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distinguished writers, as best agree- ciety. And surely we hazard ing with the views of St. Augustin nothing in saying that these exand his followers ; which judg- pressions do little less than de. ment, whether right or wrong, may scribe the condition of man as that be fairly set against the ipse dixit - of one who has “altogether lost the supposed design of the Pro- original righteousness.' Yet, be fessor
it remembered, that humility was Again ; as there are two versions inculcated in the writings, and of the Article of equal authority, displayed in the practice, of the it would surely have become an writers of the Homilies, perhaps, author, whose dictum is of so much not less than in the writings or conauthørity, to have compared care- duct of those who promise themfully the English with the Latin selves a plea of modest dignity at version, before he ventured to rest the dreadful Day of Judgment. an argument upon shades and de- Moreover, we leave it to the Progrees of difference in the force of fessor himself to solve the followadverbs. Had he taken this step, ing problem-how he himself can he would, perhaps, have been now affirm the doctrines of the struck with the strength and ex- Homilies to be unfavourable to tent of the corresponding adverb that practice, when he must, as a in the Latin Quám longissimé; and step to his Professor's chair, have would possibly have been disposed, subscribed to these very Homilies in compliance with the rules of as “ containing godly and wholesound eriticism, to explain the some doctrine." I shall not enter most, by the least, ambiguous term into the abundant scriptural testi. -the spoken and varying language, monies to the truth of the doctrine by that which is dead and un- thus unequivocally asserted in the varying. I shall conclude what I Homilies, and amply justified, I have to say upon this article by conceive, by the Article--contentreferring the Professor to the ing myself with having thus endeaHomilies of our Church for an voured to demonstrate the ineffianswer to his assertion respecting ciency of the Professor's argument the probable practical effect of in favour of his own opinions. the doctrine of the natural man's We come next to the 10th Ar. utter depravity in the sight of ticle. And here we find the ProGod. He acknowledges the au- fessor justly triumphing over his thority of the Homilies by class- original opponent, the Papist, in ing thein, though in a somewhat the direct and well-grounded oppolower rank, with the Articles sition which this Article maintains amongst his witnesses to the doc- against the unscriptural statements trines of our Church. Let him, of the Church of Rome. We corthen, consult them, and he will dially join in his triumph, emfind that man is expressly said bracing, as we do, the correct and " of himself, and by himself,” (i. e. complete view given by the Article in his natural, unconverted state) of the influence of Divine grace, " to have no goodness.” (Vide 2d and admiring the remarkable prepart of the sermon of the Misery cision and force of its expressions. of Man.) And man is said, in ano. They breathe the very spirit, and ther Homily, to bave not a spark almost echo the words, of Philipof goodness. (Vide first part of pians, chap. ii. ver. 3: “ It is God the sermon for Whitsunday.) It which worketh in you both to will is bere, however, necessary to ob. and to do of his good pleasure.” serve that these quotations refer But on turning to our author's to spiritual goodness in the sight professed exposition of the whole of God, not merely to that bene- purport” of this comprehensive yolence which is beneficial to so. Article, and to his applications is
to other errors, which he supposes right view of the subject, and is just its authors to have had also in their as necessary to an exposition of contemplation, it is impossible not “the whole purport" of the Article, to be confounded at discovering as the clause which he quotes and such narrowness of view in so employs ? Let it then be observed, capacious a mind, and such per- that prerenting grace is describversion of judgment in an under- ed in a former clause of this Article standing, as to many points, so as primarily indispensable to the correct and acute.
performance of good works, accepIn the first place, here, as in the table to God through Jesus Christ, former case, there is an assumption Now of this we hear nothing in the of a design in the framers of the argument grounded by the ProfesArticle, to which neither the letter sor upon the Article. This pornor the spirit, in my judgment, tion of it did not appear, I suppose, give the slightest warrant. The to be made of as pliable materials Professor assumes in the authors of as the rest. It could not be forced the Article, the desigu of " oppos- into the line of battle: it would not ing the error of those who deny range against his antagonist error, a joint agency in the work of sal- and therefore, it was left in the vation.”—Now, without entering back-ground. But I would ask, upon the question whether such is such a mode of argument worthy an opinion in a peculiar sense be of a professor, or even of a dispuerroneous or not, let any unpre- tant in the schools? Would it be judiced man take up the Article, considered as even creditable speand, seeking for what Dr. Marsh cial pleading, to rest a forced and professes to give him, its whole pur. far-fetched argument upon the last port, say whether any such design half of a passage, on the presumpcan be fairly inferred, from its lan- tion that the reader will forget the guage, and whether the leaning of first? To establish, or to illustrate the expressions, to say the least, is the doctrine, when drawn out in not to a most opposite intention on its full proportions from our scripthe part of the writers. In the tural Article, and not as mutilated next place, upon this groundless by Dr. Marsh, is impossible in a assumption, lie erects the argu- communication of this kind. ment, which he supposes the Arti- The reconciliation of the precle to hold against its fancied op- yenting grace of God with the freeponents. “It positively declares” will of man, is a mystery, unfathom, (he says), " that the grace of God able by us. But we must not, on worketh with us, that we may do that account, permit our belief good works acceptable to God, in the indispensable necessity of and therefore signifies, that we that previous influence, to bę must work out our own salvation, in any degree shaken or lowered the grace of God co-operating.” We must admit the reality of such The Article certainly affirms what an influence, or make our ArDr. Marsh states it to affirm, and as ticle, and even the word of God, certainly warrants the conclusion a liar. Nor, if this doctrine be he draws from it-when applied scripturally explained and urged, to the case of those believers in need we fear the Antinomian conChrist who are, through their be- sequences predicted by Dr. Marsh in lief, disposed thus to co-operate. so positive and dictatorial a tone ? It says all this. But although this St. Paul, a preacher of the grace of is the truth, and nothing but the God, was also a preacher of rightetruth, is it the whole truth? Does ousness. And the doctrine we are not the Article, in addition, say defending is, in the passage above that which, though passed over by quoted, laid down as the basis and Dr.Marsh, is no less essential to a foundation of his exhortation te
the most assiduous Christian dili- the insertion of them in your valugence. “Work out your own sal- able pages, may be both useful and vation with fear and trembling; agreeable to many of your readers. for it is God which worketh in you,
Φιλοπατερον. . (not only) to do (but) to will."
I have thus attempted to expose, “1. Read and study the Scriptures and briefly to controvert, two er- carefully; wherein is the best rors, which appeared to me of vital learning and only infallible truth, importance, in a work of consider. They can furnish you with the best able merit and notoriety; and I hope, materials for your sermons, the only should these observations be in- rules of faith and practice, the most serted, to complete my examination powerful motives to persuade and of the subject by some remarks on convince the conscience, and the Dr. Marsh's view of justification, as strongest arguments to confute all stated in his discussion of the three errors, heresies, and schisms. following Articles.-My attention Therefore be sure, let all your was directed to this part of the sermons be congruous to them; work, by a mistaken, but now con- and to this end it is expedient, that vinced friend ; and this circum- you understand them, as well in the stance has perhaps made me more originals, as in the translations.' anxious to check, according to my “ 2. Take not hastily up other little ability, the progress of the fas- men's opinions, without due trial, cinating delusion.
nor vent your own conceits; but Should this paper meet the eye compare them first with the analoof the author, whose sentiments it gy of faith and rules of holiness, is designed to canvass, I trust he recorded in the Scriptures; which will receive it, as from one who, are the proper tests of all opinions having been a familiar acquaint- and doctrines. ance, cannot but wish him well “ 3. Meddle with controversies from one who desires to address and doubtful points, as little as him with all due respect for his may be, in your popular preaching; superior talents and acquirements, lest you puzzle your hearers, or his zeal for the church and friend- engage them in wrangling disputaly character-but wbo, at the same tions, and so hinder their convertime, wishes and prays, that he may sion, which is the main design of be more and more disposed by the preaching. teaching of the Spirit, to apply to “ 4. Insist most on those points, himself
the doctrine of our univer- that tend to effect: sound belief, sal depravity, and that he may seek sincere love to. God, repentance and receive for himself the fulness for sin, and that may persuade to of that preventing and co-operating holiness of life. Press these things grace, which is the gift of God, home to the conscience of your and which is manifested by the bearers, as of absolute necessity; fruits of a boly life.
leaving no gap for evasions; but S. W. bind them as close as may be to
their duty. And, as you ought to
preach sound and orthodox docTothe Editor of the Christian Observer. trine, so ought you to deliver God's In perusing the life of Archbishop message, as near as may be, in Usher, written by Dr. Richard God's words, that is, in such as Parr, his lordship's chaplain, at are plain and intelligible, that the the time of his death, I was much meanest of your auditors may uns struck with the « Directions," derstand. To which end, it is which this pious prelate was “ used necessary to back all practical to give those who were newly en- precepts and doctrines, with apt fered into Holy Orders,” Perhaps proofs from holy Scriptures; avoid.
ing all exotic phrases, scholastic great worth and dignity in the terms, unnecessary quotations from church, who had it from the mouth authors, and forced rhetorical of this great master of persuasion. figures ; since it is not difficult to It was concerning reproof; where make easy things appear hard; but men were to be dealt with, who to render' hard things easy, is the lay under great prejudices and bardest part of a good orator, as vices, either by education, interest, well as preacher.
passion, or ill habits-cases of much “ 5. Get your hearts sincerely frequency-and therefore to render affected with the things you per- admonitions of greater force upon suade others to embrace, that so them, his direction was, to avoid you may preach experimentally, giving the persons, intended to be and your hearers perceive, that you wrought upon, any alarm before are in good earnest; and press hand, that their faults or errors nothing upon them but what may were designed to be attacked; for tend to their advantage, and which then the persons concerned look yourself would venture your own upon the preacher as an enemy, salvation on.
and set themselves upon
their “6. Study, and consider well, the guard. On such occasions he rasubjects you intend to preach on, ther recommended the choosing of before you come into the pulpit; a text, that stood only upon the and then words will readily offer borders of the difficult subject, and, themselves : yet think what you if it might be, seemed more to faare about to say, before you speak; vour it; that so the obnoxious avoiding all uncouth, fantastical hearer may be rather surprised and words or phrases, or pauseous, in- undermined, than stormed and decent, or ridiculous expressions, fought with.” which will quickly bring preaching He would also exhort those, who into contempt, and make your ser- were already engaged in this holy mons and persons the subjects of function; and advised them, how sport and merrimeot.
they might well discharge their duty “ 7. Dissemble not the truths of in the Church of God, answerable God in any case ; nor comply with to their calling, to this effect:the lusts of men; nor give any coun- “You are engaged in an excellent tenance to sin by word or deed. employment in the church, and
“8. But above all, you must never intrusted with weighty matters, as forget to order your own conversa- stewards of our great Master Christ, tion as becomes the Gospel; that the great Bishop: under him and so you may teach by example as by his commission, you are to well as by precept, and that you endeavour to reconcile men to God, may appear a good divine every to convert sinners, and to build where as well as in the pulpit; for them up in the lioly faith of the a minister's life and conversation Gospel, that they may be saved, is more heeded than his doctrine. and that repentance and remission · "9. Yet, after all this, take heed of sins be preached in his name. you be not puffed up with spiritual This is of the highest importance, pride of your own virtues, nor with and requires faithfulness, diligence, a vain conceit of your parts or prudence, and watchfulness. The abilities; nor yet be trausported souls of men are comunitted to our with the applause of men, nor de care and guidance, and the eyes of jected or discouraged with the God, angels, and men are upou us; "scoffs or frowns of the wicked and and great is the account which we profane."
must make to our Lord Jesus Christ, “To which I shall add (says the who is the supreme Head of the biographer) one advice more, Church, and will at length reward wbich I received from a person of or punish bis servants in the minis
try of the Gospel, as he shall find given for this purpose, that it may them faithful or negligent; there- make you guilty (reos), that being fore, it behoves us to exercise our made guilty, you may fear; fearing, best talents, labouring in the Lord's that you may seek pardon; that vineyard with all diligence, that we you may not trust in your may bring forth fruit, and that the strength.” Again : “ The law is fruit may remain. This is the work given that, from a great one, it may we are separated for and ordained make a little child (parvulum); unto : we must not think to be that it may shew thee, thou hast idle or careless in this office, but no strength for righteousness of must bend our minds and studies, thyself; and that so, being poor, and employ all our gifts and abili- unworthy, and destitute, thou mayties in this service. We must est flee unto grace.” preach the words of faith, that “ God hath shut 'up all under men may believe aright, and the unbelief, not that he inay destroy doctrine and laws of godliness, that all, or suffer all to perish, but that men may act as becomes Christians he may have mercy upon allindeed; for without faith no man to this end, that, leaving the foolish can please God, and without heli- opinion of their own virtue, they ness no man can enter into the may learn that they stand and are kingdom of heaven."
upheld by the hand of God alone; that, naked and empty, they may
flee to his mercy, may lean on this Tothe Editor of the Christian Observer. alone, may wholly hide themselves
in it, may seize this alone for The doctrine of these extracts righteousness and merits, which bears so exactly against the per- in Christ is held forth to all, who versions of some modern Calvinists, both seek it and expect it in true as well as the objections of some faith. For God, in the precepts partially inflamed opponents, that of the law, is the rewarder only of I trust the name will not deter you perfect righteousness, of which we from inserting them. In that case, are all destitute. On the other I may perhaps translate a few other hand, he appears as a rigorous passages, and send to you. Judge of wickedness. But in Christ, Your constant reader and servant, his face, full of grace and lenity,
T. S. shines forth even towards miserable
and unworthy sinners." Augustine thus writes to Hilary: “ The third use, and that which * The law commands, that attempt. is principal, and more nearly reing to perform its commands, and spects the proper end of the law, being weary of our infirmity under hath its place towards the faithful, the law, we may learn to ask the in whose hearts the Spirit of God aid of grace.” Thus also to Asel. now flourishes and reigns, For lius : “ The usefulness of the law is though they have the law written to convince man of his own infirmi- and engraven by the finger of God ty, (or sickness, infirmitate), and on their hearts-that is, they are so compel him to implore the medi- affected and animated by the direccine of grace, which is in Christ.” tion of the Spirit, that they desire Again, to Innocent of Rome : “The to obey God--they yet profit two law commands; grace communi- ways by the law. For it is to them cates the power of performing." the best instrument (organum), by The same to Valentinus : “ God which they may learn better every commands wbat we are not able to day, and more certainly, of what do, that we may know what we kind that will of the Lord is, to ought to ask of him. The law is which they aspire, and be confirms
CHRIST. OBSERV, No, 160, 2 H.,