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your adversary, Mr Cartwright, nor Mr Travers, whom I take to be mine—but not mine enemy—God knows this to be my meaning, To which end I have searched many books, and spent many thoughtful hours, and I hope not in vain, for I write to reasonable men. But, my lord, I shall never be able to finish what I have begun unless I be removed into some quiet country parsonage, where I may see God's blessings spring out of my mother earth, and eat mine own bread in peace and privacy,-a place where I may, without disturbance, medi. tate my approaching mortality, and that great account which all Aesh must, at the last great day, give to the God of all spirits. This is my design ; and, as these are the desires of my heart, so they shall, by God's assistance, be the constant endeavours of the uncertain remainder of my life; and, therefore, if your Grace can think me and my poor labours worthy of such a favour, let me beg it, that I may perfect what I have begun, which is a blessing I cannot hope for in this place.”
Mr Hooker, therefore, in 1591, was presented to the rectory of Boscum, near Salisbury, and, in the same year, was instituted a minor prenendary of the cathedral. Here he continued till he had finished four of his eight proposed books on ecclesiastical polity, which he printed and published in 1594, being then in the 39th year of his age. In 1595 he surrendered the living of Boscum, and was presented by the queen with that of Bishop's Borne, three miles from Canterbury. Here he proceeded with his treatise, and, having completed the fifth book, he published it separately in 1597, and dedicated it to his patron, the archbishop. The fame of this work having reached Rome, and being approved of by the most learned of the papists, Cardinal Allen and Dr Stapleton recommended it so strongly to Clement the VIII., that he desired to have it translated into Latin, declaring that “ his works would get reverence by age, for that there were such seeds of eternity in them as would make them continue till the last fire shall consume all learning." This work was also highly esteemed by James the First, who said to Archbishop Whitgift,—“I have received more satisfaction in reading a a leaf or paragraph in Mr Hooker, though it were but about the fashion of churches, or church music, or the like, but especially of the sacraments, than I have had in reading large treatises written but of one of those subjects by others, though very learned men.” Charles the First, also, had so high a regard for this work that he enjoined his son to be “ studious in Mr Hooker's books.” At Bishop's Borne he divided his time between study and devotion and the discharge of his pastoral duties, and proceeded to the completion of the remaining three books of the church polity.
While in this retirement he contracted a close intimacy with Dr Saravia, an opponent of Beza on the subject of church polity. This friendship was particularly cheering to Hooker under his last illness, which was thought to be aggravated by his close application to study, in order to finish his book. This being accomplished, his appetite failed, and he was confined to his bed. The day preceding his death, his friend, Dr Saravia, confessed him, gave him absolution, and administered the sacrament to him. The next morning, on visiting him, the Doctor found him in meditation, and, on inquiring the subject, he replied that he was meditating the number and nature of angels, and their blessed obedience and order, without which peace could not be in hea. ven; and, oh, that it might be so on earth adding these words :-"] have lived to see this world is made up of perturbations, and I have been long preparing to leave it, and gathering comfort for the dreadful hour of making my account with God, which I now apprehend to be near; and though I have, by his grace, loved him in my youth, and feared him in mine age, and laboured to have a conscience void of offence to him, and to all men, yet if thou, O Lord, be extreme to mark what I have done amiss, who can abide it ? and, therefore, where I have failed, Lord, show mercy to me ; for I plead not my righteousness, but the forgiveness of my unrighteousness for his merits who died to pur. chase a pardon for penitent sinners ; and since I owe thee a death, Lord, let it not be terrible, and then take thine own time. I submit to it. Let not mine, O Lord, but thy will be done.” Then falling into slumber, on his awaking he said, “Good Doctor, God hath heard my daily petitions, for I am at peace with all men, and he is at peace with me; and from which blessed assurance I feel that inward joy which this world can neither give nor take from me.” Soon after uttering these words, he expired, in the 46th year of his age, and A. D. 1600.
BORN A. D.1507.-DIED A. D. 1601.
The name of Alexander Nowell, during a period of seventy years, was intimately connected with the civil and ecclesiastical history of his country. He was the son of John Nowell, of Read, in the county of Lancaster, and was born in 1507 or 1508. He was educated at Middleton, and became a member of Brazen nose college, Oxford, at the early age of thirteen. In his twentieth year, he was a public reader of logic in that university. In 1543, he was appointed second master on the new foundation of Westminster school, in which important station he is said to have instilled the principles of the Reformation into the minds of his pupils, while reading with them the New Testament in the original language. The successor of Nowell in the mastership of Westminster, was Nicholas Udall, famous, like Busby, 'for erudition and for flogging.'
In the first parliament of Mary, Nowell was returned for Loo, in Cornwall, but was not permitted to take his seat, on the ground of his being a prebendary of Westminster, and merely having a voice in the convocation. The decision was by no means a correct one, for none below the dignity of dean or archdean were bound to personal appearance in the convocation ; but Nowell found it expedient to submit to it, and soon afterwards to remove altogether from the kingdom, and join his exiled countrymen in Germany. In their society he distinguished himself by his endeavours to preserve and promote the general harmony, which was threatened with interruption by the unfortunate disputes which occurred amongst them, on the subject of church government. On the accession of Elizabeth, Nowell returned to England, and was made one of the commissioners for the visitation of the kingdom. His brother, Laurence, was appointed dean of Lichfield ; himself, rector of Saltwood, prebendary of Canterbury, prebendary of Westminster, and, finally, dean of St Paul's, In 1563, Nowell was chosen prolocutor of the lower house of convocation, when the articles of religion were revised and subscribed ; and, on this occasion, he proposed that some other long garment should be used instead of the surplice; that the sign of the cross should be omitted in baptism; that kneeling at the communion should be left to the discretion of the ordinary, and that saints' days should be abrogated; but he was overruled in these judicious propositions, by the voice of the majority. The principal production of Nowell's pen, is his Catechism,' which was first published in June, 1570, in Latin. Shortly afterwards, a Latin abridgment of it appeared, and both were immediately translated into English, by Thomas Norton. They are still standard books.
Nowell died on the 13th of February, 1601. His character has been thus ably summed up by his latest and best biographer, Mr Churton :-“Nowell was one of those holy builders, who, in repairing the breaches of our Sion, did not use ‘untempered mortar. Endowed with excellent parts, he was soon distinguished by the progress he made in the schools of Oxford, where he devoted thirteen years, the flower of his youth, and the best time for improvement, to the cultivation of classical elegance and useful knowledge. His capacity for teaching, tried first in the shade of the university, became more conspicuous when he was placed at the head of the first seminary in the metropolis, and, at the same time, his talents as a preacher were witnessed and approved by some of the principal auditories of the realm. Attainments such as these, and a life that adorned them, rendered him a fit object for Bonner's hatred; but Providence rescued him from the fangs of the tiger, in the very act of springing upon
prey. • Habuerunt virtutes spatium exemplorum.' Retirement, suffering, and study, in the company of Jewell, Grindal, and Sandys, stimulated by the conversation and example of Peter Martyr, and other famed divines of Germany, returned him to his native land, with reunited vigour and increasing lustre, when the days of tyranny were overpast.
Elizabeth, and her sage counsellor, Burleigh, placed him at once in an eminent situation among those of secondary rank in the church, and accumulated other preferments upon him, and would probably have advanced him to the episcopal bench, had not his real modesty, together with the consciousness of approaching old age, been known to have created in him a fixed determination not to be raised to a station of greater dignity ; which, however, all things considered, could scarcely, in his case, have been a sphere of greater usefulness. Near to his friend and patron, Bishop Grindal, near also to his other illustrious friend and patron, the excellently pious and prudent Archbishop Parker, and not distant from the court, he was an able coadjutor to each and to all, in bringing forward and perfecting what they all had at heart,--the restoration of true and pure religion. It is indeed impossible to view him, in the department assigned him, without love and admiration. Meek, retired, and unobtrusive, he is ready at every call of duty ; he is solicited from all quarters, and on all occasions. If a sermon, on some great emergency, is to be preached at the cross, at court, or before parliament,-Nowell is the preacher. If the relentless hand of death has deprived the nation of one of its brightest ornaments, of either sex, an Ascham, a Sidney, or a Cecil,,he is requested to console the surviving relatives in a funeral discourse, and to convert the common example into benefit. When the beautiful and lofty spire of St Paul's, by a stroke from heaven, is laid in ashes, the dean is the person who successfully exhorts the generous citizens to a speedy reparation of the sacred edifice. When the proud armada has been defeated,—he is selected to announce in the house of God the unparalleled victory, and to prepare the public mind for public thanks. If donations are solicit ed for the university in which he was not educated, at the hands of those who are ever ready to give,—the opulent merchants and inhabi. tants of the metropolis,—their thoughts are immediately fixed upon Mr Nowell, and he is desired to be treasurer of the bounty. When contributions are requested for distressed protestants abroad, those of first rank and influence in the nation, wishing to forward the object of The petition, particularly desire the aid and advice of Nowell."
BORN A. D. 1535.-DIED A. D. 1603.
This distinguished puritan divine was born in the county of Hertford, about the year 1535. At the age of fifteen, he entered St John's college, Cambridge. Here he pursued bis studies so closely as never to allow himself more than five hours for repose-a rule to which he adhered through life. On the death of Edward VI. and the general conformity of the clergy to the popish ritual, he found it expedient to withdraw from college, and to engage himself as assistant to a barrister. On the accession of Elizabeth, when the clergy reverted back to protes. tantism, Cartwright was inducted into his college again. The bent of his mind was toward the study of theology; but he neglected no branch of useful knowledge, and he was distinguished for his acuteness in logic. In 1560, he became fellow of his college, which he quitted in 1563, for another fellowship in Trinity college, where he was soon appointed one of the socii majores.
In 1564, her majesty was magnificently entertained at the university, on which occasion a philosophy-act was held, and Cartwright engaged in it as first opponent. In 1567 he commenced bachelor of divinity, and in 1569 was made Margaret professor of divinity. His professorship implied his qualification for the degree of doctor of divinity, and accordingly he put in his claim for a diploma at the ensuing commencement; but the symptoms of puritanisın were too apparent to allow of his obtaining this honour. His popularity, however, suffered no abatement from this opposition; and his lectures on the Acts of the Apostles at St Mary's, drew crowds of admiring auditors. Cartwright was no advocate for ceremonies; and such was the effect of his sermon at the chapel of his college, on one occasion, that all the students, except three, appeared at evening-prayer without the surplice, against which he had been inveighing.
Mr Cartwright proceeding in the work of reformation faster than was agreeable to the queen and the bishops, Grindal, archbishop of York, addressed a letter, June 24th, 1570, to the chancellor of the university, Sir William Cecil, then secretary of state, wherein he pressed that some course might be taken with Mr Cartwright. He represented, that his lectures were directed against the external polity and officers of the church, and that, consequently, the students who were very “toward in learning," attended in great numbers, and were in danger of being “poisoned by him with love of contention and liking of novelty." He accordingly solicited the chancellor to procure Cartwright and his ad. herents to be silenced, “ both in schools and pulpits," and if they could not be reduced to conformity, to expel them
from their colleges or the university, as the case should require. He also urged upon the chancellor, that Cartwright might not be allowed to take his degree or proceed doctor in divinity for which he had made application. Cartwright immediately appealed in an elegant Latin letter to the chancellor, affirming that he was averse to every thing seditious or contentious; that he had not taught any doctrine which his texts did not justify; and that he had cautiously avoided treating of the habits, even when an occasion offered itself: but he admitted having taught that the ministry of the church had declined from that of the ancient and apostolic church, and that he wished it should be framed on a purer model. Even these sentiments, he said, he had delivered “sedately, and in a way which none but some ignorant or malignant hearers could find fault with.”
This reply was favourably received by the chancellor, who, however, forbade hin “ to read upon those nice questions.” Cartwright soon after presented to Dr May, the vice-chancellor, a paper containing several propositions relative to ecclesiastical reform, of which the following are the heads. “1. The names and functions of archbishops and archdeacons ought to be abolished. 2. The offices of the lawful ministers of the church, as bishops and deacons, ought to be reduced to the Scriptural and apostolical institution ;—the bishops to preach the word of God and pray, and deacons to have charge of the poor. 3. The government of the church ought not to be intrusted to bishops, chancellors, or to officials of archdeacons ; but every church ought to be governed by its own minister and presbytery. 4. Ministers ought not to be at large, but should have each charge of one particular flock. 5. No person ought to solicit or stand as a candidate for the ministry. 6. Ministers ought not to be made and appointed by the sole authority of bishops ; much less in a study or other private place; but the election ought to be made by the church. These reformations being effected, every one should labour in his calling: the magistrate should act by his authority,—the ministry by the word, and all by their prayers."
These propositions the vice-chancellor May admonished him to revoke, and, on his refusal, punished him by “the subtraction of his stipend," and so he continued in his lecture that year; but the next year Dr Whitgift, being vice-chancellor and armed with authority, summoned Cartwright before him, requiring “his absolute answer, whether he did mind to teach his auditor's otherwise, revoking what he had before taught, or would abide in the maintenance of the same ?"
Cartwright, in reply, avowed boldly that “the propositions were what he had openly taught, and still continued determined to maintain and defend." ' On receiving this decided answer, Whitgift proceeded to