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the direction of their business and introducing it into new channels ; but this is so trifling as to be scarcely worth mentioning.

But if these statements are correct, how does it happen, that nations have ever been so averse to adopting a suspension of intercourse, and have been so ready to plunge into war ? It is owing in a great degree, undoubtedly, to the prevalence of false and unchristian notions of honor. This is the secret of their strange conduct; and it is here we find the great difficulty, which is in the way of correcting that conduct.

The system of non-intercourse is regarded as cowardly and pusillanimous, while that of war is looked upon as courageous and noble ; a false notion, which enlightened policy and Christian feeling are beginning to correct. Mankind are beginning to open their eyes on this subject ; they have long and deeply felt the immeasurable evils of war ; and are at last convinced of the futility of warlike measures as a means of redress. And the time is coming, when the nation, that shall substitute non-importation and non-intercourse measures for a resort to arms, instead of being accounted mean and pusillanimous, will encircle itself with a wreath of true glory, that shall grow brighter and brighter till the end of days.

But this is not all ; as Christians, as men, who profess to be governed by the principles of the Gospel, we have no other resource. Acting on the principles of our great charter, which Jesus Christ has died to confirm, we are solemnly bound not to return evil for evil, not to give place to wrath, not to avenge ourselves ; in a word, not to engage in war of any kind. The suspension of intercourse is the extreme remedy, which is allowed us; and this is to be resorted to only in extreme cases. And it is an omen of good and glorious import, that distinguished politicians begin to occcupy the position, which the Gospel here allows us. It is enough for our present

purpose to mention Mr. Jefferson. The whole aspect of his Administration was pacific. It is but justice to this distinguished man to allow, notwithstanding the asperity with which' his character has sometimes been treated, that he possessed an intellect of the most capacious grasp, and a heart endued with the kindly and benevolent sensibilities. He saw clearly the tremendous evils of tyranny, religious intolerance, church establishments, war, and slavery; and denounced them not with a humble whisper and affected meekness, but openly and boldly. He distrusted power, particularly military power; because history had taught him, that, in ninety nine cases out of an hundred, it had been perverted and abused to purposes of oppression. And this perhaps accounts for some measures in his Administration, which appeared singular enough to the advocates of the war policy. Abundance of ridicule was thrown on his gun-boat system, and his non-intercourse system, on his ultra-democracy, his experimental agriculture, and his philosophy ; but it already begins to be whispered, that he both thought and acted with a foresight in advance of the age, in which he lived. Undoubtedly he did. And Christians, who deeply lamented some peculiarities in his religious views, will not be slow, nor wanting in cordiality, in their commendation of his foresight, his independence, his regard for equal rights, his abhorrence of injustice, his broad and glowing views of the capabilities and advancement of mankind. And this is the man, saying nothing of others standing high in the ranks of politicians, who has given his seal, the ample and bright stamp of his expansive mind to the doctrine of non-intercourse as a practical and effective principle in the regulation of the affairs of nations.

CHAPTER TWENTY SECOND.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS AS EXAMINED BY THE SCRIPTURES.

Closely connected with the doctrine of peace is that of Capital punishments. The true basis of the doctrine of peace is not absolute non-resistance; the existence of civil government, in the exercise of its authority to con, trol and to punish, is obviously recognized in the Scriptures ; and there are some extreme cases, (very few indeed, but still some extreme cases, ) where resistance and the use of force, so far as is necessary to disarm and confine the assailant, are justifiable and a duty ; but the basis of the great doctrine of peace, the one immutable principle, on which it stands and stands forever, is the INVIOLABILITY OF HUMAN LIFE.

Human life is sacred ; it is the gift of God; it is that which nothing short of divine power can create ; and no hand of man or angel, no principality or power of heaven or earth can lawfully touch it without the permission of that Being, who gave it existence. Hence the propriety and importance of saying something on the subject of Capital punishments. We oppose the practice of inflicting such punishments, FIRST, on the ground of scripture prohibition, SECONDLY, on the ground of reason and experience; and shall accordingly treat of the subject in that order.

purpose to mention Mr. Jefferson. The whole aspect of his Administration was pacific. It is but justice to this distinguished man to allow, notwithstanding the asperity with which' his character has sometimes been treated, that he possessed an intellect of the most capacious grasp, and a heart endued with the kindly and benevolent sensibilities. He saw clearly the tremendous evils of tyranny, religious intolerance, church establishments, war, and slavery; and denounced them not with a humble whisper and affected meekness, but openly and bol ly. He distrusted power, particularly military power; because history had taught him, that, in ninety nine cases out of an hundred, it had been perverted and abused to purposes of oppression. And this perhaps accounts for some measures in his Administration, which appeared singular enough to the advocates of the war policy. Abundance of ridicule was thrown on his gun-boat system, and his non-intercourse system, on his ultra-democracy, his experimental agriculture, and his philosophy ; but it already begins to be whispered, that he both thought and acted with a foresight in advance of the age, in which he lived. Undoubtedly he did. And Christians, who deeply lamented some peculiarities in his religious views, will not be slow, nor wanting in cordiality, in their commendation of his foresight, his independence, his regard for equal rights, his abhorrence of injustice, his broad and glowing views of the capabilities and advancement of mankind. And this is the man, saying nothing of others standing high in the ranks of politicians, who has given his seal, the ample and bright stamp of his expansive mind to the doctrine of non-intercourse as a practical and effective principle in the regulation of the affairs of nations.

CHAPTER TWENTY SECOND.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS AS EXAMINED BY THE SCRIPTURES.

Closely connected with the doctrine of peace is that of Capital punishments. The true basis of the doctrine of peace is not absolute non-resistance; the existence of civil government, in the exercise of its authority to con, trol and to punish, is obviously recognized in the Scriptures ; and there are some extreme cases, (very few indeed, but still some extreme cases, ) where resistance and the use of force, so far as is necessary to disarm and confine the assailant, are justifiable and a duty ; but the basis of the great doctrine of peace, the one immutable principle, on which it stands and stands forever, is the INVIOLABILITY OF HUMAN LIFE.

Human life is sacred ; it is the gift of God; it is that which nothing short of divine power can create; and no hand of man or angel, no principality or power of heaven or earth can lawfully touch it without the permission of that Being, who gave it existence. Hence the propriety and importance of saying something on the subject of Capital punishments. We oppose the practice of inflicting such punishments, First, on the ground of scripture prohibition, SECONDLY, on the ground of reason and experience; and shall accordingly treat of the subject in that order.

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