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so by the obedience of one shall many be, CATECHISM OF THE ANCIENT VAUDESB, made righteous."
OR ALBIGENSES. Thanks be to God, what mighty consola
No. 1. tion is there in various blessed promises to the wearied soul of man ! 0, how sure and (From a M.S. bearing the date of the year 1100)*. stedfast is this anchor to the soul amidst the many storms of temptation to which we are PASTOR.-If thou art asked, Who art thou ? hourly exposed, and which we, if unassisted, answer, could never overcome! Like the vessel Child.--A creature of God, and mortal, which wafted the apostle to the Roman P.-Why did God create thee? shores, we may be tossed and tempest-driven;
C.-—Thai I should know him as he is, and worthe sails may be rent, and the rudder gone, ship him, and that, having grace of him, I should
, . neither sun nor stars in many days appear
P.-Wherein doth thy salvation consist ? ing; in other words, all earthly hopes may C.-In three essential virtues, necessarily bebe darkened and destroyed; but still there is longing to salvation. a Pilot, who can and will conduct us safely P. Which are they? through this stormy deep, safe to the haven C.-Faith, hope, and charity. whither we would wish to steer. Yes; it is
P.-How canst thou prove this ? my pleasing duty to address you in the lan- abideth faith, hope, and charity, these three.”
C.-The apostle writes, in 1 Cor. xiii., "Now guage of the same apostle, and declare,
P.-What is faith? “There shall be no loss of any man's life
C.-According to the apostle, in Hebrews xi., among you, if ye abide in the ship;" if ye it is the substance (representation) of things hoped only continue in the ark of Christ's church, for, and the evidence of things not seen (or which casting all hopes and cares on him, who rules do not show themselves). the storm, and rescues all who look to him P.-How many kinds of faith are there? for help: “ Fear not,” he says, “I am the
C.-Two kinds; namely, living and dead. first and the last: I am he that liveth, and
P.-What is a living faith?
C.-That which works by charity. was dead; and behold, I am alive for ever- P.-What is a dead faith? more, Amen; and have the keys of hell and C.-- According to St. James, “Faith, if it hath of death.”
not works, is dead.”
« Faith is Finally, brethren, you are all, as sinners, in nothing without
works.” Or it may be said, that imminent danger. A subtle enemy is ever close is a dead faith which believes that there is a God, hand. A fearful hell is prepared for those at has a belief of God, but believes not in God. whom he can deceive. Death is rapidly ap
P.-Of what faith art thou ? proaching, to transfer you, it may be, to Satan's C.-Of the true catholic (universal) apostolical eternal keeping. O, will you not, then, listen faith. to an invitation, which can protect you from P.- What is that? all evil, and prevent every harm? May God C.-It is the faith which, according to the give you grace to hearken to his voice of teaching of the apostles, is divided into twelve
articles. mercy! May God's Spirit impart to you,
P.-What is that teaching? for time and eternity, the full and unchang- C.-“I believe in God the Father Almigbty” ing consolations which belong to such pro: (repeating the apostles' creed). mises as these : Heaven and earth shall P.-How canst thou know that thou believest pass away; but my words shall not pass | in God? away;' and, “ Believe on the Lord Jesus C.-By this: that I know and keep God's Christ, and thou shalt be saved."
commandments. And now, brethren, let all glory be ascribed
P.-How many be there of God's command
ments ? to the Father, and to the Son, and to the
P.-Ten, as are seen in Exodus and DeuteroHoly Ghost, three Persons in one Godhead,
nomy. as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever P. - Which are they? shall be, world without end. Amen.
C:-"Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God. Thou shalt have none other gods before me. shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above,” &c. (repeating Deut. v. 7-21 inclusive).
P.-To what form may these commandments be reduced (or made to depend)?
• Eighty years, therefore, before the appearance of Peter of Lyons, commonly called "Peter Waldo." Long before the times of that celebrated evangelist-preacher, the Vaudese were known by this name, which is derived from“ word in the Romana tongue, signifying "sorcerer, or witch" (Monastier's "History of the Vaudese Church”).
C.-Unto two great commandments; that is to C.-I pray (by repeating) the prayer taught by say, Love God above all things, and thy neigh- the Son of God, saying, “Our Father, which art bour as thyself.
in heaven,” &c. CHAP. III.
P.-What is the other essential virtue that apP.-What is the foundation of these command- pertaineth necessarily to salvation ? ments, by which every one should enter into life, C.-Charity. and without which none can worthily keep (or P.-What is (or of what nature is) charity ? follow), or fulfil the commandments ?
C.-It is a gift of the Holy Ghost, by which C.-Our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the apostle the soul is formed anew in its will, and enlightened saith in I Cor. Üï. 11, “ Other foundation can no by faith ; by the which faith I believe all things man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.” which ought to be believed (and I hope for all
P.-By what means can a man attain to this things which ought to be hoped for). foundation ?
H. S. C.-By faith ; as St. Peter saith, “Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner-stone, elect, precious; and be that believeth on him shall not be confounded.” And our Lord saith, “He that be- SELF-REFORM MORE NEEDED THAN lieveth on me hath everlasting life.”
CHURCH-REFORM: P.-How canst thou know that thou believest?
C.-By this; that I know him to be very God and very man, who was born, and suffered, &c., for my redemption and for my justification, &c.; By The Rev. S. Hobson, LL.B., that I love him, and desire to keep his commandments.
Incumbent of Butley, Suffolk. P.-By what things (or means) can we attain to the essential virtues; that is to say, faith, hope,
No. II. and charity ? C.-By the gifts of the Holy Spirit.
EDWARD White.-I hope, James, that you are P.-Dost thou believe in the Holy Spirit? not very busy this evening; for, if you are at
C.-I do believe in the same. For the Holy | liberty, I shall be very glad to have a little more Spirit, proceeding from the Father and the Son, conversation with you on the subject we were is a divine Person of the Trinity, and in respect to before talking about. his divinity is equal to the Father and the Son. James Dowell.-I am quite at your service,
P.-Thou believest in God the Father, God the Edward. We were examining some parts of the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, namely, in three prayer-book when you were last at my cottage, Persons; therefore thou hast three Gods?
in order to see whether the accusation was just, C.-I have not three Gods.
that the clergy of the church of England, or, at P.-Notwithstanding thou hast named three ? least, some of them, do not preach the gospel.' I
C.- That is true as it respecteth the difference then showed you that, however unworthy or in(or distinction) of Persons, but not as it respecteth competent some of the clergy might be found, the essence of the Godhead. For though it may they are all obliged to proclaim the truths of the be there are three Persons, they are but one in gospel while they are in the reading-desk. The
people need not, therefcre, go empty away, even
when they are so unfortunate as to be placed P.-How (or in what manner) dost thou wor- under an unfaithful pastor. At the commenceship and serve this God, in whom thou believest? ment of divine service, the attention of the con
C:-I worship him with adoration, both out- gregation is called to several important doctrines ; ward and inward ;, outwardly, by bending my such as the sinfulness of man by nature; the necesknees, raising my hands, and bowing down my sity of repentance and faith ; the mercy of God, body, by hymns and spiritual songs, fastings and through Christ, to all who truly repent, and uninvocations; but inwardly (I worship bim), by feignedly believe the gospel; the operation of the pious affection, a will prepared to perform what- Holy Spirit, &c. Our wants are shown ; and we soever shall please him; and I serve him by faith, are also directed to him who can abundantly suphope, and charity, according to his command ply them. The disease with which the human ments.
race is deeply infected is plainly declared ; and, at P.-- Dost thou worship any other thing, and the same time, we are urged to apply to that divine serve it, as thou dost God?
Physician who is ready and willing to give spiritual C.--No.
health to all that come to him. After proclaiming P.-Wherefore ?
these important truths to the congregation, the C.-By reason of the commandment, which he minister exhorts us to pray for true repentance hath given, saying expressly, “Thou shalt wor- and God's Holy Spirit; that we may live soberly, ship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou righteously, and piously in this present world, and serve.” And again: “I will not give my glory be preparing for a heavenly inheritance. And he to another.” And again : “I am alive, saith the tells us that all these benefits, pertaining both to Lord; and unto me every knee shall bow.” And this world and to that which is to come, are to be Jesus Christ saith, “He that worshippeth bim obtained only through Jesus Christ our Lord. must worship him in spirit and in truth.” The Is not this publishing, or preaching, the gospel ? angel would not receive worship from St. John, E. W.-Yes, no doubt it is : but men have neither Peter from Cornelius.
need of more plain and particular instructions. P.-After what manner prayest thou ?
J. D.-Nothing, surely, can be plainer than
the language of our prayer-book. Considering this, the church is not in fault. She clearly and that it was compiled about three hurdred years frequently directs the view of her members to man's ago, it is astonishing how few expressions, or even total unworthiness of God's favour, and teaches words, are to be found in it that are above the that the very best of them are unprofitable serunderstanding of the people. And it is so truly vants, and that they can be accepted only through scriptural in all its doctrines, contains so many the worthiness of Jesus Christ. "The sentences at plain statements of the way of salvation, incul- the commencement of the service, the exhortation, cates so strongly the utter helplessness of man as the confession, and the absolution, plainly teach to spiritual things, and the consequent necessity of this great truth. Observe, also, that, when notice his receiving the aid of the Holy Spirit to cleanse is given for the celebration of the Lord's supper, and purify his heart: it has such a tendency to it is expressly stated that this solemn ordinance is humble the sinner and to exalt the Saviour, and to to be received in remembrance of “Christ's meripromote that holiness of life, without which we torious cross and passion, whereby alone”—not by cannot please God, that no one who pays common our sufferings or good deeds~" we obtain remisattention to what the minister teaches from the sion of our sins, and are made partakers of the reading-desk alone can justly assert that he has kingdom of heaven.” And, during the celebration not heard the gospel. With regard to your of the Lord's supper, the minister says, in the observation, that more particular instructions are name of all the communicants: “ We do not prenecessary than those which our church provides in sume to come to this thy table, 0 merciful Lord, ber liturgy, I can only say that, if men are not trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy instructed by the numerous plain and important manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy truths which are embodied in that excellent so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy book; if they hear to no good purpose the lessons table," &c. In the collect for Sexagesima Sunday from the Old and New Testaments, which are we pray: “O Lord God, who seest that we put read whenever our churches are opened for public not our trust in any thing that we do, mercifully worship, it cannot be expected that they would be grant that by thy power we may be defended really edified by the preaching of any minister, against all adversity, through Jesus Christ our however eminent he might be for his talents, piety, Lord.” The same acknowledgment of our dezeal, and eloquence. If they hear not Moses and the pendence upon the grace of God for power to prophets; if they are unmoved by the preaching glorify his name is made in the following prayer, of Jesus Christ and his evangelists and apostles, wbich you will find at the end of the communion can we, without presumption, anticipate that they service: “ Prevent (or, go before) us, O Lord, in will receive any good and lasting impressions from all our doings, with thy most gracious favour, and the words of an uninspired preacher ?
further us with thy continual help; that in all our E. W.-Do you then consider, James, that works, begun, continued, and ended in thee, we preaching is useless ?
may glorify thy holy name," &c. I might point J. D.-By no means. Preaching is a powerful out many other passages from the prayer-book, instrument, under the divine blessing, to “ bring which are totally opposed to a pharisaical, or selfmen from darkness to light, and from the power righteous spirit; but these are enough to show of Satan unto God.” But it ought not to be you how groundless is this charge which you exalted above the other means of grace. I would bring against our church. Some persons will not have people consider, as is too much the prac- misunderstand the best instructions ; but it is tice, the sermon as the chief thing, and the prayers surely unjust and uncharitable to accuse either the as a very inferior portion of the service. It is this church, of which they may be members, or the grievous error which renders the sermon often clergy, in whose flock they may be found, of unprofitable. The heart should be prepared for sanctioning their errors. the hearing of the word by prayer; and we ought E. W.-But, if the clergy were all converted to consider it a great privilege to be permitted to men, their hearers would not be likely to hold enter, as it were, the presence-chamber of the such unscriptural opinions as I have just noticed, Most High, and offer up our requests and petitions. and much more good might be done by their If we do not value this privilege, let us not expect labours. that the words of a feeble mortal, like ourselves, J. D.-Did none of those who heard the will be profitable to our souls. We neglect to preaching of the ap rtles hold false opinions ? seek that which alone can render preaching effec- Nay, did not many, «10 beard the doctrines of tual, the blessing of God; and, therefore, we need the gospel from Christ himself, still continue in not wonder that the word preached falls like seed their errors? We need not, then, doubt that, if upon an unprepared soil.
all the clergy were as well qualified as the apostles, E. W.- When I said that more plain instruc- and, like them, under the continual teaching and tions than those contained in the prayer-book guidance of the Holy Spirit, multitudes would were necessary, I was thinking of some church- still be found to disregard their exhortations and goers of my acquaintance, who seem to consider instructions. As to the conversion or unconthat, as they do no wrong to any body, but are version of our ministers, that is a matter on honest in their dealings, sober, industrious, and which we are not called upon to decide. And it peaceable in their conduct, they are deserving of is well that we are not; for, unless we could read heaven. Does not the church fail in her duty the heart, it would be rash and presumptuous in when she negleets to point out such errors ? us to say who are and who are not converted
J. D.--Here again, Edward, you are bringing characters. We might consi one minister as an unjust accnsation against our church. Ifany of truly a man of God because he has great talents her ministers were to sanction, or even to pass over and commanding eloquence, when perhaps, in without notice, in their sermons, such an error as the sight of him who searcheth the heart, he is
no more than “sounding brass or a tinkling over us, when no complaint can justly be preferred cymbal.” We might suppose that another is un- against him! Yet, however anxious a clergyman converted because the manner or the matter of may be to discharge bis duty faithfully, however his preaching does not please us, who may never sincere and diligent in his endeavours to be a worktheless be both a righteous man himself and a man that “needs not to be ashamed," however chosen instrument to turn many to righteousness. laborious in searching the scriptures, that he may I cannot but think, Edward, that it is our wisest bring out of his treasure things new and old" plan rather to try and examine ourselves, whether for the edification of his flock, and however cirwe have been renewed in the spirit of our minds, cumspect he may be in his life and conversation, than to busy ourselves in prying into the spiritual bow often is it found that some of those who state of our ministers. Let us remember who have been committed to his charge are dissatishath said, “ Judge not, and ye shall not be fied! When, under such circumstances, they will judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be con- run after new teachers, or listen to new doctrines, demned.” Instead then of curiously inquiring or prefer new modes of worship, there is no good into the spiritual condition of our ministers, let us reason to expect that any lasting benefit will be charitably hope that they are sincere and faithful the consequence. Their “ itching ears” may servants of Jesus Christ ; but, if the conduct of perhaps be gratified, their heads may become any clergyman be too manifestly evil to allow us filled with certain religious notions, and their to indulge this charitable hope, let us still bear in tongues may give utterance to pious phrases and mind that our church is not to blame, since she expressions, but we can hardly hope that their has provided a remedy in such unhappy cases, as hearts and lives will be any betier. “It is not the I have before observed. Let us be careful to pray speaking the language of Zion, but having the for our ministers, that they may have "the tongue face turned towards Zion, and actually walking of the learned, and know how to speak a word in in the way to it, that will bring a man to the proseason” to every individual of their flock; and mised inheritance. let us pray for ourselves, that we may have wise E. W.-You have quite convinced me, James, and understanding hearts, so as to receive with that I was very wrong in forsaking my church, meekness that engrafted word which is able to even for a short time: I ought to have known save" (our) "souls.” Whenever you feel in- better; and, if I had only considered what had clined to forsake your church because you see, or been the effect of indulging "itching ears” in fancy you see, something wrong or inconsistent some of my acquaintance, I should surely never in the life and conversation of your minister, have ventured to make so dangerous an exreflect upon these words of our blessed Saviour: periment. I happen to know three or four per“The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat; sons who could not rest satisfied under the miall, therefore, whatsoever they bid you observe, nistry of their own pious and judicious rector, but that observe and do. But do not ye after their would frequently wander to different places of Forks; for they say, and do not” (Matt. xxiii. worship. Their minds became so unsettled, and at 2, 3). It is plain, from the language used by length so indifferent, that they ceased altogether to Christ towards these teachers, that they were attend the means of grace. But I intend from this much worse characters than any clergy man, who time to keep to my church and minister ; for, to would be allowed to minister in our church, tell you the truth, James, I never felt quite easy can be ; and yet our Lord does not tell the people in my mind while I was, like a sheep, strayto withdraw from their instructions, still less to ing from the fold provided for me; and often separate from the church in which they have would these texts come into my head, and convict been nourished and brought up. The ministers, me of disobedience to the command, and of ingratiyou are aware, are merely instruments for con- tude for the goodness of my God, who has cast my veying God's message to the people. The lot in a country where a scriptural church has efficacy of their preaching depends not upon the been established. “We beseech you, brethren, worthiness of the men, but upon the blessing of to know them which labour among you, and are God; and that blessing will be given to the over you in the Lord, and admonish you; and devout and faithful worshipper and hearer, not-to esteem them very highly in love for their work's withstanding any unworthiness in the minister. sake" (1 Thess. v. 12, 13). “Obey them that
That pious and amiable nonconformist, Philip have the rule over you, and submit yourselves ; Henry, used to attend his parish church after he for they watch for your souls as they that must was forbidden by law to preach ; and he was give aecount, that they may do it with joy, and accustomed to say: “It is a mercy that we have not with grief; for that is unprofitable for you” bread, though it be not, as it hath been, of the (Hebrews xiii. 17). finest wheat. Those are froward children, who J. D.-If you go to church, Edward, in a right throw away the meat they have, if it be whole- spirit, there is no doubt but that you will receive some, because they have not what they would good to your soul from your attendance. The have.” But, if it be our duty to hearken to those sober, rational, scriptural, and truly devotional who " sit in Moses' seat,” if we ought to frequent formularies of our church, afford advantages to the church, where we are sure to hear the words the sincere and faithful worsh pper, which, as I of Moses and the prophets, and the apostles, and have before observed, you cannot hope to find in of Christ himself - if we ought to do this, other places. Only remember to seek God's although the minister under whom we happen to blessing earnestly, before and while using the be placed does not live so soberly, righteously, means of grace which are so abundantly supplied and godly as he ought to do, how much stronger to you: keep thy heart with all diligence : is our obligation to attend to the instructions of " be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath ;'' the minister whom the providence of God has set and let it be your continual prayer and endeavour
that you may be "a doer of the word and not a his goods and wares at such a low price that foreignhearer only,” and you will find that our church ers, people living in other countries, many of them is, what I believe millions of now glorified spirits living in the most distant parts of the world, find it have experienced it to be, “none other but the worth while to come to England for many of the house of God, and the gate of heaven.”
things that they are in want of, and that we make; and then, with the money which foreigners pay to our merchants and manufacturers for these things, our manufacturers pay the wages of the workman who made them. Some of you indeed, I believe, think
it would be better if there were no machinery, and Miscellaneous.
that then there would be more employment for work.
This is, perhaps, partly true; because what CAPITAL.—I know that there are some who now, by the help of machinery, is done by one man, think that, if all the land in the kingdom would then want two men to do it. But where are were equally divided amongst us, we should all be the wages to come from? Because, if it took two men very comfortable and well off. Well, then, I will try to do what one can now do, things would be a great
deal dearer; and, if they were a great deal dearer, to show you that, if some were not rich, all would be foreigners would not come from other countries to very badly off. Now, suppose all the land had been buy them; and, if they would not buy them, the divided equally amongst us fifty years ago, and that manufacturerer would not get any of the money of by each man's cultivating it for himself we had been these foreigners, as he does now, and out of which he able to grow food enough for everybody (but this I pays part of the wages of his workmen.-- From An
Address to the Working Classes. very much doubt, for many reasons which we liave
THE ROMISH CHURCH.-In Roman catholic counnot time now to talk about); but suppose the land tries religion appears to be entirely an affair of had grown enough then to feed us all, yet, as the the clergy and the vulgar. The educated classes, at island we live in is no bigger now than it was then, least such amovg them as are educated to think, are, how should we manage now, when there are more than
with some few exceptions, altogether indifferent to twice as many mouths to feed as there were then? policy, to impress their inferiors with its importance
this vital essential, unless it be, as far as it is their And even if it grew enough now, how should we Nor can this at all excite astonishment, since it is manage next year, when there will probably be three hardly possible that a thinking man should not be or four hundred thousand more mouths to feed ? or staggered at the palpable absurdities of Romanism, ten years hence, when there will be three or four mil
even in its mildest form, and secretly despise what lions more to feed (for this is the actual rate at which I do not dispute that there have been in the Roman
may not always be safe or prudent openly to impuga. our numbers are increasing every year) while our church exemplary Christians, who have done honour land remains the same? “ But how then,” you will to it and human nature, and passed their lives with ask, “ do we actually manage to feed them all now ?” the purity of saints, and sustained its trials; still the Why, not always quite so well as we could wish ; but virtues of individuals, however eminent they may be, I will tell you how we manage to do it all, it is simply of a system. The extravagances of that system have
do not atone for the vices, the errors, and corruptions by means of capital; that is, by means of the money been too frequently and too ably exposed to render it which rich people bave saved up, and without which necessary more than merely to hint at these. Look we should be miserably off indeed. And I will now at saint worship, relic worship, priest worship, image try to show you how this is done. It is by means of worship, the spells of paternosters, genuflexion, tapers, money that people are able to till and manure the childish legends and ridiculous tales, and priests hold
processions, confessions, the imputed authority of ground so that it shall produce a great deal more than ing up, with their back turned to spectators in church, it did before-enongh to feed all the fresh mouths that a wafer, holding a language none can understand ; and want feeding; or, if we cannot grow enough our- to these, and many others I could name, bones of pero selves, then to buy corn from other countries to feed
sons called saints, wrapped in old rags under glass them with. But how would people who have got this cases, adorned as precious relics ; add also the forced money be persuaded to lay it out in tilling the land, both sexes, with the consequent violation of their
and unnatural celibacy of the professed religious of unless they could sell the corn when they had grown it? And how can they sell the corn unless the people they are readily furnished against a church which
In short, if other accusations were wanting, who are to be fed have got money to buy it with ? probibits the exercise of reason and rational inquiry And how are the great body of the people (who have nothing but their labour to live by) to get money heresy, and whose primary object of a church has
in matters of religion, proscribing even doubt as to buy it with unless they have got employment ? And, as the land cannot employ three or four hundred secular power. This may be stigmatized as ud:
ever been to render religious authority the meaus of thousand more people every year, how are all to get charitable tirade ; yet wherefore should the most aremployment as our numbers increase ? I will tell bitrary and intolerant of all creeds expect others to you how: it is by means of capital ; for it is by exercise that charity towards it which it denies to the means of those large sums of money which the rest of the world, and
which would compel obedience rich” have got together (some by their own industry to itself by actual coercion ?-Rae Wilson's Travels. and cleverness and frugality, some by that of their fathers or relations who are dead and gone), it is with this money, which we call capital, that people build large manufactories, powerful steam-eny ines, well- London : Published for the Proprietors, by EDWARDS contrived and useful' muchines (which eat very little and HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be in proportion to the work they do), by the help of procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Coantry. all which the manufacturer of woollen goods, and cotton goods, and hardware, and earthenware, and
PRINTED BY JOSEPH ROGBRSON, many other things besides, is able to make and sell
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