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Q. In multiplying 3 by 3, making 9, and the 9 al so by 3, making 27, wo uka, the 3 three times, what, then, is the 21 called ?

A. The third power, or cube of 3.
Q. What is the third power of 2? 34 ?
A. 8. 27. 64.

Q. What is the figure, or number, called, which denotes the power, as 3d power, 2d power, &c. ?

A. The index, or exponent.

Q. When it is required, for instance, to find the third power of 3, what is the index, and what is the power? A. 3'is the index, 27 the power.

Q. This index is sometimes written over the number to bo multiplied, thus, 32 ; what, then, is the power denoted by 24 ?

A. 2 X 2 X 2 X2=16.

Q. When a figure has a small one at the right of it, thus, 64, what does it mean?

A. The 5th power of 6, or that 6 must be raised to the

5th power.

A.

1. How much is 122, or the square of 12? A. 144. 2. How much is 4?, or the square of 4? A. 16. 3. How much is 10%, or the square of 10 ? A. 100. 4. Ilow much is 43, or the cube of 4? A. 64. 5. How much is 14, or the 4th power of l! A. 1. 6. What is the biquadrate, or Ith power, of 3? A. 81. 7. What is the square of ?? ? A. 1. 8. What is the cube of 1? ? 3? A. t. 64 9. What is the square of ,5? 1,2? A. ,25. 1,41. 10. Involve 2 to thc 2d power ; 2 to the 30 power. A. 4, 5. 11. Involve of to the 21 power; fo to the 24 power. A. o. Ito 12. Involve to the 21 power. A. t =*. 13. Involve to the 2d power, la What is 1", or the square off? 15. What is the value of a 16. What is the value of ?? A. :

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Exercises for the Slate. 1. What is the square of 900 ? A. 810000. 2. What is tho cube of 211? A. 9393931. 3. What is the biquadrate, or 4th power, of 80 ? A, 40960000. 4. Whac is the sursolit, or the 5th power, of 7? A. 16807, 5. Involve 11, $, , each to the 3d power. A. ift, ,

64 39319.

6. What is the square of 51 ? A. 301.
7. What is the square of 104? A. 2724,
8. What is the value of 85? A. 32768.
9. What is the value of 104? A. 10000.
10. What is the value of 64 ? A. 1296.
11. What is the cube of 25; A. 15625.

A 25

EVOLUTION.

any number.

I LXXXV. Q. What number, multiplied inio itself, will make 16 that is, what is the first power or root of the square number 16?

A. 4.
Q. Why?
A. Because 4 X 4-16.

Q. What number multiplied into itself three times, will make 27? that is, what is the 1st powe, or root of the cubic number 27 ?

A. 3.
Q. Why?

A. Because 3 X3 X3=27.

Q. What, then, is the method of finding the first powers or roots of 2:1, 3d, &c., powers called?

A. Evolution, or the Extraction of Roots.

Q. In Involution we were required, with the first power or root being given, to find higher powers, as 2d, 3d, &c., powors; but now it seems, that, with the 2d, 3d, &c., powers being given, we are required to find the 1st power or root again; how, then, does Evolution differ from Involution ?

A. It is exactly the opposite of Involution.
Q. How, then, may Evolution be defined ?
A. It is the method of finding the root of
1. What is the square root of 141? A. 12.
Q. Why?
A. Because 12 X 12=144.
2. What is the cube root of 27 ? A. 3.
Q. Why?
A. Because 3 X3 X3=27.
3. What is the biquadrate root of 81. A. 3.
Q. Why?
A. Because 3 X3X3 X3=81.

We have seen, that any number may be raised to a perfect power by Invo lution; but there are many numbers of which precise roots cannot be obtained; as, for instance, the square root of 3 cannot be exactly determined, there being no number, which, by being multiplied into itself, will make 3. By the aid of decimals, however, we can come nearer and nearer, that is, approximate towards the root, to any assigned degree of exactness. Those numbers, whose roots cannot exactly be mined, are called SURD Roots, and those, whose roots can exactly be determined, are called RATIONAL Roots.

To show that the square root of a number is to be extracted, we prefix this character, . Other roots are denoted by the same character with the indox of the required root placed before it. Thus, v9 signifies that the square root of 9 is to be extracted; 327 signifies that the cube root of 27 is to be extracted ; 4,64 = the 4th root of 64.

When we wish to express the power of several numbers that are connected ogether by theso signs, + :7,-, &c., a vinculum or parenthesis is used, drawn from the top of the sign of the root, and extending to all the parts of it'; thus, the cube roat of 30—3 is expressed thus, 3/30 -3, &c.

EXTRACTION OF THE SQUARE ROOT.

I LXXXVI. Q. We have seen (T LXXXV.) that the root of any number is its lst power; also that a square is the 2d power: what, then, is to be done, in order to find the 1st power'; that is, to extract the square root of any number?

A. It is only to find that number, which, being multiplied into itself, will produce the given number.

Q. We have seen (T LXXIX.) that the process of finding the contents of a square consists in multiplying the length of one side into itself; when, then, the contents of a square are given, how can we find the length of each side ? or, to illustrate it by an example, if the contents of a square figure be 9 feet, what must be the length of each side ?

A. 3 feet.
Q. Why?
A. Because 3 feet x 3 feet =

9 square feet. Q. What, then, is the difference in contents between a square figure whose sides are each 9 feet in length, and one which contains only 9 square feet?

A. 9 X 9=81-9=72.

Q. What is the difference in contents between a square figure containing 3 square feet, and one whose sides are each 3 feet in length ?

A. 6 square feet.

Q. What is the square root of 144? or what is the length of each side of a figure, which contains 144 square feet?

A. 12 square feet.
Q. Why?
A. Because 12 X 12=144.
Q. How, then, may we know if the root or answer be right?

Å. By multiplying the root into itself; if it produces the given number, it is right.

Q. If a square garden contains 16 square rods, how many rods does it measure on each side ? and why?

A. 4 rods. Because 4 rods x 4 rods = 16 square rods. 1. What is the square root of 64? and why? 2. What is the square root of 100? and why? 3. What is the square root of 49 ? and why? 4. Extract the square root of 144. 5. Extract the square root of 36. 6. What is the square root of 3600? 7. What is the square root of ,25?. A. ,5. 8. What is the square root of 1,44? A 1,2. 9. What is the value of 25 ? or, what is the square root of 25 ? 10. What is the value of ,4? A. ,2. 11. What is the square root of 1? A. J. 12. What is the value of n ? A. . 13. What is the square root of 1 of ? A. 14. What is the square root of 61? 161=w = A=27, Ans. 15. What is the value of n o of? A. . 16. What is the square root of 301?

17. What is the difference between the square root of 4 and the square of 41 or, which is the same thing, what is the difference between w 4 and 42 ?

4=2, and 42 = 16; then, 16—2=14, Ana,

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18. What is the difference between 9 and 92 ?
19. What is the difference between 16 and 79?
20. What is the difference between wat and 12? A. O.

21. There is a square room, which is calculated to accommodate 100 scholars; how many can sit on one side ?

22. If 400 boys, having collected together to perform some military evolutions, should wish to march through the town in a solid phalanx, or square body, of how many must the tirst rank consist ?

23. A general has 400 men; how many must he place in rank and file to form them into a square ? 24. A certain square pavement contains 1600 square stones, all of the same

I demand how many are contained in one of its sides? A, 40, 25. A man is desirous of making lris kitchen garden, containing 23 acres, or 400 rods, a complete square ; what will be the length of one side?

26. A square lot of lanıl is to contain 224 acres, or 3600 rods of ground; but, for the sake of fruit, there is to be il smaller square within the larger, which is to contain 25 ruds : what is tiie length of each side of both squares ?

A. 60 rods the cuter, 15 rods the inner.

Exercises for the Slate. 1. If a square field contains 6-100 square rods, how many rods in length does it measure on each side ? A. 80 rods.

2. How many trees in each row of a square orchard, which contains 2500 trees? A. 50 trees.

3. A general has a brigado consisting of 10 regiments, each regiment of 10 companies, and each company of 100 men : how many must be placed in runk and file, to form them in a complete square ? A. 100 men.

4. What is the square root of 2500? A. 50.
5. What is the 1st power of 1000000?? A. 1000.
6. What is the value of ✓ 360000 ? A. 600.

7. What is the difference between the square root of 36 and the square of 36 ? A. 1290.

8. What is the difference between / 4900 and 4900? A. 24009930.
9. What is tho Gitterence between 81 and 812 : A. 6552.
10. What is the difference between for and 2 ?

E = , and =1296; then, f - = = ff, Ans.
11. What is the difference between wie and 1962? A. 136.
12. What is the amount of 74 and 9? A. 5.
13. What is the sum of 4 and yo? A. 83.
14. What is the amount of 304 and 2724? A. 2.

15. What is the length of one side of a square garden, which contains 129€ square rods ? in other words, what is the square root of 1296 ?

'In this example, we have a little difficulty in ascertaining the root. This,
perhaps, may be obviated by examining the figure on the following page, (which
is in the form of the garden, and supposed to contain 1296 square rods,) and
curefully noting down the operation as we proceed.
OPERATIONS.

In this example, we know that 1st.

2d.

the root, or the length of one side Square Rods Square Rods.

of the garden, must be greater 30 ) 1296 ( 30 3) 1296 ( 36

than 30, for 302 = 900, and less 900

9

than 40, for 402 = 1600, which is

greater than 1296 ; therefore, we 60-46 = 66 ) 396( 6

take 30, the less, and, for conve396

396

nience sake, write it at the left

of 1296, as a kind of divisor, like0

0

Wiso at the right of 1296, in the

66) 396

6 rods,

6 rods.

30 rods.

30 rods.

6

is, 302

FIG.

form of a quotient in division; 30 rods.

6 rods.

(See Operation 1st.); then, sub

tracting the square of 30, = 900 30

6 sq. rods, from 1296 sq. rods, leaves B 6

с

396 sq. rods. 180

36

The pupil will bear in mind, that the Fig. on the left is in the form of the garden, and contains

the same number of square rods, A

D viz. 1296. This figure is divided

into parts, called A, B, C, and D.

It will be perceived, that the 900 Rods.

square rods, which we deducted, 30, length of A. 30 are found by multiplying the 30, breadth of A.

length of A, being 30 rods, by the

breadth, being also 30 rods, that 900, sq, rods in A. 180

= 900. To obtain the square rods in B, C, and D, the remaining parts

of the figure, we may multiply 30 rods.

6 rods. the length of each by the breadth

of each, thus; 30 x 6 = 180, 6 X 6=36, and 30 X 6= 180; then 180 + 36 + 180 = 396 square rods; or, add the length of B, that is, 30, to the length of D, which is also 30, making 60; or, which is the same thing, we may double 30, making 60; to this add tho length of C, 6 rods, and the sum is 65. Now, to obtain the square rods in the whole length of B, C, and D, we multiply their length, 6 rods, by the breadth of each side, thus, 66 X 6=396 square rods, the same as before.

We do the same in the operation ; that is, we first double 30 in the quotient, and add the 6 rods to the sum, making 66 for a divisor; next, multiply 66, the divisor, by 6 rods, the width, making 396 ; then, taking 396 from 396 leaves 0.

The pupil will perceive, the only difference between the 1st and 2d operation (which see) is, that in the 2d we neglect writing the ciphers at the right of the numbers, and use only the significant figures. Thus, for 30 + 6, we write 3 (tens) and 6 (units), which, joined together, make 36; for 900, we write 9 (hundreds). This is obvious from the fact, that the 9 retains its place under the 2 (hundreds). Instead of 60 + 6, we write 66. Omitting the ciphers in this manner cannot reasonably make any difference, and, in fact, it does not, for the result is the same in both.

By neglecting the ciphers, we may, perhaps, be at a loss, sometimes, to determine where we must place the square number. In the last example, we knew where the square of the root 3 (tens) = 9 (hundreds) should be placed, for the ciphers, at the right, indicate it; but had these ciphers been dropped, we should, doubtless, have hesitated in assigning the 9 its proper place. This difficulty will be obviated by observing what follows.

The square of any number never contains but twice as many, or at least but one figure less than twice as many, figures as are in the root. Thus, the square of the root 30 is 900; now, in 900 there are but three figures, and in 30, two figures ; that is, the square of 30 contains but one figure more than 30. Wo will take 99, whose square is 9801, in which there are four figures, and in its root, 99, but two; that is, there are exactly twice as many figures in the square 9801 as are in its root, 99. This will be equally true of any numbers whatever.

Hence, to know where to place the several square numbers, we may point ff the figures in the given number into periods of two figures each, commencing with the units, and proceeding towards the left. And, since the value of both whole numbers and decimals is determined their distance from the units' place, consequently, when there are decimals in the given number, we may begin at the units' place, and point off the figures towards the right, in the same manner as we point off whole numbers towards the left.

By each of the preceding operations, then, we find that the root of 1296 is 36, or, in other words, the length of each side of the garden is 36 rods.

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