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kinds, moral and material. Hence it spread | left bank of the Thames, where indeed the desteadily among the lower orders, and the mor- pressing conditions which predispose to it existed tality soon rose to an alarming extent. Public in greatest abundance. The excitement at this meetings were convened, shops were closed, and period in London can scarcely be conceived, and business was partially suspended. Hitherto Eng. was not less among the community at large than land bad escaped ; yet wbat might be called the among the members of the medical profession, now skirts of the advancing shower were felt amongst us. called to deal with a foe against whom their powers At Sunderland severe attacks of a prostrating bad as yet been untried. Beginning at Limediarrhea had occurred all the summer : in other house, and then attacking successively Rother. places dysentery and English cholera prevailed; bithe, the Mint, Lambeth, and Chelsea, cholera and typhus fever desolated many places. A simi- overspread the metropolis next in the direction of lar experience was found also on the continent. its breadth. The aspect of the Thames at this time The crest of the heavy plague-tide seemed to fly was melancholy in the extreme: business was at before it, and announce its approach. Just three a complete stand-still; and the commerce of the weeks after it bad entered Hamburgh cholera greatest city in the world was altogether susentered Egland; and the first fatal case occurred pended. All this was owing to the quarantine at Sunderland, on the 26th of October, 1831. regulations. On the 18th of May, London was A government commissioner was immediately declared whole again ; and the beavy and useless despatched to the spot, with the view of ascer- fetters which bad bound commercial enterprise taining the reality of the report. The greatest were struck off; but, as the year 1832 advanced, unwillingness to acknowledge that the disease cholera again appeared, and raged violently for had in truth come upon us was manifested; sone weeks during the summer months; but in and the mind of the people was kept for September it took wing, and disappeared almost some period in a state of the most haras- entirely, leaving, however, apparently seeds of sing and painful uncertainty: Another and an- the disease behind, which, every year since that other victim fell, and yet all were willing to time, have matured and brought forth their scatbelieve what they so much wished to be true - tered fruit. The close of this eventful year witthat we were still unharmed by the pestilence. It nessed its entire departure from England. On the was said that some vessels from Hanıburgh bad whole, its visitation upon us proved far less severe broken through quarantine, and thus brought the than had been expected, and was not to be coindisease into the country ; but it turned out that the pared with the awful manner in which it visited crews of the suspected ships were every one per many cities of the continent, and Paris in par. fectly bealthy. An abominable system of feeding ticular, where, in 283 days, 20,300 persons died the poor existed in Sunderland : they were con- from it*. At its first entry into Paris, on the 30th tracted for at public auction, and the lowest of March, it fell upon 178 individuals in one bidder was
the winner of the unhappy lot. night. Ultimately it proved so fatal in this city Cholera vaid hands upon these poor starvelings, that terrible riots broke out among the people, and slew them with ease and awful frequency who feared their poor companions in the hosReluctantly, one by one, every doubt was banished; pitals were actually being poisoned. Altbough and on the 5th of November the leading journal ibe cholera dispersed the chamber of deputies, of the day announced to the whole kingdom that and thus dissolved the French parliament, it was cholera was upon us at last. Great ayiration pre powerless to break up balls and routs, or to vailed ; and it was even proposed in parliament to empty the walls of the numerous theatres. At surround the intected spot with a line of troops, length this terrible disease quitted Europe ; and or, in other words, to adopt the continental system frou that time until the present, while its name of cordons. In answer to the proposition, it was bas been a cause of terror everywhere, its actual stated that an army of not less than from 20,000 presence has only lately manifested itself, and, the to 30,000 men would be necessary to effect this truth must be told, its fatality has not been die end. Upon this and other grounds the plan was minished by age. rejectedl. Sunderland daily lost more and more It is a singular fact, and one that has much ocof her inhabitants under this tell disease ; but, as cupied the thoughts of those who have investiyet, no instance of its occurrence elsewhere was gated the cause of the disease, that extraordinary reported.
atmospheric phenomena have accompanied its This immunity was short. Newcastle next felt progress. Ai St. Vincent's, in 1831, there octhe
power of ile pestilence; and there, beginning curred the most terrible tornado known for many in isolated inslalices, it shortly reached its full
Ac Constantinople, on the 10th October, proportions. Afterwards came the attack upon in the same year, there was a most fearful hailNorth and South Shields, Seaham, and Gates- stormi, accompanied with the precipitation of great head ; and by successive irruprions it spread north-lumps of ice, as weighty as, it is reported, to have ward into Scotland, and southwarit into England. broken even the tiles on the roofs of the houses. In one district in the north, within the space of Similar phenomena are reported in various other twelve hours i he swift-winged malady overspread districts.' But the most remarkable is one which an area of two wiles' diameter. Ai length the was discovered by Dr. Prout; and the notice of grent metropolis felt the destroyer's touch ; und in which will be found in the “ Bridgewater TreaFebruary a few scattered instances occurred in tise” of that philosopher. Having been for some the Pool. Steadily the numbers rose as the vic. tinis tell; and, as is the universal observation, and were assured by an eminent physician, to whom the
. We were ourselves in Paris a year or two afterwards, those whó were already debilitated by drunkenness superintendence of a district was assigued, that but a small and dirt were the earliest and most desperate class proportion of the deaths that actually occurred was acknow. of sufferers. Ils ravages were most serious ou the ledged by the authurities.--Ed.
time engaged in experimenting upon the weight dysentery is its warning to a nation; and to an of a certain volume of air, he one day discovered individual it generally gives notice of its approach that it was sensibly heavier than usual. Repeat- by a looseness of the bowe's, often without paring the experiment several times, he verified this ticular pain, for a variable period before the oversingular result, and, strange to say, on the very wnelming attack ensues. A third cause of comfort next day the first case of cholera was reported in is that, if taken in time, that is, if the premothe metropolis. Some curious facts connected nitory symptom of painless diarrhea is promptly with atmospheric electricity have also been re- attended to, cholera is curable. If, however, this corded. Thus it has been noticed in Russia that invaluable opportunity is lost, the case then asa magnet, which in usual seasons would carry a sumes a far more serious aspect, and the terrible weight of fifty or sixty pounds, all the time that chain of symptoms, which have rendered it the cholera raged lost more than four-fifths of its universal fear of mankind, comes into action. It sustaining power, and, as the disease disappeared, is now also well ascertained that there are certain gradually regained its strength. It has also causes of an obviable kind, which powerfully prebeen observed that the electric telegraph refused dispose individuals to the disease. Moisture and to act while cholera raged in the district, but re- filth are the most energetic of these. In the vilturned to its proper functions as the disease lage of Hill-head, in the north, cholera was exdeparted. These facts have lately been made clusively confined to some miserable houses of the basis of an attempted new method of cure, weavers, fronting the canal. In Sunderland it but without noticeable results. Another strange broke out in a damp reeking spot, called the and sad' accompaniment of this terrible dis- Shore, near the river; and it has particularly ease has been a most extraordinary excitement struck me, while marking the progress of the preof the popular mind. Every historian of sent pestilence, to note how cholera when it enters a cholera notices this remarkable fact. Riots country generally first picks out its victims by the and outbreaks of various kinds have been as river-side. The unhappy convict-ship, the “Jussurely its concomitants as a peculiar form of titia,” at Woolwich, moored opposite an open diarrhea and dysentery have been the advance sewer-mouth, first, and for some time exclusively, guaril in its career. Let any one call to mind the felt the force of the disease. Drunkenness is another Bristol riots in our own land, and the French powerful predisposer. Long will the inhabitants revolution of 1830, with the fact that fearful popu- of Gateshead, in the north, remember the deal. lar outbursts occurred in several continental cities ings of cholera with tiveir fellow-townsmen. It at the same time, and this observation will be was at Christmas-time; and many made this seareadily accepted. Nor, while we look at the son of Cbristian joy a period for the deepest dissiangry tide of tumult, anarchy, bloodshed, and pation and debauch. The laughter was soon revolution abroad, and the fierce-struggling ele- turned into mourning; for cholera came upon ments of discord in our own and sister country, them at their festivities; and the most fearful morcan we fail at this present time also to see that tality took place, principally among the hard cholera has come amongst us again, and in com- | drinkers and intemperate eaters. It seemed as if, pany with its old associates.
without a previous warning, cholera burst upon I am compelled, however, to make these in- them like a thunder-shower, or like a pent-up cidental observations, interesting though their na- stream. Negligence as to personal cleanliness is ture is, as brief as possible, to make room for a few also among this class of agencies: thus it was general remarks in conclusion, upon the character said of the Jews at Berlin, that, although their and habits of this desolating epidemic; and in domestic arrangements were not so good as those these lie sources of encouragement which its pre- of the other inhabitants of the city, yet, in vious history would scarce allow us to suppose. consequence of their strict attention to personal One of the most blessed assurances respecting it, ablutions, out of 2,000 deaths by cholera, not one wbich have yet appeared, is the fact that cholera was that of a Jew. It must however be stated is not contagious." It is true, in places peculiarly that in other cities a counter-statement has been circumstanced, the poison may accumulate in an made as to the prevalence of the disease in the excessive degree, and that persons who might Jewish quarters. Excessive fear, by its debiotherwise escape, if collected together in such litating influence upon the body, undoubtedly places, would most probably be infected with the predisposes to cholera : when the disease raged on disease. But ordinarily there is no risk of its the continent in 1831, such was the excessive communication from person to person. The rela- alarm into which some were cast, that they even tives and friends of the sick ought not to leave died of fear. This was remarkably exemplified them therefore, and may remain and pay them also in the case of two regiments of soldiers. The the most assiduous attention, without fear surgeons and commanding-officers of one were of personal infection. Thus all quarantine rules, strong contagionists, and were so indiscreet as to with their ruin-doing effects ; all sanitary tell their men that the terrible malady was infeccordons, and such like regulations, intended to tious: the same authorities of another were, on the shut cholera out or in, are worse than useless. In contrary, convinced of the non-contagiousness of Russia it was actually found that ro sooner were the disease, and assured their men that it was not they all abolished than the disease assumed a What was the result? Cholera came upon milder type, owing undoubtedly to the resump- both regiments; the one full of terror and anxiety; tion of ordinary business and the employ of many the other calm, and ready to meet the invader. who were rendered wholly destitute by these abo. The fatality was altogether enormous in the first minable restrictions. Another equally merciful case, and very trifling in the second. Negligence truth is that cholera does not come without warn- as to domestic cleanliness, ventilation, drainage, ing. The unusual prevalence of diarrhæa and&c., must also be considered a most weighty cause
of predisposition. Intemperance in food, and the
A FASTIDIOUS DISPOSITION. use of improper food, insufficient clothing and food, exposure to wet and cold, and late hours, All men, in one respect, resemble the ancient are all in the same category.
Athenians, who were eager to tell or to hear These causes are, as I have said, all of them some new thing” (Acts xvii. 21). In the present more or less obviable, and, if studiously avoided, day of religious excitement, such a disposition is put us in possession of a defence more or less sure more than usually prevalent, and calls for, on the against the inroad of the malady. Believing that part of Christians, more than usual precaution. it falls quite within my scope* to offer a few words It is by no means uncommon for some congregaof advice on this important topic, I may venture | tions to grow in a few years tired of the minister to suggest them under the following heads : whom they once not only welcomed amongst them
1. The House.—The drains should be well with the strongest demonstrations of regard, but attended to, all effluvia done away with, the whom they almost idolized. And this state of apartments clean, dry, often ventilated, occasion- feeling has arisen, not because he is deficient in ally heated by a fire, and fresh air allowed to flow talent, or indolent in study, or because his disthrough all the rooms in appropriate weather. courses are feeble and meagre, incapable of en
2. The Person.--Cleanliness, occasional warm larging their acquaintance with divine truth, but bathing, friction with flannel, the use of flan- simply because they possess bim. The chara and nel next the skin, waterproof shoes, moderate freshness of novelty in his manner, which was exercise, and a flannel belt round the waist and once so attractive, has passed away. The same stomach.
tones of voice, falling constantly on their ears, 3. The Diet.-Plain meat, well-boiled potatoes, weary and pall. They are restless for a change, rice, bread a day or two old, form the best articles and, like the pampered epicure sated with delicious of food. Acid drinks, ardent spirits in excess, bad viands, they long for an alteration of their diet, beer, salt meat, fish, green vegetables, pickles, and can turn from the most luxuriant table, to sit &c., are to be avoided.
down to even the coarsest and meanest fare. These form the proper measures of precaution, Such a disposition has ever been favourable to upon the use of which the divine blessing may be schisms. Something new has ever been sought after, expected to follow. I would urge also most em- although every thing new in religion is a grand phatically that the most trifling looseness of the impertinence. Whatever does not bear upon it bowels should be instantly attended to, no matter the stamp of antiquity in doctrine or precept is how slight the attack may appear to be; and it erroneous. “ Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the has been recommended by the highest authorities ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where in the country that a little store of proper medi- is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall cine should be kept ready for administration im- find rest for your souls” (Jer. vi. 16). mediately this warning makes its appearance, To gratify the corrupt appetite for novelty, men This of course is best procured from the medical of misguided or designing minds have tried, and attendant of a family. Sometimes the symptoms tried alas ! too successfully, every kind of artifice assume rapidly an excessive severity, cramps and and manœuvre. Spiritual empiricism has been as coldness occurring, with violent alvine discharges : rife, as popular, as well attested and recomin such cases instantly send for a medical prac-mended, as the quackery for corporeal maladies. titioner, put the person into bed in hot blankets, Indeed, in proportion to the absurdity and extra. Jay a large mustard-poultice over the stomach and vagancy of its nostrums, to the hardihood and bowels, put bags of hot salt along the spine, and vain confidence of its experimenters, have manbottles of hot water to the feet, rub the extra- kind yielded to the delusions. He must be slenmities with the hands vigorously, and give every derly acquainted with the history of our race, and half-hour, until medical aid arrives, å dessert- but little observant of what is now passing around spoonful of brandy in some hot water, or half him, who does not know that these devices are that quantity of sal volatile in the same medium. some of “the depths of Satan” (Rev. ii, 24),
Lastly, something has been seen of the conse- whose maxim it is “to divide and to destroy." quences of excessive fear. Let us possess our souls To sober and serious Christians it is a source of in patience. Resting on that sure foundation, a anguish to witness many of the doings of the prewell-grounded Christian confidence, we can look sent day, which are carried on under pretext of without dismay to the invasion of the disease, and superior illumination and sanctity; to see going may venture to appropriate the promise of the forward amongst some sectaries as much arrogant covenant with the people of God: “It shall not pretension, pharisaical conceit, boasting of miracome nigh thee.”
culous gifts; and these things supported by artful ROBERT ELLIS, illusions, and followed by as gross credulity and
obstinate folly as ever characterized any age of • The writer of this article is a medical man.--Ed.
Let us dread, then, the idea of the mental dissipation which disposes to such feverish excitement, and which may render us a prey to such wild illusions. Let us fear to mistake the frenzy of the passions for the renewal of the heart. Let us testify a decided abhorrence of the wretched impostors, who, in order to “make gain of godliness” (1 Tim. vi. 5), are intent upon exciting cartain theatrical emotions of horror, and producing
• From “A Guide to Church Fellowship."
in the church feelings and conduct which seem to , How soon will the “rain, beating the wintry be the renewal of the ancient orgies of demons ; pane," tell that yet another year has joined the oft times so dethroning reason from its empire in mass of ages gone-another page is added to life's the minds of the young, as to render theni incr- volume, another wave has broken on the “ solemn rable maniacs, and acting the most mournful of all shore”! tragedies, without the spectators thinking there was any tragedy acting at all. Let us lift against
The deep note of time, reverberating through the such doings an intrepid voice. St. Paul lays it rapid Aight : the rushing of his “broad pinions, endure sound doctrine," that “they heap to them
swifter than the winds, seems well nigh perselves teachers having itching ears” (2 Tim. iv. shadows of the year are lengthening ? 'To the long
ceptible. But where wanders thought as the 3). A prudent and faithful Christian will resist cypress-bordered vale, where memory garners up all importunities, even once to desert his pastor, the loved and the lost. Are we not all too prone to run after new teachers, however they may be to fly back to the busy world again, when a sad lauded or he may be solicited. If bis heart be in the right place, he will feel no inclination
to listen vacancy has been left in our circle ? Imperceptibly to them:* “ No man having drunk old wine of oblivion are spreading : the dial of our recol
over that remembrance the ever-increasing mists straightway desireth new; for he saith the old is lection advances not beyond that last meeting : it better” (Luke v. 39). It is much to be lamented that some professors
is already becoming dim; distance is every moare so vagrant in their habits, that, instead of ad- ment blending it more and more with the shadowy bering to their own communion, they are always past; and we are insensibly (in the midst of our wandering about from place to place. Every new
sorrow) hewing out to ourselves other sources of preacher or new occurrence calls them away from interest, from which the lamented one is excluded their own sanctuary. By this means they foster -new hopes, new fears, in which that once dear and the spirit of fastidiousness in which they indulge :
familiar being has no part. they listen only to be gratified and excited: they
So much for merely earthly remembrance. Like never profit. “ As a bird that wandereth from voyagers down a river, continually leaving fellowher nest, so is a man that wandereth from his passengers on the banks, we spend but little time place” (Prov. xxvii. 8). Such persons are always, in speculating on their destiny, knowing that the spite of their self-importance, the most igno- swift-rolling tide is bringing our own haven so rant in divine things ; “ever learning, and never
near: a day, an hour, a moment, and we may form able to come to the knowledge of the truth” (2 part of that innumerable company! But a far Tim. iii. 7). They are always captivus, carping, deeper and more solemn sound is in the question, carried away with overweening conceit of them where, how, and whither has the spirit fled ? in selves, feeding and fanning divisions, allured by what is the ever active immaterial portion occuthe glare o every meteor, and led on from one illu- pied ? in what distant world, all unknown to us, a. sion to another. 5 These are spots in your feasts denizen? how travelling through long eternity, of charity” (Jude 12). “Thus saith the Lord, and how associated? Thrilling to the very heart They have loved to wander, they have not re- are thoughts like these, when we would fain burst strained their feet; therefore the Lord doth not ac
the bound which fetters our finite intelligence, cept them” (Jer. xiv. 10). "The man that wan and explore the infinite. Without verging on an dereth out of the way of understanding shall re- impious and vain inquiry after the things unseen, main in the congregation of the dead" (Prov. xxi. it is still good for us in reverence and humility to 16).
indulge these thoughts ere the sunshine and the Let us, then, check a fickle and fastidious tem- | breeze, with the thousand influences of busy life per, as we would avoid falling into the sin and in- at war with the meditative mood, disperse our eurring the punishment of schism.
musings. A form familiar with our ancient love, our every-day associations, has been summoned
away : a fellow-pilgrim has reached before us the
• bourne from whence they return not, the journey's REFLECTIONS ON THE CLOSING YEAR. end, to which each flying hour is bringing us the
nearer ; for our moments travel post. How disBY MRS. H. W. RICHTER.
tinctly, how clearly do the look and voice of the
departed come before the “mind's eye!” Why "Let thought contemplative explore
come they not again? “ The grave is their
reciprocal expression of kindred souls : the step Warton.
comes not, the voice will greet us no more; and
we still journey on. It is vain to check the exOn this calm shadowy day, when nature seems to ploring thought after things connected with our pause, ere putting off her summer robes of joy; most solemn anticipations, fully known as these when a dim, soft colouring rests over all things, and all other mysteries will be hereafter : we have while from the still and fading woods the seared a divine promise that they will be so : humbly and leaves descend and rustle to the ground; when gratefully we rely on the Father of spirits, who flowers hang their heads, as if mourning their hath given us this hope ; and, while still “ priapproaching decay, how naturally comes retro- soners of earth,” we dimly and imperfectly specuspection-the moral of the closing year! For as late on the nature of that future world, concerning surely as spring points onwards to the future, do which it hath not entered, nor is it permitted to the mellow shades of autumn invite to the past. our thoughts to conceive. How impassable the
barrier! how immutable the law! how merciful speedy dissolution, with the hope of the the decree! For how should creatures of a day, signal service which he would do to the encompassed by earth and earthly things, com
cause of Christ. We have Luke-probably prehend a state all mind, all soul, all spirit, or by whatever name we may call this “ vital spark of
an older person, one long tried, and found heavenly flame"? In vain would we essay to
faithful in every trial-still clinging to the fathom our own mysterious being ; creatures of aged apostle; clinging to him at a time when yesterday, yet destined for endless duration; most men were afraid or ashamed to own travelling together for a while towards eternity on him. We have Mark, who had formerly this little promontory of time, with the waves of left him, and whose departure had given rise change and death for ever altering the company to that unhappy difference between himself in which we are placed. Yet that company, those and Barnabas, again one of his fellow-labourassociates, we ourselves, to live again, and for ever, beyond the river of death, every moment
ers (Philem. 24), "profitable unto him feeling the decay of our temporary dwelling of for the ministry" (2 Tim. iv. 11), and “a clay, yet conscious of the thinking, feeling, acting comfort unto bim” (Col. iv. 10, 11), and faculty undecayed, how “poor, yet rich, how walking worthy of his vocation. We have abject, how august, how complicate, how wonder- Demas, not long before associated with St. ful this being !" Our Saviour's answer to one Paul, his fellow-labourer and companion who inquired of him touching the nature and state (Col. iv. 14, Philem. 24), and so, appaof souls in the resurrection, conveys a mild reproof to bold and vain inquirers; but how com rently, holding a place of some prominence forting, how exalting the reply: “ they are as the in the church, forsaking him, and sbrinking angels of God”! conveying perfect assurance of from the cross, out of love to this present their perfection and bliss. Neither can they die world. And, last of all, we have the apostle any more.” Who can estimate the extent of sor- himself, now standing upon the verge of the row and evil connected with the fatal bound to eternal world, his labours, his sufferings, his all our hopes and schemes ? However brilliant our trials, his conflicts, on the point of closing ; destiny, we must leave it; however beloved, we must separate ; or, however enlarged our worldly former days, and intimating the possibility
no longer using the diffident language of or intellectual wealth, the grave's darkness must shroud all-all for which we have struggled, toiled, of his coming short of heaven (i Cor. ix. and disquieted our hearts in vain ; all that we have 27), but looking forward with assured faith loved, cherished, and perhaps unwisely valued; and exulting hope to the glory that should all but that treasure placed in no earthly vessels, be revealed. which through all the distractions and vain cares
The church of Christ has shown in all of time we have laid up beyond the moth and rust which is ever corroding things earthly, and ages the same varieties of character and prowhich will be the measure of our estate, our im- ficiency; She has ever had her Timothies, mortal inheritance, in a state of being without her Lukes, her Marks, ber Demases, ber bound, and without end.
Pauls-stars, so to speak, of various magnitudes; some rising, others at their meridian,
others setting; some coming forth from beST. PAUL AND DEMAS; OR, THE NECES. | hind a cloud, which for a time had darkened
SITY AND BLESSEDNESS OF PERSEVER-them; others falling from their spheres, and, ANCE:
after glaring for a moment, quenched and a Serirott,
lost to sight for ever.
Let us fix our attention, in this group, on BY THE REV. C. A. HEURTLEY, B.D., the two characters of St. Paul and Demas.
The point to which our eyes turn, the Rector of Fenny Compton, Warwickshire.
moment we look towards the apostle, is the 2 TIM. iv. 6-10.
assured confidence with which he speaks of “I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my his acceptance with God; and the blessed
departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, ness of his long course of steady and conI have finished my course, I have kept the faith: sistent perseverance is set off and heightened henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of by the contrast of Demas's worldly-mindedrighteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but
ness and inconstancy. unto all them also that love his appearing. Do thy Of Demas we have mention in two other diligence to come shortly unto me; for Deinas hath places. St. Paul sends his name, among forsaken me, having loved this present world."
others, in the salutations with which be THESE words occur in a passage which sets closes the epistles to the Colossians and before us, within the compass of a few verses, to Philemon; epistles evidently written at the stages of Christian progress in remarkable the same time-probably about two years variety. We have Timothy, a young man previously to the epistle to Timothy, now full of promise; so full as to cheer the apostle, before us. Remarkably enough, his name who was now looking forward to his own occurs in connexion with St. Luke's, wherever