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have been rather a favourite with Chancellor. What is that man, pointFaller: and he seems pleased to ing to the Archbishop. impute to him “a reverend esteem

Barrou. He is a monster ; a misea for Mr. Hooker,” for the sake of rable compound : I know not what to

make of him. He is neither ecclesias. *calling him “a' cbaritable adver

tical por civil, but that second beast 'sary;" to confirm which, he relates, spoken of'in Revelatioo. that on occasion of a foul asper- “ Judge. Where is the place ? Shewit. sion being cast on the ebaracter of “When Mr. Barrow turned to Rer. Hooker, Travers replied to the xiii. the Archbishop anase; and in anger question of a friend, as to its validi- gnashing his teeth, he said, Will you sufty, (Fuller, ibid.) “In truth, I take fer him, my lords?" pp. 33, 34. Mr. Hooker to be a holy man." How much is the strong effect of

But we cannot close our nume- the ladicrous in such an extract rous extracts without adding a few taken off, by the sense of the lafrom another and more advanced mentable dishonour which it reflects school of Puritanism, the Brownists.

on the very game and spirit of our These men contended for a still common Christianity. To what purhigher purity than all that went pose are books written which must before then, and would commu- make in fairness such exposures 3 nicate with none but such as were

Are they intended to serve as illusboly, like themselves. One of the trations of the freeborn spirit of articles alleged against Messrs. these « distinguished champions of Greenwood and Barrow, two noted religious liberty," so deserving of leaders of the sect, who suffered imitation, and of whom the world death (we blush as we write it) for

was not worthy?” Surely Mr. Brook their writings and opinions, though does not intend then to act as any very mischievous, was the main- palliation of the anger and indigo tenance of the following:

nation of the right reverend judges. “ That all the precise (meaning those And yet have they not that effect? Paritans who were not Brownists), who

In these examinations of Bartow refuse the ceremonies of the church, and Greenwood, we find sufficient strain at a gnat and swallow a camel, proof of their dangerous opinious and are hypocrites!" Again ; “ that all of state government, as "that it is who make or expound any printed not possible for any one to alter or written catechisms, are idle shep- the least part of the judicial law herds; that the children of ungodly of Moses, without injury to the parents onght not to be baptized; that moral:" • that princes may be ex: to use set forms of prayer is blaspbe

communicated ; " " that no laws mous, &c." p. 24.

may be made by princes for the Their opinion of bishops may, government of the church, but perhaps, be decently collecied from such as are plainly set down in the following answers of Barrow :- Scripture:" so that, in fact, the

state must be without a religion. " Chancellor. Do you know these two And yet to punish the mere delivery men? pointing at the Bishop and Arch- of such opinions with death !!! bishop.

Barrow. Yes, my lord: I have cause “ Mr. Phillips, a most worthy and to know them.

famous preacher, having conferred with Chancellor. Is not this the bishop Mr. Barrow, and beheld his holy prepara. of London ?

tion for death, said, Barrow, Barrow, " Barrow. I know him for no bishop, my soal be with thine. And we learn

from the famous Hugh Broughton, that « Chancellor. What is he then? though Barrow and Greenwood wero

Barrow. His name is Aylmer, my condemned for disturbance of the state, lord. The Lord pardon my fault, that this would have been pardoned, and I did not lay him open as a wolf, a their lives spared, if they would have bloody persecutory and an apostate. promised to come to church.' And

my lord,

thus," adds the sagacious Mr. Brook, scriptions, Messrs. G. and F. John" they suffered for non-conformity!” son, the leaders of the Brownists, We cannot forbear relating one

are found in hot dispute about the incident about these unhappy and marriage of the former to a rich misled men, not related by Mr. and luxurious wife, which divides Brook, but which we find in Col- the whole church. Nor do many lier :- Before their execution, Drs. years pass, when behold another Andrewes, Parry, Bisse, and White unhappy controversy

between were sent to Barrow, to exhort him Messrs. Jobnson and Ainsworth, to recantation. He told them,

a second Brownist,

“ about matters " they were not the men he most of discipline!" Mr. J. held foc disliked in the present differences,

“ eldership alone;" Mr. A. for For though, says he, you are mis

“ the whole church, of which the taken, yet you think yourselves in elders are a part.” The matter the right, and walk up to that light was not to be adjusted: Pope

Johnson which God has given you. But I

excommunicates Pope cannot but complain of Mr. Cart: Ainsworth, who returns the com wright* and his brethren, by whose pliment. And this small remnant books we have been taught your

of the Christian church was at calling is anti-Christian." Upon length divided into two main this they replied, “that calling had branches--the Johnsonian Brownbeen approved by Cranmer, Rid- ists, and the Ainsworthian Brownley, &c.” Barrow replied “ Most ists! Controversies, however, still true it is, that they and others thicken; and in the heat of colo were martyrs in Queen Mary's lision, a full catalogue of the times: but these holy bands of

“ Anti-Christian abominations yet mine,” says he, shaking his fetters, which we would willingly give as

retained in England,” is evolved; are much more glorious than any of theirs; because they had the

the fullest we know any where. It mark of Antichrist in their hands." will be found pp. 104, 105, vol. ij. (Collier, vol. ii. p. 638.) It is Still, however, divisions proceed a question whether Presbyterian amongst these reformers, as if to Cartwright, or Brownist Barrow, shew the infinite divisibility of shew here to the best advantage.

party, as well as matter; till at The prelates, it seems, soon length, happily, a perfect unity is grew ashamed of hanging these effected, and the only unity of Brownists for propagating their which such a church is capable, religious opinions. They there which we shall give in Mr. Brook's fore contrived a law for banishing

own words: them all out of the kingdom. But

“Mr. Smyth differed also from his liberty, the idol of these sectaries, brethren on the subject of Baptism. soon plays them a dog trick; and The Brownists who denied the Church when fairly settled abroad, far of England to be a true church, main. from the reach of gibbets and pro. tained, that her ministers acted without

a Divine commission; and consequently, This champion for religious liberty that every ordinance administered by had a happy art of escaping just in them was null and void. They were proper time from, dangerous positions. for some time, however, guilty of this Coppingher and Hacket, two unhappy inconsistency, that while they re-orenthusiasts, who also suffered death, dained their pastors and teachers, they received a message from Cartwright, did not repeat their baptism. This Travers, Egerton, and Clarke, when defect was easily discovered by Mr. Coppingher desired a conference with Smyth.... But Mr. Smyth's certainlyap them, “ that they would leave him to reared in this, that refusing to apply to himself, or rather to Satan ; and that the German Baptists, and wanting a they thought him unworthy to be con proper administrator according to his ferred withal.”

views of the ordimance, le baptized him.

.

p. 197.

self; on which account he was stigma- racteristic of the times we' are tized by the name of a Se-Baptist!!” treating of, and most particularly

of the puritan body. This great Having now, we think, fairly revulsion of feeling, which we: deduced the wide-spreading pu- may date from the moment when ritanical separation, in its ultimate the art of printing rouzed Europe tendencies, down to the single point from a state of moral and theoloof actual individuality, we think gical stupor, was, beyond all queswe may be fairly excused by our tion, under God, the human means readers, if we consider this a pro- of the blessed Reformation. Enge per place for treating it as era- land very early participated, or, we nescent, and breaking off our ex- may say, led ihe way, in this moral tracts, had we even any space to resurrection; and scarcely, perpursue them which we have not, haps, could all the art of man or from these Memoirs. Indeed, to power of darkness combined, have return to England, and trace the arrested the progress of “ Luther's party-coloured line down through light,” which “sprang from Henry's, the sullen, muttering reigns of lawless bed." For a long and James and Charles, to the actual eventful course of years the imeatastrophes so much to have been pulse, once given, continued and expected on both sides, would be propagated its mighty operation: but to repeat much in spirit and and the gigantic acquisitions in temper of what has been already every branch of learning, the proset down. Only we must say, that gress of the human intellect, the con. while many excellent characters and vulsive changes, both political and views of religion might be drawn religious, at home and abroad, out of Mr. Brook's subsequent within that period, all testify to pages, there seems a still larger the extent of its range. In this. preponderance of enthusiasm and impulse the Puritans largely parextraragance than before: From took; and their great mental and the rough scholar, Hugh Brough- bodily exertions, their contempt of ton, to the villain Hugh Peters, ease, their unextinguishable thirst through a long train, sometimes, of for new discoveries, their unwearied very pious and well-meaning men, zeal in propagating them abroad, sometimes of enthusiasts, and too in conversation, in print, but, more often, we fear, of libellists, dema- than all, in the pulpit, knew no gognes and rebels; we still trace bounds. For this, with every smat. amongst the Puritans the same terer in their history, it is impossiwrongness of idea, on one point, ble for us not to give them their full and that wretched pertinacity of credit. But as every great niutaopinion so common to error of all tion draws with it corresponding sorts, with the same, or rather in- inconvenience, and none more so creasing, violence and ill-judging than that which destroys the “vis severity amongst their powerful inertiæ" of nature, which Dr. Paley opponents, which sets all hope of quaintly observes " is necessary to reconciliation at defiance. The keep things in their place;" so this heart sickens at the prospect; and grand revolution of mind and pur. we hasten to make a few general pose drew with it a sad train of observations on the puritanical concomitant evils. The temporary character which occur to iis, as a

fever seized on all the powers

of proper conclusion to this too-long- the mind at once : it inflamed the protracted article.

bad as well as the good passions : It is not to be questioned, but a it seized and distorted (may we say prodigious degree of personal ac. it? for :“ we bear this treasure in iivity, zeal, and fervour, both of earthen vessels," the very gifts mind and body, was the great chas themselves of Divine grace. Hence

arose, in the first place, that vio- tions of the artlessness and simplilence and impetuosity of character, city of the Christian character. which belonged alike to all parties This disease was helped forward in this singular age. The bishops by another, of the widest possible persecuting, the Puritans perse- range and deepest mischief-an cuted (if it be speaking correctly ungoverned exercise of the intelto use the word at all), were in this lectual powers on theological subparticular much alike. We know jects. Every thing in theology, not which of the two will lay claim and in morals, became the subject to the most or the least of this of deep and perplexed speculation, quality: to us it appears the only Hence one refinement and hypoextenuation to be pleaded for the thesis followed after another. Sywretched and unchristian conduct stem, that creature of the brainof either. Both were thoroughly the most dangerous charmer, and convinced they were right: neither often most deceptive guide to poor, could brook ihe smallest opposi- frail man-became the object of a tion. And, perhaps, there is not a new idolatry. And, like all other greater instance of pertinacity to idols, it required very large offerbe met with in the history of the ings.-Unity in religious worship world, than that a petty ques- and opinion was sacrificed at it's tion, (such was its nature at first,) shrine. The simplicity and plainabout a cap and a surplice, could ness of Scripture-statements were not be adjusted in a wise and en- often wholly given up for the most lightened nation, and should give mystical and fantastical doctrines. rise to a schism which has lasted Questionable principles were fearto this day.

lessly pushed forward to the most The question, however, was remote and infatuated conclusions. speedily widened; and a morbid sen- Applications of Scripture, the sibility of conscience soon acted as wildest and most unfounded, were a second, and incurable evil, more set up, and treated as oracles. particularly on the minds of the The hidden operations of the huPuritans. The world, from having man mind were scrutinized with been, for generations preceding, metaphysical exactness: and the swallowing camels, suddenly be- transient glances or the vehement came unable to digest a goat. flashes of a disordered imagination Every thing was suspected. The were alike measured and scanned, proper information of conscience, and reduced as if into a system à due deliberation, a patient abid- of solid religious experiences. In ing of events, a submission to the short, the understandings and ima. judgment of others, a careful ginations of men, and often, we weighing of the opposite demands fear, without their hearts, were of conscience, and, above all, a engrossed in the discovery of relifear of mistaking sudden impulses gious novelties. Instead of religion of unaccountable feeling for the being but the ruling principle of sober suggestions of that command- their ordinary life and manners, ing faculty, found no place in their itself became their whole and sole system. And as extremes generally business; and their talk and their meet, the largest sacrifices of con- walk was to prove or to enforce science ere long became necessary their system and their discipline. to maintain its own fancied so- They aspired after all knowledge, vereignty: and perhaps to this day, all mysteries, and all faith. They the sects which pretend to follow spake with the tongue of men and most implicitly and conscientiously of angels. They ate of the tree of the direction of immediate impulses, knowledge of good and evil. But do not afford the happiest illustra- in too many cases there was want.

CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 103. 3 P

ing that which is “the greatest” was seated in the deep and unsubof all; and without which they dued self-sufficiency of Burton. were “as sounding brass and tin- This was the general failing, we kling cymbals."

are bold to say, of his school, Charity, we fear, .was not the They had a lofty notion of themcharacteristic of those times. The selves and their own attainments ; ornament of a meek and quiet and they thought themselves the spirit was too much laid aside; more at liberty to indulge it, beand in its room appeared that cause, forsooth, they apprehended wbich we mention as the fourth it to be the goodness of God togeneral evil, viz. an ambitious, wards them. In fact, they had an conceited, and self-opinionated irregular conceit of superior light temper of mind. No unprejudiced and inspiration : and whilst they person, we are persuaded, can were secretly beguiled with that read the ecclesiastical history of common fondness every man has those times without discerning for his own opinion, they exsuch a temper at work in almost cused, or rather gloried in it, on every transaction it relates. The the plea that their opinion was ruling prelates were by no means given them from above. They conexempt from it. Their views of sidered themselves as divinely doctrine and discipline, and their designated and chosen for the determination to enforce them, may greatest political as well as relihave been as unbending as those gious purposes. Their contempt of the Puritans. But they had law for those who differed from them and right-the right of possession, knew no bounds; and they propat least, it will be allowed-on ped each other up by mutual adtheir side. The Puritans, on the miration and applause. other hand, had their establishment Such, we unfeignedly believe to seek; and they were determined to have been the school of to move heaven and earth to obtain Puritans in Charles the First's it. They wrote --- they preached - time; and not very different that they prayed – they went from which immediately preceded, and house to house, and were con-' perhaps unfortunately owed some versant with all ranks, from the of its doctrines to the unfortunate highest to the lowest. As it was scruples of Hooper and Coverdale, necessary, they supplicated, ad- We are not conscious of overchargmonished, inveighed, and, finally, ing the picture. God forbid that rebelled ;-and all to carry their we should desire to blacken it. own plans, and to impose upon Mayy of them were, with all their others their own views. In the faults, we doubt not, good and holy prosecution of their designs, they men; and some among them, misShewed themselves the most self- taken as we may deem them in confident of the human

certain points, were emiņently “ Such was Mr. Burton's courage, distinguished by their piety. in his various citations before Laud, Their studies may, in many cases, that he says, “I was not at any be set up as instructive lights time before him, but methought to posterity, and they had often I stood over him as a school- deep and clear views of the things master over bis scholars; so great of God, On the other hand, was the goodness of God towards there were many secondary causes me.'” Vol. iii. p. 41. The conse- which might be assigned for that quence was, as might be expected, most unhappy bias given to their that ihe passions of a weak un- minds on certain points. governed man, like Laud, were 1. Coming immediately after the jpflamed to mạduess; but the cause darkness and abominations of Pope

race.

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