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continue exposed to many frauds and a great deal of useless labor in consequence of the want of a well established and uniform arrangement, which, in its outlines at least, should be understood and practised upon by all nations.—Great Britain and the United States, with a characteristic caution, have not ventured upon any very decisive measures even in respect to their own dominions, still less with reference to foreign countries; and the system of France, which necessarily encountered popular prejudice as well as national jealousy, has as yet exerted but litle influence beyond the limits of French territory. So that the undeniable evils, resulting from the want of an uniform system of weights and measures, still remain ; nor is there any prospect, that they will be remedied, except by the mutual and long-continued consultation of nations. On this ground, therefore, we assert it will be found a subject deserving the attention of a Congress of nations, whenever nations can be induced to meet together for the purpose of friendly and peaceable discussion. And as we have from time to time fortified the opinions, that have been hazarded, by an appeal to the authority of men well known to the public, and high in public estimation, we shall here introduce to the notice of the reader an extract from Mr. Adams' Report to the American Congress, which goes to show the importance of the subject and the measures proposed to be taken.

“ The plan, which is thus, in obedience to the injunction of both houses of Congress, submitted to their consideration, consists of two parts, the principles of which may be stated : 1. To fix the standard, with the partial uniformity of which it is susceptible for the present, excluding all innovation.-—2. To consult with foreign nations, for the future and ultimate establishment of universal and permanent uniformity.

" The two parts of the plan submitted are presented distinctly from each other, to the end that either of them, should it separately obtain the concurrence of Congress, may be separately carried into execution. In relation to weights and measures throughout the Union, we possess already so near an approximation to uniformity of law, that little more is required of Congress for fixing the standard than to provide for the uniformity of fact, by procuring and distributing to the executives of the States and Territories positive national standards conformable to the law. If there be one conclusion more clear than another, deducible from all the history of mankind, it is the danger of hasty and inconsiderate legislation upon weights and measures. From this conviction, the result of all inquiry is, that, while all the existing systems of metrology are very imperfect, and susceptible of improvements involving in no small degree the virtue and happiness of future ages; while the impression of this truth is profoundly and almost universally felt by the wise and the powerful of the most enlightened nations of the globe; while the spirit of improvement is operating with an ardor, perseverance and zeal, honorable to the human character, it is yet certain, that, for the successful termination of all these labors, and the final accomplishment of the glorious object, permanent and universal uniformity, legislation is not alone competent. A concurrence of will is indispensable to give efficacy to the precepts of power. All trifling and partial attempts of change in our existing system, it is hoped, will still be steadily discountenanced and rejected by Congress ; not only as unworthy of the high and solemn importance of the subject, but as impracticable to the purpose, and as inevitably tending to the reverse, to increased diversity, to inextricable confusion. Uniformity of weights and measures, permanent, universal uniformity, adapted to

the nature of things, to the physical organization and the moral improvement of inan, would be a blessing of such transcendent magnitude, that, if there existed upon earth a combination of power and will, adequate to accomplish the result by the energy of a single act, the being who should exercise it would be among the greatest benefactors of the human race. But this stage of human perfectibility is yet far remote. The glory of the first attempt belongs to France. France first surveyed the subject of weights and measures in all its extent and all its compass.-France first beheld it as involving the interests, the comforts, and the morals of all nations and of all after ages. In forming her system, she acted as the representative of the whole human race, present and to come. She has established it by law within her own territories ; and she has offered it as a benefaction to the acceptance of all other nations.—That it is worthy of their acceptance, is believed to be beyond a question. But opinion is the queen of the world; and the final prevalence of this system beyond the boundaries of France's power must await the time, when the example of its benefits, long and practically enjoyed, shall acquire that ascendency over the opinions of other nations, which gives motion to the springs and direction to the wheels of power.”

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CHAPTER FOURTH.

THE SLAVE TRADE.

There is another important subject, which would properly come before an international Congress, that of the Slave Trade. If there is any discussion, in which the whole human race could properly be concerned, it is in relation to this insufferable traffic. Nothing can be more humiliating to human nature, or more offensive in the sight of a just God than the fact, that multitudes of our fellow beings are, from year to year, causelessly and violently torn away from their homes and friends, and consigned to hopeless servitude in foreign lands. In order to have a correct view of the abominations of the Slave Trade, every man should apply the facts to himself and to his own case. Our views and feelings are apt to be limited by the narrow circle of our own personal interests; and the most aggravated evils, when they do not have a direct connection with ourselves but are remote from us, appear exceedingly diminished and almost harmless. But let us ask, what sum of money would compensate for the laceration of feeling and the unspeakable wretchedness of that parent among ourselves, who should behold his beloved children seized and carried off by a band of robbers. Look round upon your own family, and put the question to your own heart; and then

say, whether the cruel treatment of African fathers and African children is a trifling concern.

Many years since the miseries of Africa, connected with the slave trade and resulting from it, arrested the attention of philanthropists in various parts of the world. A number of excellent men, respected alike for their talents and their high moral character, long ago raised their voice against this tremendous evil, this concentrated essence of sin and wretchedness. The generous and enlightened men who have been referred to, are not to be blamed, if the results have not corresponded to their wishes. It is true, that the traffic has been prohibited by the Legislatures of England, France, and the United States; and various treaties have been formed with the same general object in view. But it has been found to avail almost absolutely nothing, that some nations have taken these just measures, and have even denounced the traffic as piracy, while others have continued to prosecute it. Instead of being entirely suppressed, as it ought to have been years ago, this odious and cruel trade is still openly carried on, and is not even essentially diminished.-Even to this day the peaceful villages of Africa are devastated; husbands and wives, parents and children, with a love towards each other as warm and pure as thrills in the breast of any European, are separated from each other's arms forever. In the year 1822 there were shipped from Africa for the single city of Rio Janeiro 31,240 negroes ; and for the city of Bahia more than 8000, swelling the Brazilian trade alone to the heart sickening aggregate of about 40,000 persons, cruelly and treacherously torn from their homes and families, and doomed to a life of toilsome and hopeless servitude. In 1823 the number of persons, thus introduced into the Brazilian ports, was nearly the same ; certainly not less. In the first six months of the year 1824, the number of

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