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THE PRESENT TESTIMONY.

ETC., ETC.

9

No. 1.

EXHIBITION OF

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THE THREE WORDS IN THE PSALTER,

GO-1, L'OM, AM. In the Hebrew Psalter, the three following words occur, 3, DR?, by or Dy. In the authorised version, these words are somewhat indefinitely rendered, by the words “heathen,” “nation," or "people.”

It has been attempted, in the present case, to translate the Hebrew more accurately, by rejecting the word

people” altogether, and by substituting “gentiles” for " heathen."

The word "people," even when occasionally modified by the plural form to suit the Hebrew plural, is far too indefinite to convey accurately the meaning of the ori

ginal. Peoples,” indeed, would signify the same, or 14 nearly the same as “nations"; but it is hardly English,

” nor has it been employed in the authorised version of the Psalms. “People,” in the singular number, leaves the reader in the dark as to whether it means:-1. the Jewish people; 2. the Gentiles; 3. all nations, including the Jews: or, lastly, whether it is a generic term for Mankind.

The word “ heathen” was probably more nearly correct when the authorised version was made than

now,

it having acquired in our own day a peculiar signification, i.e. not Gentiles as distinct from Jews, but any nation who does not professedly worship the one true God; in other words, all mankind, except Jews, Christians, and Mahometans.

The plan, then, that has been adopted, is:-
I. Always to render the above Hebrew words by

1

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VOL.III. PT.I.

“nation" when they occur in the singular, always by “gentiles” when they occur in the plural.

II. As this rule has been universally adopted in the text, the very few cases of exception in which even the word “people” might be preferable, are noticed in the margin.

III. Never to depart from the words of the authorised version, except in the employment of the words “nation" or “ gentiles”; or where such a change having been made, the grammar or sense absolutely requires some farther alteration.

As the writer's object has been to furnish a critical help, rather than a new version to supersede the old, he hopes he has in some measure succeeded.1 Ps. 2: 1. Why do the gentiles (a pl.) rage, and the gentiles (pl.)

imagine a vain thing? 8. Ask of me, and I will give thee the gentiles (a pl.) for thine

inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy

possession. 3: 6. I will not be afraid for ten thousands of the nation? (y sing.),

that have set themselves against me round about. 8. Salvation belongeth unto the Lord; thy blessing is upon thy

nation (v sing). 7: 7. So shall the congregation of the gentiles (5 pl.) compass thee

about: for their sakes, therefore, return Thou on high. 8. The Lord shall judge the gentiles (v pl.): judge me, o God,

according to my righteousness, and according to the inte

grity that is in me. 9: 5. Thou hast rebuked the gentiles (a pl.), thou hast destroyed

the wicked, thou hast put out their name for ever and ever. 8. And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall

minister judgment to the gentiles in uprightness (5 pl.) 11. Sing praises to the Lord, which dwelleth in Zion; declare

among the gentiles (v pl.) his doings. 15. The gentiles ( pl.) are sunk down in the pit that they made;

in the net which they hid is their own foot taken, 17. The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the gentiles :

(a pl.) that forget God.

3

1

Having inserted, whilst verifying this paper, for a, go-i (a sing.), when it was found in the singular number, and (a pl.) when it was found in the plural; and for oy, similarly (v sing.) and (w pl.); and for oxs, similarly (5 sing.), and (5 pl.), I have taken editorial liberty, and allowed them to remain, for the saving of time to those who know Hebrew. The versification is according to the English Bible.—ED.

Or “people.” 3 Or “nations,” including the Jews, but gentiles seem to be specially

meant.

Ps. 9: 19. Arise, O Lord; let not man prevail: let the gentiles (a pl.)

be judged in thy sight. 20. Put them in fear, o God; that the gentiles (a pl.) may

know themselves to be but men. 10:16. The Lord is king for ever and ever; the gentiles (a pl.) are

perished out of his land. 14: 4. Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge? who eat up

my nation (v sing.) as they eat bread, and call not upon

the Lord. 7. O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! when

the Lord bringeth back the captivity of his nation (v sing.),

Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad. 18:27. For thou wilt save the afflicted nation (v sing.); but wilt

bring down high looks. 43. Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the nation

(y sing.); and thou hast made me the head of the gentiles (pl.); a nation (v sing.) whom I have not known

shall serve me. 47. It is God that avengeth me, and subdueth the gentiles (v pl.)

under me. 49. Therefore will I give thanks unto thee, O Lord, among the

gentiles (a pl.), and sing praises unto thy name. 22: 6. But I am a worm, and no man: a reproach of men, and de

spised of the nation (y sing.). 27. All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the

Lord; and all the kindreds of the gentiles (a pl.) shall wor

ship before thee. 28. For the kingdom is the Lord's, and he is the governor among

the gentiles (3 pl.), 31. They shall come, and shall declare his righteousness unto a

nation (y sing.) that shall be born, that he hath done this. 28: 9. Save thy nation (y sing.), and bless thine inheritance; feed

them also, and lift them up for ever. 29:11. The Lord will give strength unto his nation (v sing.); the

Lord will bless his nation (v sing.) with peace. 33:10. The Lord bringeth the counsel of the gentiles (a pl.) to nought;

he maketh the devices of the gentiles (v pl.) of none effect. 12. Blessed is the nation (a sing.) whose God is the Lord; and

the nation (v sing.) whom he has chosen for his own in

heritance. 35:18. I will give thee thanks in the great congregation; I will

praise thee among a great nation (y sing.). 43: I. Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly

nation (a sing.): O deliver me from the deceitful and uri

just man. 44: 2. How thou didst drive out the gentiles (a pl.) with thine hand,

and plantedst them; how thou didst afflict the gentiles

(5 pl.), and cast them out. 11. Thou hast given us like sheep appointed for meat; thou hast

scattered us among the gentiles (a pl.). 12. Thou sellest thy nation (v sing.) for nought, and dost not in

crease thy wealth by their price. 14. Thou makest us a byword among the gentiles (a pl.), a

shaking of the head among the gentiles 3 pl.).

ever.

Ps. 45: 5. Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies;

whereby the gentiles (v pl.) fall under thee. 10. Hearken, o daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear;

forget also thine own nation (v sing.), and thy father's

house. 12. And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the

rich among the nation (v sing.) shall entreat thy favour. 17. I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations;

therefore shall the gentiles (v pl.) praise thee for ever and 46: 6. The gentiles (a pl.) raged, the kingdoms were moved; he

uttered his voice, the earth melted. 10. Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among

the gentiles (a pl.), I will be exalted in the earth. 47: 1. O clap your hands, all ye gentiles (v pl.); shout unto God

with the voice of triumph. 3. He shall subdue the gentiles (v pl.) under us, and the gentiles

(5 pl.) under our feet. 8. God reigneth over the gentiles (a pl.): God sitteth-upon the

throne of his holiness. 9. The princes of the gentiles (v pl.) are gathered together, even

the nation (v sing.) of the God of Abraham: for the shields

of the earth belong unto God: he is greatly exalted. 49:1. Hear ye this, all ye gentiles (v pl.); give ear, all ye inhabitants

of the world. 50: 4. He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth,

that he may judge his nation (v sing.). 7. Hear, O my nation (v sing.), and I will speak; O Israel, and

I will testify against thee: I am God, even thy God. 53: 4. Have the workers of iniquity no knowledge? who eat up my

people (v sing.) as they eat bread: they have not called 6. O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! when

God bringeth back the captivity of his nation (v sing.),

Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad. 56: 7. Shall they escape by iniquitý? in thine anger cast down the

gentiles (v pl.), O God. 57: 9. I will praise thee, O Lord, among the gentiles (v pl.); I will

sing unto thee amongst the gentiles (5 pl.). 59: 5. Thou, therefore, O Lord God of hosts, the God of Israel,

awake to visit all the gentiles (a pl.): be not merciful to

any wicked transgressors. 8. But thou, O Lord, shalt laugh at them; thou shalt have all

the gentiles (a pl.) in derision. 11. Slay them not, lest my nation (v sing.) forget; scatter them

by thy power; and bring them down, O Lord our shield. 60: 3. Thou hast shewed thy nation (y sing.) hard things, and thou

hast made us to drink the wine of astonishment. 62:8. Trust in him at all times; O nation (v sing.), pour out your

heart before him; God is a refuge for us. 65: 7. Which stilleth the noise of the seas, the noise of their waves,

and the tumult of the gentiles (5 pl.). 66: 7. He ruleth by his power for ever; his eyes behold the gentiles

(a pl.): let not the rebellious exalt themselves. 8. O bless our God, ye gentiles (v pl.), and make the voice of

his praise to be heard:

upon God.

Ps. 67: 2. That thy way may be known upon earth, thy saving health

among all gentiles (a pl). 3. Let the gentiles (v pl.) praise thee, O God; let all the gentiles

(v pl.) praise thee. 4. O let the gentiles (5 pl.) be glad and sing for joy; for thou

shalt judge the gentiles (v pl.) righteously, and govern the

gentiles (pl.) upon earth. 5. Let the gentiles (y pl.) praise thee, O God; let all the gentiles

(y pl.) praise thee. 68: 7. O God, when thou wentest forth before thy nation (v siny),

when thou didst march through the wilderness; 22. The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan, I will bring

my nation again from the depths of the sea : 30. Rebuke the company of the spearmen, the multitude of the

bulls, with the calves of the gentiles (v pl.) till every one submit himself with pieces of silver; scatter thou the

gentiles (v pl) that delight in war. 35. O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places; the God of

Israel is he that giveth strength and power unto his

nation (v sing). 72: 2. He shall judge thy nation (v sing.) with righteousness, and

thy poor with judgment. 3. The mountains shall bring peace to the nation (v sing.) and

the little hills, by righteousness. 4. He shall judge the poor of the nation (v sing.), he shall save

the children of the needy, and shall break in pieces the

oppressor. 11. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all gentiles (3 pl.)

shall serve him. 17. His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued

as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all

gentiles (a pl.) shall call him blessed. 73:10. Therefore his nation (v sing.) return hither; and waters of a

full cup are wrung out to them. 74:14. Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him

to be meat to the nation (y sing.) inhabiting the wilderness. 18. Remember this, that the enemy hath reproached, O Lord, and

that the foolish nation (y sing.) have blasphemed thy name. [77 ver. 14, thou hast declared thy strength among the

people (v pl.) Ed.] 77:15. Thou hast with thine arm redeemed thy nation (v sing.), the

sons of Jacob and Joseph. 20. Thou leddest thy nation (v sing.) like a flock by the hand of

a

Moses and Aaron. 78: 1. Give ear, O my nation (y sing.), to my law: incline your ears

to the words of my mouth. 20. Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out, and

the streams overflowed; can he give bread also ? can he

provide flesh for his nation (y sing.)? 52. But made his own nation (v sing.) to go forth like sheep,

and guided them in the wilderness like a flock.

The words “my nation,” here, are a supplement of the English translators, and have no equivalent in the text of the Hebrew.-ED.

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