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name and blood, the daughter of Sir William Herbert of St Gillian's. The lady was six years older than her youthful husband, but as her father had bequeathed the family-estate to her on the express condition that she should marry a Herbert, and Edward was the only one of the race who could make her a fitting match, she consented to receive the boy-husband, and kindly remained with him at Oxford until he had completed his studies. In 1600, he came to London, and obtained a favourable introduction to the queen. Curiosity,” says he, “ rather than ambition brought me to court; and, as it was the manner of these times for all men to kneel down before the great Queen Elizabeth, who then reigned, I was likewise upon my knees in the presence-chamber, when she passed by to the chapel at Whitehall. As soon as she sau me, she stopped, and, swearing her usual oath, demanded • Who is this?' Every body there present looked upon me, but no man knew me, till Sir James Croft, a pensioner, finding the queen stayed, returned back, and told who I was, and that I had married Sir William Herbert of St Gillian's daughter. The queen looked attentively upon me, and, swearing again her ordinary oath, said, “It is pity he was married so young land, thereupon, gave her hand to kiss twice, both times gently clapping me on the cheek.”
At James's coronation, Herbert was made a knight of the bath. The customary oath, taken on admission to this order, to redress the wrongs of "all ladies and gentlemen” working upon his fervid imagination, soon plunged him into a series of adventures unmatched since the days of chivalry. A French cavalier having snatched a favour from the bonnet of a young lady, the damsel applied to Sir Herbert for redress, who instantly took up her cause, and compelled the Frenchman to restore the ribband. Ten years afterwards, having met with the same uncourteous cavalier, he reminded him of his offence, and challenged him to mortal combat, if he should dare to deny the fact of his chastisement. In his autobiography he gives us an account of five or six of his offers of combat made on occasion of offences, real or imaginary, sustained by him or his friends. In 1608, he set out to make the tour of the continent alone. He spent some time at Paris, where he was greatly Hattered by the queen. In 1610, he joined the English troops under Sir Edward Cecil, then employed by the prince of Orange in the siege of Juliers. On this occasion, a French officer in the same service, having dared him to an exploit of courage, the two sprung together out of the trenches, and rushed forward, sword in hand, to the opposite bulwark, from which, our knight informs us, he was the last to retire. Both escaped unhurt, and Sir Edward was afterwards the first to cross the ditch before the wall of the beleaguered city. “And now,” adds our hero, “ if I may say it without vanity, I was in great esteem both in court and city, many of the greatest desiring my company, though yet, before that time, I had no acquaintance with them. Richard, earl of Dorset, to whom otherwise I was a stranger, one day invited me to Dorset-house, where, bringing me into his gallery, and showing me many pictures, he at last brought me to a frame covered with green taffeta, and asked me who I thought was there, and there withal, presently drawing the curtain, showed me my own picture; whereupon, demanding how his lordship came to have it, he answered that he had heard so many brave stories of me, that he got a copy of a picture
which one Larking, a painter, drew for me. ....But not only the earl of Dorset, but a greater person than I will here nominate, got another copy from Larking, and, placing it afterwards in his cabinet (without that ever I knew such a thing was done,) gave occasion, to those that saw it after his death, of more discourse than I could have wished.” This greater person was undoubtedly the queen ; to whom also the following very remarkable passage must refer :—“And now in court a great person sent for me divers times to attend her, which summons, though I obeyed, yet, God knoweth, I declined coming to her as much as conveniently I could, without incurring her displeasure : and this I did, not only for very honest reasons, but, to speak ingeniously, because that affection passed between ine and another lady (who, I believe, was the fairest of her time), as nothing could divert it."
In 1614, he again went abroad, and served some time under the prince of Orange. Two years afterwards he was sent as ambassador to the French court. On this occasion he quarrelled with the constable of France, and was called home. Lloyd informs us that “he fell on his knees to King James, before the duke of Buckingham, to have a trumpeter, if not a herald, sent to Monsieur Lesignes (the constable), to tell him that he had made a false relation of the passages betwixt him and Sir Edward Herbert, and that Sir Edward would demand reason of him with sword in hand.”
While in Paris he published his celebrated treatise · De Veritate,' the object of which was to defend the sufficiency of natural religion, “not so much to impugn the doctrine or morality of the Scriptures, as to attempt to supersede their necessity, by endeavouring to show that the great principles of the unity of God, a moral government, and a future world, are taught with sufficient clearness by the light of nature."!
Few other circumstances of his life are on record. He was raised to the Irish peerage in 1625, and afterwards created an English baron by the title of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. He espoused the parliamentary side in the civil war, and had his castle demolished by the king's troops. He died in London in 1648.
Among the productions of his pen is a history of the reign of Henry VIII., of which Bishop Nicholson says, “the author has acquitted himself with the like reputation as Lord-chancellor Bacon gained by the life of Henry VII., having, in the politic and martial parts, been remarkably exact from the best records that remain.” His autobiography was edited by Horace, earl of Orford.
James, Earl of Derby.
DIED A. D. 1651.
James, seventh earl of Derby, was the eldest son of William, the sixth earl, by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Vere, earl of Oxford. Of his early life nothing is known. He first appears in the history of his country in 1628, when he was summoned to parliament by the title of Lord Strange. He does not appear to have engaged deeply in political life at this period. He had married in early life Charlotte De
"Hall's Sermon on Infidelity.
la Tremouille, daughter of Claude, duke of Thouars; and with her he lived chiefly in happy retirement upon his ample estates. The death of his father enlarged his fortune and influence, but the approach of the civil war quickly plunged him into all the difficulties and dangers of that crisis.
When the king retired to York, in the beginning of 1642, Derby was one of the first nobles who hastened to join him, and was immediately employed in rallying the forces of Lancashire around the royal standard. His exertions were at first eminently successful. lpwards of 60,000 men appeared at the different musters for the king's cause: but disaffection soon thinned their ranks, and in a short time a large proportion of this force had either retired to their homes or joined the opposite party. The earl, however, raised three regiments of foot, and as many troops of horse, from among his own tenantry, and clothed and armed them at his own cost. These exertions were thrown away on his ungrateful and infatuated sovereign, who allowed designing and selfish men to exclude Derby from those offices of trust and personal service to which he was so well entitled, while at the same time, he continued to employ him in raising fresh forces wherever his name and influence extended. These were no sooner mustered than they were draughted off to the main army, while the earl himself was left without an adequate force to garrison even his own mansion at Lathom.
While preparing for a siege here, the earl received notice that an expedition had been planned against his little sovereignty of Man. Anxious to preserve this island as a place of retreat for his sovereign in extremity, he instantly sailed thither, leaving his lady in charge of the mansion-house at Lathom. The countess acquitted herself most gallantly in her perilous trust. Fairfax approached with the intention of seizing Lathom, but was surprised to find its gates shut against him. He offered the countess a safe and honourable removal to the Familyse at Knowsley park, but she rejected his conditions, and declared that she would defend the place while life remained to her. The siege was theu commenced in form ; but so vigorously and skilfully did the gallant countess and her little garrison defend themselves, that at the end of three months the royal standard still floated over Lathom, and 2000 of the besiegers lay buried before its walls. The return of the earl compelled the assailants to break up the siege on the 27th of May, 1644.
The earl and his countess soon after this retired to the isle of Man, which they held out for their monarch even after the death of the first Charles. He remained here till 1651, when, at the summons of the younger Charles, he again appeared in Lancashire for the purpose of raising troops for the king's service. Nothing could be more hopeless than the enterprise in which Charles was now engaged; but Derby's loyalty knew no faltering. It was of that lofty kind which was ever ready to suffer all things rather than sacrifice its allegiance. At Wi. gan, Derby's party was unexpectedly set upon by Lilburn, and near. ly the whole of them cut to pieces in the street. The earl himself escaped almost singly, after having had two horses shot under him, and having received seven shot in his breast-plate. After the fatal 3d of September, Derby having provided for the king's concealment, attempted to regain his own country, but was apprehended on the borders of Cheshire, and led a prisoner to Chester.
Parliament sent down a commission to nineteen military officers, 'to try the earl of Derby for his treason and rebellion.' By this tribunal he was found guilty, and adjudged to be beheaded at his own house of Bolton-le-moors. The sentence was carried into effect on the 15th of October, 1651. The following is from a narrative by Bagaley, one of the earl's gentlemen, printed in Collins' peerage: Ou mounting the scaffold, his lordship “called for the headsman, and asked to see the axe, saying, ‘Come friend, give it me into my hand, I'll neither hurt it nor thee, and it cannot hurt me, I am not afraid of it;' but kissed it and so gave it to the headsman again. Then asked for the block, which was not ready, and turned his eyes and said, “How long, Lord, how long ?' Then, putting his hand into his pocket, gave him two pieces of gold, saying, “This is all I have, take it, and do thy work well, and when I am upon the block and lift up my hand, then do you your work; but I doubt your coat is too burly, (being of great black shag,) it will hinder you or trouble you. Some standing by bid him ask his lordship’s forgiveness, but he was either too sullen or too slow, for his lordship forgave him before he asked him. And so passing to the other end of the scaffold, where his coffin lay, spying one of his chaplains on horseback, among the troopers, said, “Sir, remember me to your brothers and friends ; you see I am ready, and the block is not ready, but when I am got into my chanber, as I shall not be long out of it, (pointing to his coffin,) I shall be at rest, and not troubled with such a guard and noise as I have been ;' and so turning himself again, he saw the block, and asked if it was ready; and so going to the place where he began his speech, said, “Good people, I thank you for your prayers and for your tears; I have heard the one and seen the other, and our God sees and hears both. Now, the God of heaven bless you all.. Amen.' And so having turned himself towards the block, and then looking towards the church, his lordship caused the block to be turned and laid that ways, saying, “I will look towards the sanctuary which is above for ever.' Then, having his doublet off, he asked, “How must I lie ? will any one shew me? I never yet saw any man's head cut off, but I will try how it fits : and so laying himself down, and stretching himself upon it, he rose again and caused it to be a little removed; and standing up, and looking towards the headsman, said, “Remember what I told you ; when I lift up my hands, then do your work.'
“And at his friends about him bowing, said, “ The Lord be with you all : pray for me :
e:' and so kneeling on his knees, made a short and private prayer, ending with the Lord's prayer. And so bowing himself again, said, • The Lord bless my wife and children: the Lord bless us all.' So, laying his neck upon the block, and his arms stretched out, he said these words aloud :
Blessed be God's glorious name for ever and ever. Amen.
Let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen. And then listing up his hands, was ready to give up the ghost, but the executioner, not well observing, was too slow, so his lordship rose again, saying to the headsman, - What have I done that I die not? Why do not you your work ? Well, I will lay myself down once again in peace, and I hope I shall enjoy everlasting peace.' So he laid himself down again, with his neck to the block, and his arıns stretched out, saying the same words
Blessed be God's glorious name for ever and ever. Amen.
Let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen.' And lifting up his hands, the executioner did his work, and no manner of noise was then heard but sighs and sobs."
“ The earl of Derby," says Clarendon, “ was a man of unquestionable loyalty to the late king, and gave clear testimony of it before he received any obligations from the court, and when he thought himself disobliged by it. This king, in his first year, sent him the garter, which, in many respects, he had expected from the last. And the sense of that honour made him so readily comply with the king's command, in attending him, when he had no confidence in the undertaking, nor any inclination to the Scots, who, he thought, had too much guilt upon them, in having depressed the crown, to be made instruments of repairing and restoring it. He was a man of great honour, and clear courage ; and all his defects and misfortunes proceeded from bis having lived so little time among his equals that he knew not how to treat his inferiors, which was the source of all the ill that befell him ; having thereby drawn such prejudice against him from persons of inferior quality, who yet thought themselves too good to be contemned, that they pursued him to death."
The earl's heroic countess, after the surrender of the Isle of Man, led a life of considerable hardship and adventure for some time. At the restoration, the family estates reverted to her eldest son, and he spent his few remaining days at Knowsley park. He died in 1652.
DIED A. D. 1651.
Henry Ireton, one of the most distinguished statesmen and generals of the commonwealth of England, was the eldest son of German Ireton, Esq. of Attington in Nottinghamshire. The date of his birth is not mentioned in any of the biographies, but it probably was somewhere between 1608 and 1610. This we infer from the fact of his leaving the university of Oxford in 1629, after having taken the degree of B. A., as a gentleman commoner of Trinity college. Upon leaving the university he studied the law in the Middle temple in conjunction with John Lambert, who also became subsequently a distinguished officer in the parliamentary army. It appears that Ireton had continued in the legal profession at least twelve or thirteen years before he changed it for that of arms. Having entered into the service of the parliament he was promoted gradually from the rank of captain to that of commissary-general. These advances were probably facilitated by bis interest with Cromwell, having married his daughter Bridget, but, no doubt, were chiefly owing to his eminent abilities whether in the council or in the field. That he was a person of considerable influence at the commencement of the war may be inferred from the fact, that he was one of the seventy-five persons who undertook each to raise a troop of horse for the service of the parliament. His brother, Sir John Ire.. ton, was also lord-mayor of London under the protectorate. He was first captain in the regiment of horse commanded by Algernon Sianey,