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fancies, and, as nearly as possible, resembling the as that of a calf's-foot; while the impression was temple of the Lord; but the temple of the Lord so deep-passing, indeed, in some instances, right they cannot be, unless the builders humbly con- through the upper stratum, and imprinting itself sent to receive his commission, and to act as his upon the one immediately below it--as to prove servants ; obeying his will, and revering the means that the animal to which it belonged must have which he has appointed for the accomplishment of been of considerable weight. Having, by careful the work. The member of the holy catholic inquiries on the spot, and by actual observation, church has recourse to the word of God as re- armed himself with a series of particulars, such as vealed in the Old and Ne Testaments; and he he knew could not fail to confound the minds of finds ample information concerning both the out the most distinguished and learned geologists, line of the church, and the way in which it is to and being well aware how great would be the be built.
scepticism with which any statement of his owli, in regard to these footprints, would be received by scientific men, he resolved to open a private core
respondence on the subiect with professor BuckFOOTMARKS IN SANDSTONE ROCK*.
land of Oxford, in whose philosophic candour he
had some confidence, previous to exposing himself For many years Dr. Duncan had heard reports to the storm of ridicule and opposition which he of the existence of strange footmarks on the sand could not help anticipating. In reply to his first stone strata at Corncocklemuir, a quarry about communication he received the following chafifteen miles from Ruthwell ; but, being aware of
racteristic letter : the generally received opinion, that the new red
“ Oxford, 17th June, 1827. sandstone, which lies immediately over the coal
“Reverend Sir,—I was yesterday favoured formation, must have been deposited at an era with your letter respecting the supposed impreswhen no quadrupeds of a higher order than rep, sions of the feet of animals in the sandstone quartiles existed upon the earth, he long concluded ries of your neighbourhood, and shall have great that these reports must have originated in mere pleasure in examining the casts you propose to imagination. Nor was this impression by, any send to London, whence they may be forwarded means weakened in his mind, on learning that a
any day, by coach, to Oxford. As soon as I have well-known professor of natural science, who re
seen them I will give you, with much pleasure, sided occasionally within a few miles of the my best opinion respecting them; but I had much quarry, so scouted the idea of its being possible rather see one of the actual marks on the stone itthat such footmarks could exist in the new red-self, in a slice cut off from the block, than a hun. sandstone, that he refused even to take the trou- dred casts. However much the cavities in ques. ble of paying a visit to it for the purpose of in
tion may resemble the prints of an animal's foot, quiry. At length, however, having seen a very I strongly suspect they must be cavities resulting remarkable specimen of these footmarks at Dor- from the decay of some organic body, probably a mont House, and, being convinced that they shell that was once inclosed in the rock, and has were no other than they appeared to be, be re- subsequently perished. I know of two species of solved to take the earliest opportunity of inspec- shells that have been often taken for the feet of ting the quarry in person. This accordingly be animals ; but, till I see your specimens, I can, of did, one fine day in the summer of 1827 ; and be course, give no farther opinion than a general one, returned home convinced that, whatever surprise —against even the remote probability of the marks the announcement might occasion, the fact could you mention being the impressions of feet. You not be questioned that, at the remote period when may, however, depend on hearing my farther opithe new red-sandstone was in the act of forming, nion as soon as I have an opportunity of seeing four-footed animals, of several scecies, had im- what you propose to send up for my inspection. printed indelible footmarks on the surface of its Allow me to thank you for your kind attention, strata. In various parts of the quarry be beheld and believe me to remain, sir, your obliged and numerous impressions so exceedingly distinct and most obedient servant. well defined, and so exactly resembling the prints
“WM. BUCKLAND,” of such animals, that no room was left to doubt of
The casts, to which reference is made in the their identity. Indeed, the writer of this, who preceding letter, Dr. Duncan had prepared with accompanied him to the quarry on a subsequent the utmost care; and, on receiving them, Dr. occasion, on seeing some of them, could hardly Buckland, in the true spirit of a philosopher believe that the stone was not yet as soft as sand, whose mind is open to conviction, wrote: “ As and that the animals had not passed over the face far at least as I can judge from the specimens beof the rock only a few minutes before, although fore me, I am strongly inclined to come over in he was aware that strata, to the depth of upwards toto to your opinion upon the subject." He could of forty feet, bad but recently lain above them. not, in fact, against the evidence of his senses, Some of the prints were larger than others; but deny that the marks were those of some kind all of them were of rather an uncommon appear of four-footed animal. Anxious, however, now
and one, in particular, was at least as broad to ascertain what the quadruped was, " and being * From "Memoir of the rev. H. Duncan, D.D.” By rev. led,” as he said, “ to look to our recent crocodiles, G. J. C. Duncan. Edinburgh: Oliphants. London : or tortoises, for the living counterpart of these imHamilton, Adams, and Co. 1848.
Dr. Duncan was a pressions,” he made several curious and somewhat clergyman of the kirk of Scotland, who has a claim on public amusing experiments with animals belonging to gratitude as the originator of savings'-banks. In his later years he seceded from the kirk. We extract from the these genera, by causing them to march over soft menoir an interesting account of a geological discovery.- dough and wet sand, the result of which led him to ED.
refer at least some of the footmarks to animals of
the tortoise kind. After giving a particular account | portant that has been ever made in geology; and, of these experiments, he goes on to say: “The as it is a discovery that will for ever connect your difficulty is to explain why sand so soft did not name with the progress of this science, I am very sabside, and obliterate the cavities, before or anxious that the entire evidence relating to it during the arrival of the next superincumbent bed should be worked out and recorded by yourself.” of sand which filled up and preserved these im- I have only to add that all doubts have long pressions. Elongated excavations, similar to those since vanished from the minds of geologists, and last spoken of, are made by hares and other quad- that sir David Brewster, in a remarkable article in rupeds, in moving over soft and half-consolidated the first number of the “ North British Review ;" snow.” This was indeed a difficulty; but there Mr. Ansted, in his very interesting elementary work were also others. For example, some of the im- on geology, and Dr. Chalmers, in a paper which pressions could not be referred to these animals; we have yet to notice, all agree with professor and this remark especially applies to what we have | Buckland in the value which they ascribe to this called the calf-like footmark. And then the steep discovery. Nor is it the least remarkable cirinclination of the sandbeds, which the appear- cumstance connected with it, that Dr. Duncan's ance of the marks plainly demonstrated must attention was first devoted to the subject while he have been the same at the time when these was as yet but a tyro in the science, and that he strange creatures had crawled over them, seemed had resolution, notwithstanding, to maintain and to present another mystery; the dip of the quarry make out his case against the united authority of being in most places 38°, and in some as much as the whole race of contemporary geologists. 40°. And there was, besides, the extraordinary fact, that the prints occurred not on one stratum only, but on many successive strata ; “a fact
THE PRESENT TIMES*. which," as Dr. Duncan remarks, in a very full account of these wonders, afterwards prepared for It surely well becomes us of this country and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, "leads the mind nation, in these days of discontent, murmuring, into the remotest antiquity, and perpiexes it in a and disaffection, to remark, and with the deepest maze of interminable conjectures as to the state of sense of gratitude to Almighty God to acknowthe earth's materials when these living creatures ledge, that the greatest blessing which any people walked on its surface, and bathed in other waters,
can enjoy is to have for their ruler a wise and and browsed on other pastures; and not less virtuous personage, such a one as this country is as to the extraordinary changes and happily blessed with, and one who is acknowvulsions of nature which have since taken ledged by all reasonable and respectable parties, place, and which have broken up, overturned, ranks, and classes of men to have every virtue and remodelled all things.”
which adorns buman nature. this discovery soon spread among geologists; and,
It well becomes us also as Christians to remenas had been anticipated, it gave rise to a consider ber that the prayers of the righteous servants of able ferment. Among other sceptics on this sub- the Most High God are of great efficacy before ject
, Dr. Duncan was honoured by a visit, during the throne of his mercy; through whose prayers, that very summer, from professor Sedgwick of and for whose sakes God frequently condescends Cambridge, and Roderick Murchison, esq., who to spare the wicked from temporal judgments ; carried away with them several specimens from and, therefore, have we not every reason, Corncocklemuir, which unfortunately were not my dear brethren, to be exceeding grateful by any means so perfect as those from wbich Dr. in these days of sorrow and distress, in which Buckland's casts were taken ; and in reference to the kingdoins of the earth are being shaken these deservedly celebrated geologists, the Oxford to their very foundations, and the people of many professor writes: “My friend Mr. Chantrey, the countries are up in arms against one another, sculptor, who has seen the casts and specimen you brothers being opposed to brothers, parents to sent me, has no kind of doubt that these impres- their sons, and sons to their parents, killing one sions are footsteps ; but I find professor Sedgwick another without any reasonable cause-I repeat, and Mr. Murchison brought away a different opi- have we not especial reasons to be grateful, and to nion as the result of their visit to the quarry. I be heartily thankful to our divine Protector, that bave only seen Mr. Murchison, who tells me Mr. this country, compared with other countries, is Sedgwick was, like himself, not convinced by the quiet and undisturbed. We have been favoured, very imperfect and uncertain marks they could and still God continues to favour us, more than any find, on visiting the quarry. I can only say that nation on the face of the earth. Our liberties two small single impressions Mr. Murchison and privileges are greater than those of any other brought away with him confirm me still more in country or nation. And, above all, we enjoy the my opinion; and so successful have I been in invaluable blessings of the Protestant religion ; making converts, with the single specimen I have for the establishment of which our forefathers so
you, that if you could send me one or two nobly and willingly suffered. If we valued these more, on the real sandstone, I am sure I should blessings as we ought, we should not hear the bear down all the opposition (which is now very loud voice of sedition and murmuring: if we duly strong) to the belief in your hypothesis, among the appreciated them, each member of society would geologists of London.” Having occasion, sowe
be content with his station or condition in life. years after, to write to Dr. Buckland, regarding All true churchmen are loyal subjects: they are similar appearances in another quarry near Dumo ever ready to perform their duty towards God, fries, he received a reply, from which we extract the following valuable testimony: “I look upon your curate of Lanvaches and Lanvair Discoed, Monmouthshire,
* From a sermon preached by the rev. Edward Griffiths, discovery as one of the most curious and most im- with reference to the present times.
as well as towards their earthly sovereign. They mighty God; on our love for Christ, and reliance are not such as are given to change, or like those on his merits for acceptance with God the Father, who are spreading terror and discontent, ill-will depend our present comfort and future happiness, and hatred, amongst the ignorant population; yea, the preservation of our admirable constitubut, being peaceable and well-disposed them- tion, and the prosperity of the nation. selves, they endeavour to the utmost of their power to promote peace and brotherly love in their respective neighbourhoods; “ fearing God, st. PAUL'S THANKFUL CONFIDENCE FOR and serving him in truth with all their heart,
THE PHILIPPIAN CHURCH: and considering how great things he hath done for them.”
Sermont, I would remind you, my brethren, that God orders all things, both in heaven and earth, by BY THE Ven. GEORGE HODSON, M.A., ways to us often unknown, and even unthought Archdeacon of Stafford; Canon of Lichfield ; and of by us.
His providence still presides over all things. By him kings and queens rule ; and in
Vicar of Colwich, Staffordshire. his name and by his authority we owe them sub
PHIL. i. 3-7. inission and obedience. Considering the many favours we have nationally or individually re
“I thank my God upon cvery remembrance of you, ceived at his hands, infinitely surpassing those
always in every prayer of mine for you all making which were conferred on his people of old time,
request with joy, for your fellowship in the O how great would be our ingratitude, should we
gospel from the first day until now; being confi. show any tokens of dissatisfaction, should we
dent of this very thing, that he which hath begun a
good work in you will perform it until the day of betray any disposition to revolt, or the least
Jesus Christ: even as it is meet for me to think this symptoms of disobedience! Those who would
of you all, because I have you in my heart; inas. cast off their allegiance to their earthly sovereign much as both in my bonds, and in the defence and cannot surely pretend to fear God, and keep his confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of commandments. For our Saviour plainly tells my grace." us that we are to render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that
“ THEY that sow in tears,” says the psalmist, are God's." And we are exhorted by St. Peter “shall reap in joy. He that goeth forth and “ to submit ourselves to every ordinance man, weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtfor the Lord's sake; whether it be to the king less come again with rejoicing, bringing his as supreme, or unto governors as unto them that sheaves with him.” This beautiful passage are sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the result of St. Paul's labours at Philippi.
was never more strikingly verified than in the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.” There When we view the account of his first visit would be no living among those who fear not the to that city, in the sixteenth chapter of the invisible God in heaven, nor consider what great Acts, we seem to feel that nothing could well things he hath done for them, had they no one to have been more discouraging than his recepfear upon earth. Far be it from us to follow the tion there. We read, at first, of but one soliwicked ways of those who are enemies to order and peace, and to trample under foot all divine tary convert, and that a stranger - Lydia and human laws ; to be ungrateful to the best (a seller of purple, from Thyatira in Asia), and greatest of benefactors for the innumerable « whose heart the Lord opened to attend to benefits we have received, and are receiving day the things spoken of Paul.' Presently the by day; Far be it from us, brethren, to forget whole city is in an uproar. Paul and Silas his mighty works; to blasphenie his holy name; are beaten and imprisoned, and the next day to neglect his worship; to profane his sabbath: obliged to quit the city, notwithstanding the far be it from us to side with the disaffected or double iniracle of their own deliverance and the infidel; to deprive our brethren of their rights by any unlawful means, or to raise our voice the jailor's conversion. Never was Christian against our beloved sovereign, whom God in his church planted under circumstances appamercy has set over us ; lest by so doing the Al- rently less hopeful. Truly might it be said mighty in his anger should visit us, and in his that the apostle “sowed in tears ;" but such sore displeasure consume us. May it be our study, “precious seed” could not be lost; and with on the other hand, to live peaceably with all men; what joy he reaped, how plenteous " the and to do unto others as we would they should sheaves he brought with him," let this do unto us ; to honour the queen, to obey her lawful commands, to pray affectionately for her, and epistle testify. Nowhere—except, perhaps, to praise God for the blessing of her government. in the neighbouring city of Thessalonica, also May it be our care to pray fervently and heartily planted amidst much persecution—did the that God would deliver us " from all sedition, fruit more amply repay the toil and labours privy conspiracy, and rebellion, from all false of the husbandman. - And, full as the aposdoctrine, heresy,' and schism, from hardness of tle's heart was of love to all the Christian heart, and contempt of his word and commandment” (Litany). On the purity of the pro- churches, towards none of them was there testant faith, unmixed with popish traditions and more of the overflowings of parental love and superstitions ; on our zeal for the honour of Ale tenderness than towards his dear Philip
pians. What father's heart ever yearned more to them, as it did shortly afterwards to over a beloved child than his does over them? their brethren in Thessalonica; “not in How endearing the terms in which he ad- word only, but also in power, and in the dresses them ! how wakeful his solicitude! Holy Ghost, and in much assurance.” how affectionate his exhortations! how fer. They had “received it, not as the word vent, how constant his prayers ! “My breth of men, but as the word of God,” in ren dearly beloved and longed for," he says the obedience of simple faith ; and, so l'eto them, “my joy and crown, so 'stand fast ceived, it had "wrought effectually" in them, in the Lord, my dearly beloved.” He was “ turning them to God from idols to serve at this time a prisoner at Rome, looking for the living and true God, and to wait for his ward, at no distant period, to martyrdom. Son from heaven.” Nor was this a sudden But he forgets his own sufferings and pros- and transient effect, but permanent and propects in their spiritual progress, and is filled gressive. Like the Thessalonian converte, with joy and thankfulness on their account, they had become “ followers of the apostles as though he had none to care for, or bear and of the Lord,” and that so consistently as on his heart before the mercy-seat, but them. to be “examples” to other Christian churches.
Now, brethren, such as the Philippians we cannot have a surer interpretation of St. were, such (allowing for change of times Paul's meaning in the passage before us than and circumstances) ought we, through the by comparing it with the manifestly similar grace of God, to be. There is not a single passage in the opening of his first epistle to the topic, either of prayer or praise, in the text, Thessalonians." What he here calls their felwhich, in substance, Christian ministers lowsbip in the gospel, he there expresses more ought not to use in behalf of their congrega- fully by their • work of faith, and labour of tions now. I trust I may humbly say, for love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus myself and my associate in the pastoral care Christ." "A real, thorough, abiding work of of this parish, that we would wish to “thank grace had taken place in their souls. They our God upon every remembrance of you," had experienced the power of religion in their for what divine grace has already wrought hearts, and manifested it in their lives; and in you, and to entertain the same confident that permanently and progressively, “ from assurance with that expressed by St. Paul, in that day to this," says St. Paul, writing at the words before us, that “he which hath the expiration of more than ten years from begun the good work in you will perform it the date of their conversiun. So that by their until the day of Jesus Christ.” And if your fellowship in the gospel” he means their hearts, dear brethren, do but respond to our participation in the saving, sanctifying grace hearts, and your prayers for yourselves and of the gospel; their enjoyment of its blessings one another be in unison with ours for you and privileges; their personal experience of all, then with what mutual joy and congra. its benefits and comforts, of its practical intulation shall we meet again—the pastor and fluence, its life-giving power, its vital transthe flock together-in that great day of the forming energy upon the soul. Nothing less Lord's appearing!
than this would have satisfied the apostle; In considering the expression of the apos-nor, let me tell you of a truth, brethren, should tle's feelings respecting the Philippians, let any thing short of this satisfy us. us notice, (1) his thankfulness as to the We, like the Philippians, have been called past; (2) his confidence as to the future: his to the fellowship of the gospel; not, indeed, thankfulness for what God had done, his like them, from amidst the darkness of heaconfidence as to what God would do for thenism; but from a state, in which, if we rethem.
main till death call us hence, we shall be no 1. “I thank my God,” says the apostle, better off as regards our prospects for eterupon every remembrance of you, always in nity than if we had been heathens ; yea, in every prayer of mine for you all making re- one sense, very much worse off, inasmuch quest with joy, for your fellowship in the as our opportunities of light and kuowgospel from the first day until now. What | ledge are greater than theirs. We cannot does he mean by their fellowship in the gos- too highly estimate our advantages as a pel? He means their fellowship with himself Christian people. The benefits of Chrisand other Christians, in the blessings and bene- tian birth and parentage, of admission into fits of the gospel. He rejoiced that through the visible church of Christ by baptism, of the grace of God given to them they had participation in Christ's ordinances and sabeen made partakers of the gospel; not in craments, are unspeakable. We cannot be profession only, but in principle; not in sufficiently thankful for them. And the form, but in fact; and that from the very first blessings, direct and collateral, which flow time they had heard it. The gospel had come from the public profession of Christianity,
from its adoption as the law and recognized well be thankful even for this? But to cherule of government, its incorporation into rish a good hope, on solid, substantial the framework of our constitution, its effects grounds, which will not give way beneath on the social habits, manners, customs, in- him; to indulge a confidence not presumpstitutions of our country, are all above tuous-an assurance warranted by the word of price. But these national blessings, great God, and dictated by the Spirit of God—that, and manifold as they are, are limited to time. “when Christ shall appear," he also, poor, They can yo no farther. They cannot save miserable sinner that he is,“ shall appear with the soul. They may make it saveable by him in glory," tell me, brethren, what is there placing it within reach of the means of salva- in a thousand worlds that you would not tion; but they cannot secure the efficacy of gladly give in exchange for this ? O, think those means. And the soul that rests in them, what it is, with eternity in view, to be enabled to relying for salvation on corporate acts, on say, “I know that, when this earthly house of visible communion, on baptismal privileges, my tabernacle is dissolved, I have a building on creeds and articles of faith, on church- of God, an house not made with hands, eternal membership, or any thing else whatever, in the heavens.” I know that I have, rewhich goes not beyond an outward fellow- served and secured for me in the highest heaship in the gospel, will find itself miserably vens, by the promise of him that cannot lie,“ an deluded and hopelessly destitute, when it inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and passes into the eternal world, and stands in that fadeth not away.” In seasons of trial, the judgment of the last day.
more especially, and affliction, whether of I entreat you, brethren, as you value your mind or body; when earthly comforts fail, and immortal souls, rest not in any thing short of those we most dearly love are taken from us, an actual personal participation in the bless- and we seem left alone in a dark and cheerings which the gospel of Christ reveals and less world; when our bodies are wasting with offers-its grace and mercy, its hopes and disease, and life itself is a burden, and the comforts, its peace and purity. The full and soul is about to take its flight into the eternal free forgiveness of all your sins through the world, and stand in the presence of its atoning blood of the Redeemer; acceptance Judge; 0, what words can express the hapwith God through his righteousness and in- piness of that man who on good grounds tercession ; the renewal of your souls, after can say, "I know in whom I have believed, the divine image, in righteousness and true and am persuaded that he is able to keep that holiness; and a growing meetness for the in- which I bave committed unto him against heritance of the saints in light : these, these, that day.” brethren, are the inestimable gifts of which And there are good grounds on which the gospel invites you to partake; this the a man may say this; else would not blessed “fellowship" for which, and for no- St. Paul have said it, nor encouraged the thing short of which, should you be content Philippians to say it, by telling then that he to praise your God, and for which if you was confident of their final happiness ; nor can, on good grounds, praise him now, you would he have connected, as he does in Rom. will be enabled to praise him through all viii., the beginning of a work of grace here eternity. For mark,
with its consummation bereafter, saying, II. How the apostle in our text reasons “ Whom he did predestinate, them he also from what God had done for the Christians called; and whom he called, them he also justiat Philippi to what he would do for them. fied; and whom he justified, them he also glori“ Being confident,” says he, “ of this very fied.” Neither, it from the oracles of God thing, that he which hath begun a good work we turn to the standards of our church, in you will perform it until the day of Jesus would our seventeenth article have adopted Christ.” O blessed assurance! Who would almost the very words of the apostle as denot wish to call it his ? Amidst the snares claratory of her own faith, tracing the pur. and temptations, the dangers and difficulties pose of God, respecting the salvation of his which beset the Christian in his passage elect, from its origin in his own secret counthrough this sinful world—so many enemies sels, before the foundations of the world were without leagued with his worst enemy within, laid, to its final issue in eternity: “thereand threatening to rifle the precious treasure fore,” says this truly scriptural article, “they of his soul-and in such circumstances to which be endued with so excellent a benefit be permitted even to hope that he may safely of God (i. e., his choice of them only), be reach the goal, to be raised above despon- called according to his purpose, by his Spirit dency, to be kept from sinking in despair; working in due season ; they through grace with so hard a work to accomplish, and so obey the calling; they be justified freely; fearful a prospect if he fail, who might not they be made sons of God by adoption; they