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from accredited historical autho- by the author of the pamphlet), is rities, and partly from the “Secreta to separate men from the world. Monita," or the hidden Rules of the The object of Jesuitism, on the Order-rules carefully concealed contrary, was to make them masters during that long period in which of the world. And the modes of men felt the blow, without seeing government in these distinct orders the hand which struck it-rules, correspond with their distinct the discovery of which at once objects. The other orders are to armed all Europe against the be considered as voluntary assoSociety. The first copy of the ciations, in which whatever affects “Secreta Monita” was discovered the whole body is regulated by the in the Jesuits' College at Pader- common suffrage of all its members. born, in Westphalia ; and a second But Jesuitism was purely despotic. at Prague. A preface directs that
“ A Ġeneral chosen for life by deputhey shall be communicated, even ties from the several provinces, posto the initiated, with the utmost sessed power that was supreme and caution; and as the result of per- independent, extending to every personal experience, not as the written son and to every case. He, by his sole rules of the Order. And, in the authority, nominated provincials, reccase of their falling into the hands tors, and every other officer employed of strangers, " they must be poc could remove them at pleasure. In
in the government of the society, and sitively denied to be the rules of him was vested the sovereign adminithe society."
stration of the revenues and funds of the The founder of the society was, Order. Every member belonging to it, as is well known, Ignatius Loyola, was at his disposal; and by his unconone of those sly enthusiasts whose troulable mandate he could impose on folly never so gets the better of them any task, or employ them in what their cunning as to prevent their service soever he pleased. To bis pursuing the worst ends by the commands they were required to yield most efficient means. He soon
not only outward obedience, but to overcame the reluctance of the resign up to bim the inclinations of
their own wills, and the sentiments of court of Rome to establish a so their own understandings. They were ciety, of which all saw the inutility, to listen to his injunctions, as if they and many the danger, by a general had been uttered by Christ hiinself. pledge to obey the papal mandate Under his direction they were to be in every part of the world, without only passive instruments, like clay in reward or support. And, under the hands of the potter, or mere mathe sanction of a bull thus ob- chines incapable of resistance. Such tained, and granting every privi- a singular form of policy could not lege which enthusiasm or art could fail to impress its character on all the
members of the Order, and to give a desire, the society, in half a cen- peculiar force to all its operations. tury, obtained settlements in every There is not in the annals of mankind Catholic country; its members mulany example of such a perfect destiplied; its wealth increased; and potism exercised, be it observed, not all Europe felt the controuling in- over monks shut up in the cells of a fluence of its genius and power. convent, but over men, dispersed among The rules of the Order were not, all the nations of the earth.” p.5. however, completed by the founder The trust thus reposed in the of the institution: they were en- General of the Order required that larged and perfected by some of he should be intimately acquainted the most distinguished followers of with the powers and dispositions Loyola; and, in particular, Lainez of the agents over whom he posis supposed to have been the author sessed such unlimited controul. of the “Seereta Monita."
Accordingly every possible secuThe primary object of all the rity was taken for his acquiring monastic orders (as is justly stated such knowledge Inspection of the minutest kind was maintained; professed members. By these various reports from every district of the methods, the superiors, under whose society were multiplied; and tri- immediate inspection the novices are butarý streams of information placed, acquire a thorough knowledge were incessantly rolling into the order that the General, who is the soul
of their dispositions and taleuts. In grand reservoir at Rome, to
that animates and moves the whole so. which the General alone possessed ciety, may have under his eye every full access.
M. de Chatolais has thing necessary to inform or.direct him, made a calculation of the number the provincials and heads of the several of reports thus transmitted. These houses are obliged to transmit to him amount to 6581 annually. Besides regular and frequent reports concerning these are those communications the members under their inspection. In
these they descend into minute details which were called “ Letters ex
with respect to the character of each. traordinary."- The provincials are
person, his abilities natural or acquired, bound not to confine themselves to
his temper, his experience in affairs, the giving an account of the society, and the particular department for which but are also to state the civil and po- he is best fitted. These reports, when litical circumstances of the various digested and arranged, are entered into commonwealths in which they re- registers, kept on purpose, that the Geside. Most of these statements are
neral may, at oné comprehensive view, to be conveyed by a particular cy- survey the state of the society in every pher known only to the General. fications and talents of its members ;
corner of the earth ; observe the qualiThe account given by Robertson *
and thus choose, with perfect informaof the system of espionage and in- tion, the instruments which his absolute spection is so curious, that we have power can employ in any service for been tempted to extract it.
which he thinks meet to destine them.” “ As the constitutions of the Order As the object of the Order was vest in the General such absolute domi. to obtain influence in all quarters nion over all its members, they carefully of the globe, and among all classes provide for his being perfectly informed of men, they naturally became miswith respect to the character and abili
sionaries, preachers, schoolmasters, ties of his subjects. Every novice who offers himself as a candidate for enter
and confessors. And in a short ing into the Order, is obliged to manifest time they became almost the exhis conscience to the superior, or to a clusive, and certainly the most disperson appointed by him; and in doing tinguished, instructors of youth in this is required to confess, not only his every Catholic country. They were sins and detects, but to discover the in- the confessors of almost every Cachinations, the passions, and the bent of tholic monarch and person of dishis soul. This manifestation must be tinguished rank. Their wealth, renewed every six months. The society, notwithstanding a vow of ponot satistied with penetrating in this manner into the innost recesses of the verty” which they found little difheart, directs each member to observe ficulty in evading, was immense. the words and actions of the novices; They obtained a licence to trade they are constituted spies upon their with the nations whom they unconduct; and are bound to disclose dertook to convert. They made every thing of iinportance concerning themselves masters of an immense them to the superior. In order that this : province in South America. And scrutiny into their character may be as
thus, although when Loyola, in cojaplete as possible, a loug noviciate 1540, petitioned the pope to authomust expire, during which they pass rize the institution of the Order, he through the several gradations of ranks in the society, and they must havc at. had only ten disciples, in the year tained the full age of tkirty-three years 1608 the number of Jesuits amountbefore they can be permitted to take ed to 10,581, In 1710 the Order the final vows, by which they become possessed 24 professed houses, 59
houses of probation, 341 residences, Charles V. Vol. ii. p.431. 612 colleges, 200 missions, 150
seminaries; and the society consist- the society always haye the right of pre. ed of 19,998 members.
senting, and that the superior of the JeThe characteristic principle of suits, for the time being, be appointed the Order is rightly stated by to the cure, so that the whole governDr. Robertson to be simply this, ment of that church and its parishioners that its interests are to be pro- Wherever the governors of academies
may become dependant on the society. moted by all possible means, at thwart their designs, or the Catholics or all possible expenses. And the Heretics oppose their foundations, they examiner of their records almost must endeavour, by the prelates, to-seshudders to consider some of the cure the principal pulpits. Their memmeans employed by the agents, and bers, in directing the great, must seem sanctioned by the rulers, of the in- to have nothing in view but God's glory, stitution. We shall here extract
and not immediately, but by degrees, from the pamphlet before us some
interfere in political and secular matof the “ Secreta Monita ;” assuring nistration of public affairs is what they
ters, solemnly affirming that the admionr readers, that we have not maligo engage in with reluctance, and only as nantly raked in them to seize the compelled by a sense of duty.-In order faulty parts, but that these extracts to induce rich widows to be liberal to present a fair sample of the whole. the society, they must be provided with
"Princes and distinguished persons confessors who may urge their remaining must by all means be so managed that unmarried, assuring them that they will they may gain their ear, which will thereby infallibly secure their salvation, easily secure their hearts; so that all and effectually escape the pains of purpersons will become dependant upon gatory. - That the widow may dispose them, and opposition be prevented. of her property to the society, she must Since ecclesiastics secure the greatest be told of those wito have devoted themfavour by winking at the vices of the selves to the service of God, and be led great, as in the case of incestuous mar- to expect canonization from the court riages, &c. such persons must be led to
of Rome.-Confessors must also inquire hope that, through their aid, a dispen- of their penitents wbat family, relations, sation may be obtained from the pope,
friends, and estate* they possess, and which he will no doubt readily grant.
what they have in expectancy, as also It will further their object, if their mem
their intentions, which they must endeabers insinuate themselves into foreign
voui to mould in favour of the society. embassies, but especially in those to the Such members as make a scruple of acpope.–Favour must, above all, be ob- quiring riches for the society must be tained with the dependants and domes. dismissed; and if they appeal to the protics of princes and noblemen, who, by vincials they must not be beard, but presents and offices of piety, may be so
pressed with the statute which cojamands far biassed as to impart intelligence of implicit obedience from all.Such as their employers' inclinations and inten- retain a love for other orders, for the tions.—The marriages of the houses of poor, or their relations, must be dismissAustria, Bourbon, and Poland, having ed, since they are likely to prove of lit. benefited the society, similar alliances tle service. TAU before dismission must must be formed with the like object.- be prevailed upon to subscribe and Princesses and females of rank may be make an oath, that they will never digained by women of their bed-chambers, rectly or indirectly either write'or speak who must therefore be particnlarly ad- any thing to the disadvantage of the dressed, whereby there will be no se
Order; and the superiors must keep an erets concealed from their members. account in writing of the sins, failings, Their confessors must allow greater la- and vices which they formerly confess titude than those of other orders, in ed, to be used against them if occasion order that their penitents, being allured require, in order to prevent their future with such freedoin, may relinquish advancement in life : and noblemen and others, and entirely depend on their prelates, with whom they may have credirection and advice.-Prelates must be dit, must be prevailed upon to deny engaged to employ the Jesuits both for them their protection. All must be caconfessors and advisers. Care must be ressed who are distinguished either for taken, when princes or prelates found their talents, rank, or wealth, especially either colleges or parish churches, that if they have friends attached to the so
ciety or possessed of power: such must of this writer's statements. Ron be sent to Rome or some celebrated bertson says (Vol. II. p. 434), “Ununiversity for study; but if they prefer happily for mankind, the vast inthe provinces, the professors must in- fluence which the Order of Jesuits veigle them into a surrender of their effects to the society, and the superiors acquired by all these different must shew a particular regard to such
means has been often exerted with as bave allured any promising youths the most pernicious effect." The into the society. The preceptors must author of this pamphlet says, “ The not chastise nor keep in subjection vast influence wbich the Order of young men of good genius, agreeable Jesuits acquired, by all these difpersons, and noble families, like their ferent means, was constantly exother pupils : they must be won by pre- erted with the most pernicious efsents, and the indulgence of liberties fect.” The last proposition cannot peculiar to their age; but on other oc. casions, especially in exhortations, they perhaps be predicated of any instimust be terrified with threats of eternal tution, and certainly not of one to punishment, unless they obey the hea- which Europe stands indebted for venly invitation of joining the society.- much classical knowledge, and for If
any member expects a bishoprick or the edition of Newton that is taught other dignity, he must take an additional in our Universities ; which
conveys vow always to think and speak honour- ed a partial civilization into a vast ably of the society; never to have a confessor who is not a Jesuit; nor de- made known to large portions of
province of America, and which termine any affair of moment without first consulting the society. The society the East, it is true, a debased Chriswill contribute much to its own advan- tianity, but still a religion infinitely tage by fomenting and heightening (but superior, in its comforts and morals, with caution and secresy) the animosi- to the blood-stained doctrines and ties that arise among princes and great licentious ceremonial of idolatry, men, in order that they may weaken There is, however, no question but each other."
the wounds inflicted by Jesuitism If any person is still unconvinced upon society are deep and innume. of the detestable object and prin- rable ; that they are by no means ciple of this Order, let him turn to balanced by any advantages it has the “ Provincial Letters.” Pascal imparted ; that its main benefit to has there inscribed their moral and society, viz. the counteraction sup. religious principles upon a pillar plied by their more active and liwhich will endure, to their eternal terary spirit to the bigotted and infamy, as long as taste, genius, and benumbing influence of the other truth obtain the veneration of man- monastic institutions, is no longer kind.
necessary to the world ; that, to But it is a natural question - re-erect the society, is to call from What have been the practical results the dead the author of a large proof such a conspiracy of one part portion of the crimes and miseries of mankind against the rest? what of mankind, for three centuries. crimes have these traitors to the It certainly was devoutly to be common cause of happiness and hoped, that when this evil spirit virtue actually perpetrated? This had gone out, and both Protestants is the next question which the au- and Papists had been endeavouring thor of this tract endeavours to
to occupy its dwelling with milder answer, by a full induction of par- and holier institutions, it should ticulars from many unsuspected not have been permitted to return, authorities. But here we have oc- and threaten to make the last state casion to notice a slight alteration of society worse than the first. of a sentiment of Robertson which But let us proceed to state some of may seem to warrant the little the facts collected by the author. complaint we ventured, earlier in
In Portugal, they became the this article, to make of the strength entire directors of the court, the
teachers of the young, the confes- “If we turn to Germany and the neighsors of the nation. It was that bouring principalities, we shall find the court which paved the way for Jesuits abhorred wherever they were their missionary exertions in several knowu. Lamorman, the Jesuit, was the quarters of the globe, and thus confessor of the Emperor Ferdiuand II. laid the foundation for the throne of Augsburgh was divested by the
whose confidence heabused. The Bishop of universal empire they were la- Jesuits of his right of visiting the Unibouring to erect. In vain did the versity of Dillingen. They appropriated concurrent cry of the deluded and to the society the richost benefices in oppressed, from all corners of Germany, particularly those of the their commercial empire, reach the monastaries of St. Benedict and St. government. Where Jesuits were
Bernard. Catherine of Austria reposed the judges, complaints against Je- her confidence in them, and was supsuitism were not likely to be heard. planted by them. Complaints the most
affecting issued from Vienna; and At length, when“ Joseph of Portu- scarcely less striking complaints were gal could no longer shut his eyes to presented to the Archduke of Austria, facts, with which every quarter of by the states of Styria, Carinthia, and the world rang, he ordered their Carniola. Bavaria uttered the loudest expulsion; and the consequence was, groans; and Liege was not a silent suf, that two conspiracies of the Jesuits ferer." p. 18. against himself and his whole family In Poland (especially at Cracow followed. Long before this they had the capital) their exoesses were as supplanted Anthony, king of Por- revolting as elsewhere; and their tugal, and transferred his crown to crueltics to the Protestants at the king of Spain, compelling him Thorn will never be forgotten. to take refuge in Terceras, one of Sigismund III. of Poland, was himthe Azores, where they excited a self a Jesuit. They were expelled revolt against him, and beheaded from Abyssinia, because, as the 80 Frenchmen, and hung 500 Friars decree states " they meddled with for maintaining his rights. The affairs of state.” cruelties of Xavier, who was sent In Japan, whence they were from Portugal to the East Indies, banished, in 1587, they were ac. are too well known to require no- cused by the Emperor, that“ under tice; while, in the West Indies, pretence of teaching the way of the slavery in which they held the salvation, they had united his subIndians of Paraguay and Uraguay, jects against himself, and taught and the atrocities they exercised them treason instead of religion :" there are equally well established.” and Collado says, that "the con,
In France, the society is well sequence of their conduct, in Jaknown to have been the prime pan, was that Christianity itself agent in producing that “ league” was banished there, as well as an which was the scourge of France Order which gave such a distorted for so long a period. Their college view of it." - They were expelled in Paris was long recognised as from Malta, in the 17th century, the focus of sedition—as the because, among other abuses, they armoury whence were shot the ar- obtained the monopoly of corn, and rows of civil war, of sedition, or of starved the island; and from Cochin, hostile attack. Auger, a Jesuit, was because they sought to engross the the confessor of Henry III. and pearl fishery.-In China they posused to boast that he had not“ felt sessed such an influence over the the pulse of that monarch in vain.” mind of the Emperor Cham, as to To the society also may be mainly enjoy the power of life and death ascribed, that resistance to Henry under him, the disposal of civil IV, which is said to have cost the offices, and of the crown itself; French pation 100,000 souls. and it was in his reign they mur