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of the second year of the birds building in the night. At the beginning of the evening they church, an event which confirmed their super- perched on the edge of the nest; and, as stitions, and “will be remembered,” says Mr. the night advanced, as if for additional warmth Bree, “and handed down to posterity for the they sank down into the interior. As the benefit of any future vicar, should the robins season advanced, and they became full-feathered, again make a similar selection."

they deserted the nest altogether, and perched on At Knowle Hall, Warwickshire, as we learn the bell-wire. Here they perched during the confrom the same authority, a wren built its nest in viviality of the harvest-supper, perfectly regardless the skeleton body of a heron, which had been nailed of the uproar; and here they were seen perched, up against a wall. A still more remarkable choice for their night's repose, by the narrator of their was that of a tomtit, which built its nest, some history, when visiting Crux Easton, on an evening years ago, in the skull of a murderer who had in the middle of September, 1832. been gibbeted at Drinsey Nook, in Lincolnshire.

The following is an instance of the friendly confidence of a pair of swallows: In the summer of 1830 a pair of swallows commenced their nest

PORTSMOUTH, OHIO, IN DAYS PAST; upon the crank of a bell-wire in the passage of a farm-house at Crux Easton, the one end of which opened into a little garden, the other into the OR, A BISHOP IN A FIVE DOLLAR SKIPP, FLOATING kitchen, the door of which, towards the gar

DOWN THE SCIOTO. den, was usually left open. The passage was fifteen or eighteen feət in length, and the bell-PORTSMOUTH, at the mouth of the Scioto river, wire nearly at the extremity, towards the kitchen. was passed in the night. In doing so, the writer The farmer and his wife were so much pleased called to mind days that were long since passed, with the sociability and confidence of their new and mused on scenes recorded in tears of paintul inmates, that they not only allowed their muddy suffering, while seeking the wandering sheep in domicile to remain unmolested, but took care that the wild wilderness of woods in Ohio, betore free ingress and egress should be always afforded canals or steamboats, and scarcely good bridges through the garden door. The nest was com- were to be seen. pleted, and a brood of young swallows reared, The parish of All Saints, Portsmouth, where which took wing. In the autumn of the same good Mr. Burr now officiates, was organized by year the farmer, returning from shooting, with his the writer, and cherished by the lay reading of gun loaded, thoughtlessly discharged it at a swal- that pious man, now in heaven, Mr. Samuel Gunn. low, which he killed. The circumstance passed This is the place (О, how vivid the memory unnoticed until the next summer, when, from the thereof!) that the writer, when bishop of Ohio, absence of his old favourites, it occurred to him visited, being wafted down the Scioto in a skiff, that the poor bird so wantonly killed must have purchased in Chilicothe for five dollars, as the sole been one of them,

means, during the overflowing of the waters, of The year following, a pair of birds—the off- fulfilling an appointment to hold confirmation. spring, perhaps, of the former occupants -- were

With only one man to row this trail bark, it was observed at the old haunt. They first attempted in passing by a farm near the village, that good to fix their nest to a cupboard door, immediately Mr. Kinney hailed him from his cornfield, as the over the door leading into the kitchen ; and the skiff passed swiftly by on the flowing tide, near farmer's wife, fearing it might be shaken down the shore. And it is here the descendants of that from the closing and opening of the door, drove a good man now gather round their aged parent, nail beneath, to secure it in its position. How- wbile oft reciting the story of this singular event! ever, the swallows did not approve of this inter- | how he led the bishop to his peaceful farm-house, ference ; they forsook their nest, and commenced and warmed his chilled limbs by his cheerful firea second over the kitchen door ; but this they side; how Mrs. K. Hew round her new brick could not secure. The thought now struck the house, then a rarity, evincing her deep feelings of farmer that if the nest of 1830, which still re

hospitality and maternal affection, while she spread mained on the bell-wire, were removed, the birds

a table, large and long, with plates for her nuwould adopt the old situation. This was accord

merous family, reserving one where the great chair ingly done. The pair immediately profited by the stood, for a person so unexpectedly thrown by farmer's suggestion; a nest was completed, and an

Providence among them, to minister to their spiegg deposited, in the short space of four days from ritual wants, more urgent than the behests of the commencement of the new work. While the

nature. business of incubation was going on, the farmer's

“0, merciful parent of the buman family !" sheep-shearing was accomplished, and the usual said the writer to himself, as he passed, in the supper given to the labourers in the kitchen; but,

dark night, in a steamer, this interesting place of notwithstanding the confusion and smoke, and Portsmouth, on the Scioto river, on the 17th day the constant opening and shutting of the door, the

of November, 1847. “ For what end dost thou parent bird never moved off her nest. The hay

bring these scenes of bygone days to the rememe making feast arrived, when the young birds were

brance of one stricken with age and bowed down hatched; and again, amid the noise and confu

with ir firmities! Are these poor labours to prosion, the old swallows unremittingly waited

mote thy glory indeed written in thy book ? upon their offsprings. The nestlings took flight;

Wash the page, O Lord; and blot out every taint but, until the period arrived for migration,

of sin, mingled as it is with all things human.” they constantly returned to the passage for the * From the " Motto;" by bishop Chase, of Mlinois.

Atiscellaneous,

man should, in place of standing in fear of the Al. mighty, be found to kneel down before, and lift up

his hands to, inanimate objects of any description as BAYREUTH.—This is a Phænician city, on a rising strange gods, and in “dead things bave his hope,” ground, close by the sea-shore, and originally called yet it is a fact there exists here a relic of the ancient Berytus. It was taken from the Saracens by Bald- mythology of Egypt; for the representation of a calf win the first in 1111, and retaken in 1187. Ten of wood, covered with gilding," the work of man's years afterwards the Christians captured it; but hands,” is elevated in their temple, where they pros

trate themselves, and offer acts of adoration; thus it was frequently ravaged during the period of the

changing the glory of the incorruptible Being into an crusades, who kept possession of it till their ulti- image inade like to four-footed beasts, and robbing mately leaving Palestine. At this period it was a large him of that homage he is exclusively entitled to from fortified place, and depôt for the costly merchandize of his dependent creatures. In the language of an aposDamascus. From being distinguished by an institu- tle," an idol is nothing in the world; and there is no

god but one God." In short, the Druses appear to tion for the study of jurisprudence under Justinian, be as mad with regard to their idols as the Israelites it had the honour of calling into public life some of of old, and delighting in their abominations (Judges the most distinguished civilians, and named mother x. 14; Exod. xxxii. 4,8; Levit. xxvi.l; 1 Cor. iii. 11). and nurse of the laws. It fell into the hands of the i This district opens a wide field for the labours of mis

sionaries, to turn men from the power of Satan to the Druses in 1700, and became their capital, with a

kingdom of God," whose heart is waxed gross, and palace, from whom it was captured by the Turks, whose eyes have they closed.” The wonderful exerwho still retain possession. The country at one time tions which have been made, and the beneficial effects was one hundred leagues in extent, and divided into produced by these standard-bearers of the cross in seven districts. It may now be proper to advert par.

more distant lands, speak to others in language simi

lar to tbat which Moses addressed to the children of ticularly to the Druses-an extraordinary class

Israel —" Go forward ;” and may there appear on among the families of mankind.

According to one

their banners, “ Holiness to the Lord.” And here I opinion they are descendants of crusaders for the re- cannot omit observing bow great are those intellectual covery of the holy land, who captured the place on advantages which arise from the contemplation of the their march from Antioch to Jerusalem 1097, and

different religions and manners of our fellow.

creatures, calculated as they are to make us put the constituted themselves a totally distinct and sepa

proper estimate on those blessings we enjoy. By rate sect; while others hold their origin to be from looking at the history of the heart and uncultivated Mohammed Ben Ismael, surnamed the Dorzes. mind, in different regions where absurd prejudices There are two classes. One is denominated the usurp the place of reason and folly, and idolatrous Akkass, being well-informed; and the other Janal, rites are sanctified in the name of religion, how great those in a state of ignorance. They do not aim at blessings conferred on us in a solid system of religion

are the obligations we are under to the Almighty for making converts; and, if secrets are imparted by founded on that key of knowledge, the imperishable any of their number to strangers, it is visited with word of the living God; that our lot should have been death. The dress of females is distinguished by a cast in a land of gospel light ! while there is cause to large tantoura or horn, placed in an upright position lament that other parts of the world should be under on the forehead, with a long robe thrown over it, to despotic tyranny and wretchedness of their rulers.

gross spiritual darkness and the dominion of the veil their faces, which affords a striking commentary | One extraordinary opinion the Druses entertain is, on passages of the inspired word. Such symbolism that after death the souls of persons who have exerof power is supposed to have been taken from the cised a virtuous course of life pass into other human Hebrews; and allusions have been made to the beings; while, on the other hand, the vital principle

of such as lead a wicked or sinful course enters into horn as an emblem of strength (Ps. lxxv. 4, 5, brutes*. At the same time, Egyptians maintain that xviii. 2; Exod. xxi. 29; Dan. vii. 24 ; 1 Kings xxii. after death the immortal part trausmigrates into 4)*. For example, the wise man, in reference to his different animals, such as fowls, beasts, and fishes; state, declares he had defiled his horn in the dust;" and, at the expiration of three thousand years, returns and Zedekiah we find had made his horn, with which, to the body it left. As to a future state, it may be as he said, the Lord declared he should push the Syrians added, the Chinese also grope in utter darkness, as it is till they were consumed. And again the royal writer

maintained the spirit of man after death wanders says, bis “horn shall be exulted.” Horns also signify among mountains, and rewards and punishments are kings and kingdoms, and the two of Daniel's vision-only dealt out to him in this life. - Travels in the ary ram were the united kingdoms of Media and Persia; East, by William Rae Wilson, LL.D. also the “horn with eyes,” and “a look more stout than his fellows," may apply to the pope, whose liigh

* “ As a man throweth away old and putteth on new gar. pretensions to authority are superior to earthly

ments, eren so the soul, having quitted its mortal frame, enprinces, whom he can denounce and excommuni. tereth into another which is new.”—Heathen MYTHOcate (Dan. vii. 20-27 ; Rev xii. 3; xiij, 1-17 ; xvii. 12); and the four horns that scattered Jurlah are their enem es frum every quarter (Zech. i. 21). All accounts agree in pointing out this class as an unenlightened people, involved in the grossest idolatry,

London: Published for the Proprietors, by EDWARDS error, and spirit of slumber; and their worship is allo

and HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be gether a mystery. Although to some it may appear extraordinary that, at the present day, immorial procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country.

* Hebrews, Egyptians, and Gentiles, wore them as maris of honour, and they were the helmets of our ancient knights.

PRINTED BY JOSEPH ROGERSON, The head-dress of Icelanders is nearly the same.

24, NORFOLK-STREET, STRAND, LONDON.

LOGY.

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JOSEPH.

dear to his father, especially when, on the birth

of another son, Benjamin, Rachel died. Jacob No. I.

appears to have distinguished him by some inju

dicious marks of fondness; for he dressed him in JOSEPH was the son of the patriarch Jacob, by a coat of many colours, and so preferred him to his beloved wife Rachel. He was particularly his brothers that they were jealous of him and VOL, XXV.

Q

hated him. And Joseph himself seems, as might Thus it is that he can bring good out of evil, and have been expected, with youthful vanity to have make even the wrath of wicked men to praise increased the dislike thus evinced against him ; for him. he reported to his father the evil conduct of his Joseph was a remarkable type of Christ. Christ brothers ; and when he had dreamed more than had done no injury: he had entertained no unone dream indicative of his future superiority to justifiable thoughts; and yet he was hated of his his family, he seems to have related those dreams brethren. As the sons of Jacob against Joseph, with a kind of exultation, so that his father had so the Jews plotted against Christ, and rested not at last to check him. There is nothing more in- till they had the opportunity of seizing him, when jurious to a beloved child than doting fondnees. they proposed cruelly to slay him. But the evil The evil that is naturally in the heart requires to treatment he sustained God "overruled, and made be checked by wholesome restraint. And the effectual for the salvation of the world. parents who neglect to repress the seeds of vanity and pride, are preparing bitter sorrow both for themselves and the children they have indulged.

OBEDIENCE*. Jacob did not perceive the discord that was rising in his family : he was not aware of the evil tempers cherished by his elder sons towards their

" What shall I do that I may inherit eternal life ?" brother. Perhaps they added hypocrisy to their Such was the interesting question put by the rich other faults: perhaps they professed affection for young ruler to our blessed Lord. Who could Joseph in their father's presence ; else, if he had wish his child to make a more important inquiry ? detected the malice that was in their hearts, he and yet there was something lacking in this most would not have ventured his beloved child among truly moral and amiable youth. Jesus knew them.

what was in man, and needed not that any should The world, comparatively young as it was in testify of man. He saw that, notwithstanding those days, had had an awful example of dissension his moral excellence, the heart was unchanged : between brethren. Cain had slain Abel; and he was unconverted, he was essentially worldly; Cain's punishment might well , one would have like many

others, he was blind to the extent of thought, have affrighted others from indulging the law of God: he had not learnt that the com, hatred.' But men will not learn by others; ex- mandment of God is exceeding broad. Our Lord perience; and Satan is ready enough to keep the pressed him with the two tables of the law. He 19 consequences of sin hidden from their thoughts : I was ready with the reply, a reply conscientiously. he represents the sweetness there is in revenge, he given, true indeed to the letter, but most lamentpromises opportunities of indulging passion, and ably erroneous in spirit. “ All these,” said he, leads, if he can, his victims blindfold to ruin. “ have I observed from my youth.” Jesus then The sons of Jacob considered not the command urged him to give up the world, and take

his of God: they considered not the grief into which cross and follow him. But he was sad at that they would plunge their aged parent: they only saying, and went away. thought of gratifying their dislike of Joseph. And I will not, however, dwell upon the history soon an occasion was afforded them. They were itself, but at once direct you to the subject on occupied in pastoral labours. Wealthy as they which I undertook to speak to you to-day, the were, they had to tend their flocks, and frequently third baptismal vow. This refers to keeping the ** to journey far from home for the purpose of ob- commandments of God. The first vow was to taining proper pasturage. They had gone for this renounce the world, the flesh, and the devil; the purpose to Shechem; and it appears that their second concerned our faith ; the third comprises absence was long, so that their father began to be our obedience. I must, then, endeavour to show uneasy. He therefore charged Joseph, who was youbut a youth, to go from Hebron to Shechem to I. What is required of you. ascertain whether all was well with his brothers II. I will point out your own inability to do and with their flocks. When he arrived there, his what is right. brethren had gone on to Dothan, and thither ac- III. I would endeavour to lead you to the Sacordingly Joseph followed them. When they viour, Christ being the end of the law for rightesaw him coming, now, they said, is our time : ousness to every one that believeth” (Rom. x. 4); “ Behold this dreamer cometh : come now, there- First, then, what is required of you? My fore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some brethren, God requires that every one of you pit ; and we will say, Some evil beast hath de- should obey his commandments. This obedience voured him ; and we shall see what will become must be immediate, unreserved, and unceasing.

It must be immediate. This is for the most that his visions would be fulfilled actuated them ; | part the great stumbling-block to the world. Ne and they thought by this means to disappoint théone denies that God demands obedience, no one prognostication.

gainsays the fact that we must give an account But God's purposes are not to be disappointed ; before God for our disobedience

, and yet scarcely their own desires, are overruled by God to the the will of God, and I will at once obey.” How accomplishment of his will

. The hatred of his breth- fearful are the consequences of delay! What ren_was the first step to Joseph's advancement awful presumption is it for any one to speak of which he was afterwards to rule. Thus it is that

up

"Show me what is

' Religion no Fiction ; being the substance of “God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform."

Bloomsbury, London : Nisbets. 1845.

* From“

hon. and rev. H. M. Villiers, M.A., rector of St. George's,

some future time being a more convenient season of the Lord's supper; but you assert your determi. for repentance! It is a practical assertion that nation to walk as children of God for ever. our life is our own, that our times are in our But to what is obedience to be yielded ? We own hands, forgetting that it is in God we live, are to obey what is called the moral law of God. and move, and bave our being.” If sin exists, This is contained in the ten commandments, these and we perish in (that sin, unrepented of, we ten commandments are the Christian's rule of perish eternally. Many persons are now in hell, conduct; the first four referring to our duty I do not doubt, who could bear testimony to the towards God, the remaining six relating to our madness of delaying instantly to abandon sin. duty towards our neighbour. Both these tables You probably have some sin which more easily of the law are to be obeyed. This is a point of besets you than others. Your peculiar circum- which too many appear to be ignorant. They stances expose you more frequently to certain comfort themselves with the thought that they temptations than others. You have very pro- have abstained from the commission of gross sin, bably reasoned upon your sins as if they were have been amiable to their neighbours, dutiful as trilling in the sight of God, because they are children, and careful as parents. These things trilling in your own eyes. You have felt that, indeed are right; these things ought ye to do, and as you could not be perfect, it would be of little not to leave the others undone. profit that you should remove every imperfection A man may be strictly honest to his fellow-men, in your power : at any rate you have felt that at and yet "rob God." How many times has the a later period of life it would be soon enough to sabbath been broken? This is robbing God. commence this thorough reformation. Now per- Suppose, for instance, the case of two poor men, mit me to be very plain with you upon this subject; the one saying to his neighbour, " I have seven "What fellowship hath righteousness with un-pounds; I will give you six to spend for yourself, righteousness? and what communion hath light but the seventh I must keep." Now, picture to with darkness ? and what concord hath Christ yourself this man, saying directly that he had obwith Belial?” (2 Cor. vi. 14, 15). Before you tained the six pounds, . Whether you will allow can ever hope to be Christians, before you can be me or not, I must have this seventh pound also." entitled to any privilege of a believer, sin must be What, I ask, would you say of the conduct of this renounced. If, therefore, you desire to be Chris

man?

Would you pot describe it as base and untians at this time, give up sin immediately, and grateful? Would you not speak of it as robbery ? obey God immediately.

And, yet, where is the difference ? God has given Furthermore, your obedience must be unre- us six days wherein we are to labour for the body : served. It is not gradual improvement that must be demands the seventh to be exclusively used satisfy you. Your whole life must iudeed be one for the good of the soul, and for his own glory. of gradual improvement, but, if you can discern Men, nevertheless, think it lawful to use the six any sin which may appear as necessary to your days for labour, and refuse to keep the seventh comfort as a right hand or a right eye, you must day holy unto the Lord; and thus they rob God. cut it off. If ever there was a case in which we Í repeat, then, neither of these two tables must might suppose partial obedience would have been be broken. If you believe in God you will sanctioned, it is in the history of Saul and the keep his commandments. It is not, it cannot be Amalekites: the best of the spoil was preserved, sufficient, to love the Lord with that love which not for selfish ends, but for the purpose of offering you can spare from the world, or to obey the a solemn sacrifice to God. But this case was no Lord when obedience costs you nothing; but exception ; God had spoken ; God must be obeyed: God must be loved supremely and obeyed im“to obey is better than sacrifice."

piicitly, and that at any cost to yourselves. But let me add to this, your active obedience I cannot enlarge upon the commandments. I must be no less unreserved. There must be a de- will merely remark that, when the first teaches votion of yourselves, your souls and bodies to us to serve the one living and true God, it imGod. Your profession is no excuse for neglecting plies, that God must reign supreme in our hearts; religion, rather let your religion sanctify your that there must be far less eagerness for the things profession. Your worldly interest must not stand of this world than there is for the things of the between you and your obedience to God : your world to come. real interest is eternal. God has said, “Give The secon, commandment teaches us how to me thine heart: "Where your treasure is, there worship God; and should guard us, not only will your heart be also : “Ye cannot serve God from the grosser forms of idolatry, but also from and mammon.". If, then, you commit sin wil. the pharisaic formality, which contents itself with lingly and knowingly, either to please man or to an uplifted eye or a bended knee, and which gratify yourselves, you cannot belong to the people forgets that “God is a Spirit; and they that of God.

worship him, must worship him in spirit and in Again, your obedience must continue, even to truth.' the end of your lives. “No man having put his The third has reference to the use of the name hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for of the Lord. This commandment is broken when the kingdom of God.” If, then, you undertake the name of God is used without seriousness or to keep the commandments, you undertake to reflection. The excuse made by many, that in keep them all the days of your life. I mention speaking of Jehovah thus lightly they intended this

, that you may not deceive yourselves as to the no evil, is worse than vain. They forget God importance of the step you are about to take. It at that time, if their excuse be true; and scripis not enough for you to have your hearts ture says: “ The wicked shall be turned into solemnized now, or that you should maintain a hell, and all the nations that forget God.” If serious demeanour until you have once partaken any of you should then come in a thoughtless

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