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himself to his devotions, after his manner; and those ended, prepared himself to the block.

“The sheriff, in the mean time, was secretly withdrawn by one John Gib, a Scotch groom of the bed-chamber, whereupon the execution was stayed, and Markham left to entertain his own thoughts, which, no doubt, were as melancholy, as his countenance sad and heavy. The sheriff, at his return, told him, that since he was prepared he should yet have two hours' respite ; so led him from the scaffold, without giving him any more comfort, and locked him into the great hall to walk with Prince Arthur. The Lord Grey, whose turn was next, was led to the scaffold by a troop of the young courtiers, and was supported on both sides by two of his best friends; and coming in this equipage had such gaiety and cheer in his countenance, that he seemed a dapper young bridegroom. At his first coming on the scaffold, he fell on his knees, and his preacher made a long prayer to the present purpose, which he seconded himself with one of his own making, which, for the phrase, was somewhat affected, and suited to his other speeches ; but, for the fashion, expressed the fervency and zeal of a religious epirit .... Being come to a full point, the sheriff stayed him, and said he had received orders from the king to change the order of the execution, and that the Lord Cobham was to go before him. Whereupon he was likewise led to Prince Arthur's hall.

The Lord Cobham, who was now to play his part, and by his former actions promised nothing but matiere pour rire, did much cozen the world; for he came to the scaffold with good assurance and contempt of death. He said some short prayers after his minister, and so out-prayed the company that helped to pray with him, that a stander by said, 'He had a good mouth in a cry, but was nothing single.'.... For Sir Walter Raleigh, he took it upon the hope of his soul's resurrection, that what he had said of bim was true, and with these words would have taken a short farewell of the world. .....He was stayed by the sheriff, and told, that there resteth yet somewhat else to be done, for that he was to be confronted with some other of the prisoners, but named none. So as Grey and Markham, being brought back to the scaffold, as they then were.... looked strange one upon the other, like men beheaded and met again in the other world. Now all the actors being together on the stage (as use is at the end of a play), the sheriff made a short speech unto them, by way of the interrogatory of the heinousness of their offences, the justness of their trials, their lawful condemnation and due execution there to be performed, to all which they assented ; then saith the sheriff, “See the mercy of your prince, who, of himself, hath sent hither a countermand and given you your lives. There was no need to beg a plaudite of the audience, for it was given with such hues and cries, that it went from the castle into the town, and there began afresh, as if there had been some such like accident.

Raleigh, you must think (who had a window opened that way), had hammers working in his head to beat out the meaning of this stratagem. His turn was to come on Monday next; but the king has pardoned him with the rest, and confined him with the two lords in the Tower of London, there to remain during pleasure. Markham, Brookesby and Copley are to be banished the realm. This resolution

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was taken by the king without man's help, and no man can rob him of the praise of yesterday's action ; for the lords knew no other but that the execution was to go forward, till the very hour it should be performed ; and then, calling them before him, he told them how much he had been troubled to resolve in this business ; for to execute Grey, who was a noble young spirited fellow, and save Cobham, who was as base and unworthy, were a manner of injustice. To save Grey, who was of a proud, insolent nature, and execute Cobham, who had shown great tokens of humility and repentance, were as great a solecism; and so went on with Plutarch's comparisons in the rest, still travelling in contrarieties, but holding the conclusion in so indifferent balance that the lords knew not what to look for till the end came out; "and therefore I have saved them all.' The miracle was as great there as with us at Winchester, and it took like effect; for the applause that began about the king, went from thence into the presence, and so round about the court."

Lord Grey expired in the Tower after a captivity of eleven years. Cobham was ultimately discharged from confinement; but his large estates were wholly confiscated, and he was forsaken not only by all the nobility, but even by Cecil who had married his sister, and his own wife who enjoyed a large independent income. He died in a miserable garret in 1619.

Sir john Davies.

BORN A. D. 1569.--DIED A. D. 1626.

Sir Jonn Davies, a poet of some repute, but a better lawyer, was the third son of John Davies of Tisbury, in Wiltshire. He studied at Oxford, and about the beginning of 1583, entered the Inner Temple, where, although he did not wholly neglect professional studies, his irregularities subjected him to repeated censure, and finally to expulsion from comnions. He managed, however, to be called to the bar in 1595, but was soon after expelled by the unanimous sentence of the society, for an outrageous attack on a brother-barrister, within the precincts of Temple-hall. After this affair, Davies betook himself again to Oxford, where he is supposed to have written his poem on the 'Immortality of the Soul.' In the last parliament of Elizabeth, Davies sat as a member ; it is not altogether clear by what means the profligate wit, and poet, and expelled barrister, contrived to effect this change in his fortunes ; if he owed it to court-favour, and his adulatory acrostics on the words • Elizabetha regina, it must also be confessed that he commenced his political career like an independent man ;

he opposed monopolies, and vigorously asserted the privileges of the house against her majesty's servants. By such conduct, and suitable apologies, he regained his former rank in the Temple, and continued to advance in his profession until the accession of James I, opened up his way to preferment.

Having gone with Lord Hunsdon to Scotland, to congratulate the new king, James, who had been much pleased with one of Davics' poems, entitled · Nosce Teipsum,' graciously embraced the author, and

assured him of his royal regard. The king kept his promise, for in 1603 we find Davies sent as solicitor-general to Ireland, and immediately after appointed attorney-general. On the Ilth of February, 1607, he received the honour of knighthood. In 1612 he published the result of his personal observations in Ireland, under the title of • A Discovery of the true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued till the beginning of his majesty's reign.' This book has often been reprinted, and is a valuable historical and economical document. The same year, he represented the county of Fermanagh in the Irish parliament, and after a violent struggle between the catholic and protestant party, was chosen speaker of the house of commons. In 1615, he published the first reports of judgment in the king's courts of Ireland. In 1616 he returned to England. In 1620 he represented Newcastleunder-Line in parliament, and distinguished himself chiefly in debates on Irish affairs, in which he maintained, against Coke and others, that England could not make laws to bind Ireland which had an independent parliament of its own. He died suddenly on the 17th of December, 1626. His • Tracts’ were republished by Mr George Chalmers in 1786, with a life of the author. Davies was a man of sterling political integrity, and a clear-headed lawyer ; as a poet he has perhaps been rated below his real merits; his versification is harmonious, and his images are often both moral and elegant. His Nosce Teipsum' has been pronounced by the editor of an edition of the English poets, “a noble monument of learning, acuteness, command of language, and facility of versification."


Foulk, Lord Brooke.

BORN A. D. 1551.-DIED A. D. 1628.

Fulk, or Foulk, Lord BKooke, the eldest son of Sir Fulk Greville ot' Beauchamp Court at Alcaster, in the county of Warwick, was born in 1554. He received his grammar-school education at Shrewsbury. From Shrewsbury he went to Cambridge, and was admitted fellowcommoner of Trinity college. Sometime after he removed to the university of Oxford, and having finished his academic education, proceeded to the continent, where he took an extensive tour, and made himself master of every accomplishment that was requisite to fit liim for the court of Elizabeth. On his return he was introduced to her majesty by his uncle, Robert Greville. His knightly accomplishments soon won the favour of the queen, and she was pleased both to confer upon him the honour of knighthood, and the office of clerk to the sig. net, in the court of marches for Wales. His kinsman Sir Henry Sidney was then lord-president of that court and the principality. This appointment took place about 1576 or 1577 when Sir Fulk was not more than twenty-two or twenty-three. But he was by no means satisfied with the nature of his employment, and sought a change. He desired chiefly to be employed in some diplomatic capacity, and made several attempts to raise his fortune by serving the queen in this way. But he was tvo forward and ready to engage in embassies even without the queen's consent, and on one occasion was remanded from Dover, even after le

had obtained leave ; but when another occasiou offered, he actually stole away without permission, and in consequence so far incurred the queen's displeasure, that on his return she banished him from court for many months. It appears that Sir Fulk, notwithstanding his gentlemanly accomplishments, was guilty of frequently offending the high-spirited Elizabeth, who as frequently visited himn with her displeasure,—but always as became a magnanimous princess. With Sir Philip Sidney, who was a very intimate friend, he had engaged to go out with Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies; but the queen peremptorily forbade them both. They were distinguished ornaments of her court, and specially qualified to shine in those tilts and tournaments which were the courtly ainusements of the age; and she was unwilling at any time to bear their absence from her entertainments. In the 41st of Elizabeth he obtained the post of treasurer of marine causes for life; and in 1599 a commission was ordered to be made out for him as rear-admiral of the fleet. In 1602, he obtained from the queen a grant of the ancient and spacious park belonging to the manor of Wedgnock, which had been held by Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick, lately deceased. He also frequently represented the county of Warwick in parliament during Elizabeth's reign. He continued a favourite with her majesty till her death.

On the coronation of James I. that monarch made him knight of the Bath, confirmed to him his lucrative office in the court of marches, and bestowed upon him Warwick castle, with the manor of Knowle in the same county.

It seems that the jealousy of Sir R. Cecil now became an impediment to his advancing fortunes, and he in consequence retired to the duties of his office, and to the pursuits of literature. He devoted himself to composing a life of Queen Elizabeth, and made some progress in the work; but being denied the use of some papers in the possession of the privy council, he abandoned his design, and amused himself with revising the political recreations of his youthful years. Having continued in retirement till the death of Cecil, he at once emerged from obscurity into the royal favour_became chancellor of the exchequer, was created Lord Brooke of Beauchamp court, and obtained abundant honours and privileges. Upon the accession of Charles I. he was confirmed in his offices and honours by the favour of that prince. About this period he endowed a lecture on history in the university of Cambridge, and soon after fell a sacrifice to the resentment of a discontented domestic. On the 30th of September 1628, one Ralph Haywood who had spent the greatest part of his life in his service, without receiving such compensation as he thought himself entitled to, took upon him to expostulate with his master in his bed-chamber; upon which Lord Brooke severely and indignantly reproved him, and the altercation rising still higher, his lordship turned his back to go away, but the wretched menial instantly stabbed him in the back with a kuife. He then fled into another room where he killed himself with the same weapon. His lordship was buried in St Mary's, Warwick.

Fulk Greville was unquestionably a most accomplished gentleman and courtier, one of the brightest ornaments of the English court, in the era of its proudest glory. His writings consist chiefly of certain ele. gant poems and miscellanies, comprising conversations with Sir Philip

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Sidney. It is stated that he wrote a life of Sir Philip, but we presume it is only the short memoir prefixed to the 'Arcadia,' and sigued tihepiastres

By will be directed his estates, &c. to go to Robert GREVILLE, a kinsman, who was made lord-lieutenant of Warwickshire by the parliament in the civil wars. He was a person of considerable learning, and took an active part in the commotions of that day. Being sent to attack Litchfield, he was shot in the eye, March 2, 1643. He was the writer of a work against episcopacy, entitled “ A Discourse opening the nature of that Episcopacy which is exercised in England,' 1641. 4to. This tract discovers much acuteness and a respectable knowledge of the argument, both as connected with Scripture and ecclesiastical antiquity. He was the author of another work entitled, “ The Nature of Truth, its union and unity with the soul,' &c. 12mo. He was a Millennarian and a visionary.



Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

BORN A. D. 1592,--DIED A, D, 1623.

George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, the unworthy favourite of two kings, was born on the 20th of August, 1592, at Brookesby in Leicestershire, the seat of his father, Sir George Villiers. His mother was of the ancient family of Beaumont. In youth he betrayed little genius for letters, but greatly excelled in all personal accomplishments. His fine person and graceful manners introduced him to the favourable attention of James I. at the age of eighteen. “ James,” says Lord Clarendon, “ though he was a prince of more learning and knowledge than any other of that age, and really delighted more in books and in the conversation of learned men, yet, of all wise men living, he was the most delighted and taken with handsome persons and fine clothes." The youth's mother artfully availed herself of this predilection, on the occasion of James's visit to Cambridge in 1615. Among the entertainments got up by the university for the royal gratification was a Latin comedy called Ignoramus, which took the king's fancy wonderfully. Young Villiers was one of the actors, and his appearance and performance so charmed the royal spectator, that he resolved, as Sir Henry Wotton says, “ to make him a master-piece, and to mould him, as it were, Platonically to his own idea." Somerset was at this moment rapidly declining in the royal favour, or rather had entirely lost the affection of the capricious monarch. His eneinies confidently anticipated his fall, and, with a view to accelerate it, resolved to support the new favouritt, whose youth and giddy disposition they thought would render him a facile instrument for their own purposes. Abbot relates, that the queen, though sincerely solicitous for Somerset's overthrow, was at first extremely averse to the scheme by which it was now proposed to effect that ohject; and on his requesting her good offices on behalf of young Villiers, made use of these remarkable words : “My lord, you and the rest of your friends know not what you do; I know your master better than you all, for if this young man be once brought in, the first persons that he will plague must be you that labour for him ; yea, I shall have my part also; the king will teach him to despise and hardly

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