difficulty that he accomplished his object. At length he succeeded in reaching Nieuport in Flanders in safety; thence he journeyed to Antwerp, Strasburgh, and Basil. At this last place he maintained himself by correcting the press for Oporinus, the celebrated printer; and there too he meditated his great work—the “ Acts and Monuments of the churches.' During his exile, he united himself with those fellow-sufferers, who, renouncing the service-book of King Edward, had adopted the peculiarities of the school of Geneva.
At the accession of Elizabeth, and the consequent restoration of the protestant religion, Fox returned to England, where he was heartily welcomed by his former pupil—now fourth duke of Norfolk—from whom he received a pension. The secretary, Cecil, also, obtained for him a prebend in the church of Salisbury. He had many powerful friends, as the names of Grindal, Waisingham, Drake, Gresham, abundantly prove; and if he would have dropped his Geneva peculiarities, there was no preferment which he might not have hoped for. But he was one of the few who will not pay the price of conscience for honours and emoluments, however splendid. Of this we have two or three striking instances. When Archbishop Parker summoned him to subscribe, the venerable man took out a Greek Testament and said, “To this will I