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whom I have begotten in [my] bonds, Onesimus: who formerly was unprofitable to thee, but is now profitable to thee and to me: whom I have sent again : do thou therefore receive him, that is, myself”: whom I was willing to retain with me, that in thy stead he might have ministered to me in my bonds for the gospel: but without thy consent I would do nothing: that thy benefit might not be as it were of necessity, but willingly. For perhaps he therefore departed for a time, that thou mightest receive him for ever; no longer as a servantt, but is above a servant +, a beloved brother: especially so to me; but how much more to thee, both in the flesh and in the Lord 2 Is therefore thou consider me as thy companions, receive him as myself. But if he have wronged thce in any thing, or owe thee any thing, put that to my atcount: I Paul have written it with my own hand, I will repay it : however, I do not say to thee that § thou owes to me even thy own self. Yes, brother, let me have joy of thee in the Lord: refresh my feelings || in Christs. Having confidence in thy compliance”, I have thus wril. ten to thee, knowing that thou wilt do even more than I say. At the same time also prepare me a lodging; for I trust that through your prayers I shall be graciously given unto you.

Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-labourers, salute thee. The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.


* my own bowels, N. and Gr. + i. e. slave, N. m.
† Or, “as a friend,” or, “as a sharer with thee in what thou hast.”
§ Or, not to say unto thee that, N. m.

| Wakefield. bowels, N. and Gr. “I in the Lord. R. T.
** Or, In confident expectation of thy compliance.

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GoD who, in several parts, and in several manners, 2 formerly spake to our fathers by the prophets, in these

last days hath spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath

appointed heir of all things, for whom also he constituted 3 the ages”: who, being a ray of his brightness, and an

image of his perfections t, and ruling all things by his

powerful word , when he had by himself made a cleans

ing of [our] sins $, sat down on the right hand of the 4 Majesty | on high; having been made so much greater than those messengers", as he hath obtained ** a more excellent name than they.

* 3,' 3, for whom. For this sense of 312, with a genitive, see Grotius in loc. Schleusner in verb. and Mr. Lindsey's Second Address, p. 297. Auvvis, ages, “This word,” says Dr. Sykes (in loc.) “does not signify the heavens and earth, and all things in them, but it means properly ages, or certain periods of time:” the Antediluvian, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic ages or dispensations. These were all intended to prepare the way for the age or dispensation of the Messiah. Abp. Newcome adopts the common translation, “by whom he made the worlds also.”

+ So Wakefield. “who, being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person,” N. -

† ruling and directing all things in the new dispensation, by authority derived from the Father. Gr. “the word of his power.”

5 when he had made a cleansing of our sins by the sacrifice of himself, N. But the judicious reader will observe that the words in Italics are not in the original. Cleansing of sin is bringing us out of an unholy into a holy state.

|| the divine Majesty, N.

“I i. e. the prophets, who are mentioned in the first verse. See Wakefield, the angels, N.

** Gr, inherited, N. m.

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For to which of those messengers * spake God at any time, “ Thou art my Son, this day I have adopted thee + 2* and again, “I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?” And when God bringeth again i the Firstborn into the world, he saith, “And let all the messengers of God pay homage to him $.” And of these messengers the scripture saith ||, “Who maketh the winds his messengers T ; and flames of lightning his ministers.” But to the Son he saith, “God is thy throne ** for ever and ever; a sceptre of rectitude is the sceptre of thy kingdom: thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity: therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy companions ++. And,

“Thou, Lord, in the beginning didst lay the founda

tion of the earth : and the heavens are the works of thy hands: they will perish; but Thou wilt remain if: and they all will grow old as doth a garment; and like a vesture thou wilt fold them up, and they will be changed; but Thou art the same, and thy years will not fail S$.” But to which of those messengers || said he at any time, “Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies

* the angels, N. See ver. 4. + begotten thee, Gr. and N.

3. i. e. after his resurrection, by which he became the first-born from the dead, Col. i. 18. Rev. i. 5. See Peirce and Newcome.

§ i. e. Let all the prophets and messengers of God acknowledge him as their superior. “Let all the angels of God worship him.” N. cited from Deut. xxxii. 43. LXX. where it is spoken of the Hebrew nation, and therefore cannot be understood of religious worship. See Sykes on Heb. i. 6.

| So Wakefield. And of the angels he saith, N.

“I So N. m. angels, N.

** Wakefield, Lindsey. “Thy throne, O God, is,” &c. N. “God is the support of thy throne,” Sykes.

+t N. m. fellows, N. t. All who like him were messengers from God to men.

fi remainest, N.

§§ This is a quotation from Psalm cii. 25. The immutability of God is here declared as a pledge of the immutability of the kingdom of Christ. “To shew (says Mr. Emlyn, Works, vol. ii. p. 340,) how able his God, who had anointed him, was to make good and maintain what he had granted him, a durable kingdom for ever and ever.” See Mr. Lindsey's Sequel, p. 488.

|| the angels, N.


thy footstool P” Are they not all servants *, sent forth to serve the future heirs of salvation + 2

CH. 11. For this cause we ought to give the more earnest at

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tention to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we let them escape us. For if the words which were spoken by messengers { were steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of punishment; how shall we escape, if we have neglected so great salvation, which began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by those that heard him; God bearing witness at the same time $, by signs and wonders and various mighty works, and distributions of the holy spirit, according to his own will P For || God hath not subjected to angels the succeeding age", of which we speak. But David hath somewhere testified, saying, “What is man, that thou art mindful of him 2 or the son of man, that thou regardest him P

* *

* Gr. and N. ministering spirits. The word spirit is a Hebraism to express a person's self, v. g. 1 Cor. ii. 11. the spirit of a man is a man, is a man himself: the spirit of God is God himself. 2 Tim. iv. 22. The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit, i.e. with thee. Here the former prophets are called ministering spirits, i. e. they were ministers or servants, whereas Christ appeared under the character of a Son. + So Wakefield. those who will be heirs of salvation, N." Rather, those who were about to be heirs of salvation, i.e. the former prophets were appointed for the encouragement and the confirmation of the faith of those who were at a future time to be delivered by Christ from the yoke of the law, or from the bondage of idolatry and vice. † i.e. by former prophets and teachers, in contradistinction to the Messiah, who is called a sov, and appointed a ruler. Angels, N. § Or, “God bearing joint-witness,” viz. with the apostles, &c. | Or, “moreover,” as introducing a collateral argument or fact. The writer having already proved that Christ was superior to angels, viz. to all preceding prophets and messengers from God, now proceeds, through the remainder of this chapter, to prove that he is in his nature inferior to angels considered as beings of an order superior to mankind, for that the nature of his commission required that he should be a proper human being. It is no objection that he uses the word angel in a different sense without giving notice of the change. This incorrectness of style is not uncommon in the sacred writers, and the author has before availed himself of the ambiguity of the word angel, ch. i. 7. For the use of yae as a connecting and not an illative particle, see Matt. i. 18. James i. 7. Heb. ii. 8. “I Or, “future world,” Gr. “that future dispensation,” Wakefield. Isaiah ix. 6, the Messiah is predicted as the Father of the age to come. See Sykes,

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Thou madest him a little lower than the angels; but thou hast crowned him with glory and honour *, thou hat subjected all things under his feet.” Now in that he hath subjected all things to him, he hath left nothing that is not subjected to him. But now we do not see all things subjected to him. But we see Jesus for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour, who was made a little lower than the angels +, that, by the favourt of God, he might taste death for every man $. For it became Him for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation | perfect through sus. ferings. For both Christ that sanctifieth, and those that are sanctified, are all of one Father: for which cause Christ is not ashamed to call them brethren ; saying, “I will declare thy name to my brethren; in the midst of the congregation I will praise thee.” And again, “I will put my trust in him.” And again, “Behold, I, and the children whom God hath given me.” Since then the children are partakers of flesh and blood, Christ him. self also in like manner partook of them T. ; that through

* “ and hast set him over the works of thy hands.” R.T. and N. in brackets. Th" clause is wanting in the Vatican, Clermont, and other manuscripts of note, and is left out in Griesbach's text. This passage is cited from the eighth Psalm, and can thero fore be applied to Christ only by way of accommodation. The apostle Paul reasons upon the same passage in a similar manner, 1 Cor. xv. 25–27, which is a presumptio proof that the epistle to the Hebrews was either written by him, or by some pers", perhaps Barnabas, or Luke, who was an associate with him, and familiarly acquaint” with the apostle's style of thinking and reasoning.

+ or, “who was a little inferior to angels,” i.e. by nature, like other men, and not by the voluntary assumption of a human form. See ver. 7.

+ i. e. gratuitous goodness, N. m. $ To taste death for every man is to die for the benefit of all mankind, Je” gentile, Sykes. All were admissible into that new covenant, of which the death of Christ was the ratification.

| Or, to make the leader of their salvation, who is conducting many sons to glory.

* As the children were human beings, so their deliverer was a being of the s” ..

rank, and not an angel, or superior spirit. The words might be rendered, ‘Since then the children partook in common of flesh and blood, he also completely shao

in the same.’

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