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upon with our habitation which is from heaven: since we shall indeed be found clothed upon, and not naked. For we that are in this tabernacle groan, being burthened; not that we wish to be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality may be swallowed up by life. Now he that hath prepared us for this very purpose, is God; who hath also given to us the earnest of the spirit. Where. fore we are always of good courage, and know that, while we are present in the body, we are absent from the Lord: (for we walk by faith, not by sight:) we are of good courage, I say, and desirous rather to be absent from the

9 body, and to be present with the Lord. Wherefore we






earnestly strive also that, whether present or absent, we may be well-pleasing to him. For we must all appear before the judgement-seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to what he hath done, whether it be good or bad. Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; and we are made manifest to God, and I hope that we are made manifest in your consciences also. For we commend not ourselves again to you, but give you occasion to glory on our account; that ye may have somewhat to answer those who glory in appearance, and not in heart. For whether we were beside ourselves, it regarded God: or whether we be of a sound mind, it re. gardeth you. For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we have thus judged, that, if one died for all, then all were in a state of death * : and that he died for

* All mankind were subject to mortality, without any reasonable hope of bring stored to life. Christ died for the benefit of all, that all by his doctrine and resurrection might be recovered to the hope of life, and that under the influence of this hope they might live to him, that is, might yield obedience to his gospel, and lio in the practice of virtue and piety. Mr. Alexander in his Commentary on 1 Cor. * p.95, gives a different turn to the passage. “For the love of Christ binds us together, q. d. in the closest bonds of friendship and benevolence, because we thus judge, that f one man died for all, them all have died, i. e. to themselves. Christians are here elegantly represented as dying with Christ to all kinds of sin, and more especially to the selfish and malignant passions.”







all, that those who live should no longer live to themselves, but to him who died and rose again for them *. Wherefore henceforth we know no man according to the flesh : yea, though we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we no longer know him. Wherefore if any man be in Christ, there is a new creation +: the old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. But all things are of God; who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation: namely, that God through Christ reconciled the world to himself, imputed not to them their trespasses, and committed to us the doctrine of reconciliation. We are therefore ambassadors forf Christ, as though God besought you by us: we, for Christ, entreat you, “Be ye reconciled to God.” For God hath made him, who knew no sin, to be a sin for us $, that we may be justified || before God through him.

Ch. vi. Now we as working together with God, beseech you

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also that ye receive not the favour" of God in vain: (for Isaiah saith, “I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation I have assisted thee:” behold, now is the well-accepted time: behold, now is the day of

3 salvation:) giving none offence in any thing, that our


ministry be not blamed: but in all things recommending ourselves as the ministers of God; by much patience, by afflictions, by necessities, by distresses, by stripes, by

* Or, who died and was raised for them. t he is a new creature, N. See N. m. # Or, in the stead, or place, of N. m. § A sin-offering for us, N. that is, Christ who had never violated the law, suffered

death as a transgressor, that we gentiles, who as such were regarded as sinners and

outlaws, might be justified or acquitted, and admitted to the privileges of the gospel-covenant. By the death of Christ the new covenant was ratified, the blessings of which are offered equally to Jews and gentiles. The apostle in writing to the gentiles expresses himself in the first person, as one of their number. See Locke's preface to the Epistles, p. 6. In all this there is no allusion to the commonly received doctrine of atonement by vicarious sufferings. | “So as to be admitted into the christian covenant by faith; and into heaven, by

adding obedience to faith.” Newcome.

s] Or, gracious gospel, N. m.

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imprisonments, by danger in disturbances, by labours, by watchings, by fastings; by purity, by knowledge, by long-suffering, by kindness, by the holy spirit, by love unfeigned, by the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left; through honour and disgrace, through evil report and good report: as deceivers, and yet true; as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and, behold, we live ; as chastened, and not killed; as grieved, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things. Our mouth is opened to you, O Corinthians, our heart is enlarged. Ye are not straitened in us; but ye are straitened in your own bowels. Now as a recompence for this, (I speak as to my children,) be ye also enlarged. Be not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with iniquity ? and what communion hath light with darkness 2 and what concord hath Christ with Belial 2 or what part hath a believer with an unbeliever ? and what agreement hath the temple of God with idols 2 For ye are the temple of the liv. ing God: as God hath said, “I will dwell among them, and walk among them ; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and ye be separated,” saith the Lord, “ and touch not any unclean thing; and I will receive you, and will be a father unto you, and ye shall be unto me sons and daughters,” saith the Lord Almighty.

Ch. vii. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let to

cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit perfecting holiness in the fear of God. Receive us: we have wronged no man; we have cor rupted no man, we have defrauded no man. I speak no this to condemn you : for I have said before that ye are in our hearts to die together and live together. Great " my freedom of speech toward you, great is my glorying

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of you: I am filled with comfort, I abound exceedingly








in joy under all our affliction. For when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest, but we were afflicted on every side: without were oppositions, within were fears. Nevertheless God, who comforteth those that are brought low, comforted us by the coming of Titus: and not by his coming only, but by the comfort with which he was comforted because of you, when he told us your earnest desire, your lamentation, your zeal for me: so that I rather rejoiced. For though I grieved you by my epistle, I do not repent; though indeed I did repent: for I perceive that my epistle hath grieved you for a short time only. Now I rejoice, not that ye were grieved, but that ye were grieved to repentance: for ye were grieved in a godly manner, so that ye received damage by us in nothing. For a godly sorrow * worketh repentance to salvation, not to be regretted: but the grief of the world worketh death. For, behold, this very thing that ye grieved in a godly manner, what diligence did it work in you, yea, what defence of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what earnest desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what punishment . In all things ye have proved yourselves to be clear in this matter. Wherefore, though I wrote to you, I did it not so much for his cause that had done the wrong, or for his cause that had suffered the wrong, as that your care for us might be made manifest to you, in the sight of God. We were therefore comforted by reason of your comfort: and we rejoiced exceedingly more by reason of Titus's joy, because his spirit was refreshed by you all. For if I have gloried to him in any respect concerning you, I have not been put to shame: but as we spake all things to you in truth, so our glorying also, which I made before Titus, is found a truth. And his

* grief in a godly manner, N.


tender affection is more abundant toward you; while he remembereth the obedience of you all, how ye received him with fear and trembling. I rejoice that in every thing I have confidence in you.

Ch. viii. Now we make known to you, brethren, the very

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liberal * gift bestowed by the churches of Macedonia; that, under a great trial of affliction, the abundance of their joy f, and the depth of their poverty , hath abound. ed to the riches of their liberality S. For to their power, (I bear witness,) yea, and beyond their power, they were willing of themselves; besecching us with much intreaty, concerning their gift|, and the joint ministration of it to the saints. And this they did, not as we expected; but they first gave themselves to the Lord, and to us, by the will of God; so that we desired Titus, that, as he had already begun to do this, so he would likewise finish in you this work of liberality also. Now as ye aboundin every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and all diligence, and in your love to us; see that ye abound in this work of liberality also I speak not by way of command; but to try the sincerity of your love also, by

the diligence" of others. For ye know the gracious

goodness ** of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, while he was rich, yet for your sakes he lived in poverty ++, that

* Or, the godly gift. Or, the godlike gift. See S. 16. N. m. + “In their christian privileges. But Dr. Mangey and Mr. Wakefield conject.” zeitz;,” Newcome. The abundance of their want. Wakefield. # Or, their deep poverty, N. m. § Or, their rich liberality. N. m. | That we would receive the gift, R.T. * Or, earnestness. See Wakeio ** Gr, grace. N. m. ++ While he was rich—see Wakefield—rosze; or, or-wovri. The construto requires it to be understood, not of a passage from a preceding state of wealth"? succeeding state of poverty, but of two contemporary states. He was rich and P^* at the same time. II Fox'sva, mendicus sum, mendicus vivo; Steph. Thesaur-in"P" dego; Constantin. Lex.-orrozivri, “pauper fuit, sive potius, mendicavit.” Erasmus The word properly signifies an actual state, not a change of state. Literally he was Po” or he was a beggar. See Odyss. o. 1.308. Our Lord was rich in miraculous o which he could employ if he pleased to his own advantage. But for the benefit of his followers he chose to lead a life of poverty and dependance, to deny himself the *

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