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.would be contrary to our clear- ciled to sinners ; unless re ade est notions of justice, for him to mit, what seems to me to be the bear the curse and punishment plain, obrious doctrine of the of our sins, unless our guilt, or Scriptures, that our guilt, our penal bond, had been taken upon penal obligation, was taken upon himself. If it be said, that Christ, himself, and that he suffered for though not subject to guilt, our sins, and in our stead, pun. might yet justly bear the curse, ishment equivalent, in the divine since he was willing to bear it; estimation and acceptance, to I answer, Christ was willing to what was due to us for sin. be our sponsor, and as such to I have now, dear Sir, exhibits make satisfaction for our sins, ed as plainly as I could, what for which he became responsible. seems to me to be the scripture But he was not willing to suffer doctrine of the atonement. I the punishment of sins, the guilt have endeavoured to express my of which was not imputed to ideas intelligibly, and with prebim. Nor ought any one to be cision. My proposed brevity willing to be punished for sins, would not allow me to enlarge for which he is in no way respon- in illustrating the proofs, which sible. For no one ought to be hare been adduced, nor to intro, willing that injustice should be duce several other topics of ardone. If we should suppose a gument. This, I imagine, was person willing to suffer punish- not expected, nor desired. I ment, which was on no account know there are shrewd objections due to him ; this would not ren- to this doctrine. But, if it apo der the inflicting of such pun pear to be agreeable to the ishment less unjust, but it would Scriptures, a Christian need not render the sufferer accessary .to be much moved by them, though the injustice.

he should not be able fully to In short, I cannot see how the solve all difficulties, by reason of sufferings of the Son of God, the weakness of his reason, and the Holy One and the Just, suf- the narrowness of his views. ferings greater, than man ever But a brief answer to some of endured, can be reconciled with the most common and considethe justice and goodness of God, rable objections, I have met with, or declare his righteousness in may be attempted, perhaps, in the forgiveness and justification another epistle. In the mean of sinners, or answer the ends, time I shall remain your friend for which punishment of sin is and humble servant, with much necessary, or be any reason, why respect and affection. God may forgive and be recon A Christian of the Ancient School,

asiscellaneous. ON THE STATE OF LITERATURE taken place, wear a favourable IN NEW ENGLAND.

aspect. There are many things, (Concluded from p. 524.) however, less promising than We have seen that some of could be desired. Science may the changes, which have lately even in this favoared country be

surrounded with cypress, rather the plain of Dura received more than decorated with myrtle, or implicit bomage, or more unwith laurel. She may well qualified adoration. There cer. mourn that so many obstacles tainly were Three Worthies, and are yet to be overcome, that there probably were many humso many advantages, as might ble and unnoticed Jews, who dishere be enjoyed, should be dained to bow down to the gold, neglected and despised; that en god ; so now, it is to be hoin a land remarkably blessed with ped, there are some exceptions respect to soil and climate, a land to the prevailing system of idolaproverbial as the dwelling place try; an idolatry which is totally of liberty, she should be slighted at war with the liberal expansion, when put in competition with and the vigorous efforts of a free the most unworthy pursuits, and mind; which paralizes every do: the basest gratifications. Thus ble attempt, and extinguishes the reflecting, we are insensibly led fire of genius. to inquire, why the interests of To speak in plainer language, learning are not in a inore fa- that state of society cannot be favourable state.

-vourable to the interests of sci. Might I be permitted to use ence, in which money is so gen: language moderately figurative, erally considered the great esI should say, that the first thing sential of excellence, as it is at under this head, which strikes an the present time in this country. observer, is, that the religion of Since the revolution there has the country is exceedingly unfa- been a remarkable influx of vourable to literature. This may wealth, and as remarkable an inappear an odd assertion ; but I crease in elegance and taste; trust it can be shown, that the taste, I mean, in eating and drink, god, who is the object of this re- ing, and in destroying time. He, ligion, is a being the most sor- therefore, who can appear to be did and base, and that he has the the richest man, will find little complete possession of the hearts difficulty in gaining notice and of his votaries. His name is honour. It cannot be expected Mammon. Though covered that there should be many worldwith some disguise, and denying ly inducements to sedulous stuhis real name, bis footsteps are dy, and the prosecution of diffievery where traced, and his wor- cult attainments, when the forship every where offered, In tunate speculator, or even the the mechanic's workshop, behind lucky gambler, can appear in the merchant's counter, in the society to much better advanfarmer's granary, and the law- tage, and receive more universal yer's office, no less than in the attention, than the most finished sumptuous edifice, and the more and laborious scholar. It bas princely dome, his altars are even become a maxim, that if a erected; to him daily sacrifices young man of a liberal educaare made ; to him matins and tion has no more flattering prosvespers are chanted; to him ma pects with respect 10 money, ny a fervent prayer is indited by than others who have not enjoy: the heart, if it does not escape ed his advantages, he has gained the lips. Scarcely the image on nothing as a recompense for his

time and labour. It is true that the unavoidable expenses attendall men do not join in this estima- ing it. For the same reason, tion. Those who are possessed many, when they first enter from of judgment and principle rarely the College into the world, with agree with the world in its opin- the hope and design of pursuing ions. But I speak of that as a science, find themselves obliged maxim, which is so received by to abandon their books, and bemankind in general. Nor are stir themselves with not a little talents always buried under this activity to acquire property sufdiscouragement. The pen of a ficient to maintain a decent apJohnson sometimes ransoms its pearance among their fellow owner from oblivion and con. men. It is also to be regretted, tempt : It sometimes raises him that at the same time that exon high at once, and gives him, travagance is encouraged, exfrom his elevation, to command treme parsimony is used with respect with silent, yet irresisti- respect to the nieans of educable authority. But how many, tion. Many a father would possessed of similar mental en. grudge petty sum to be laid dowments, sink before they have out in books, while he would opportunity to display their pow. think his son acting a manly ers, merely because that favour part, if ten times as much were and support, which is due to spent in costly dress, or frivomerit, is denied them, and trans- lous amusements.

No spirit ferred to coxcombs, and block- wbich exists among men is so heads.

niggardly, when money is to be Nearly allied to the love of expended for any good purpose, money, and a thing which springs as the spirit of extravagance. from its indulgence, is extrava On the heels of profusion algance in living; a trait in the ways tread dissipation and vice. general character, which is also That these are the eneinies of very injurious to the cause of all laudable endeavours, needs learning. That this has increas not to be proved. . Yet these ed to an alarming degree for a baleful evils have stalked over number of years past, is a mat- the land with a giant stride, capter entirely without debate. It

It tivating and enslaving the youth, is known and lamented, by every the fower of our country. It is sincere friend to his country, and owing to the firm resistance, to. happiness. The fashion in and the paternal watchfulness of this particular throws many ob- good instructors, that they have structions in the path of knowl- not ruined the more important edge, and encumbers the travel- seminaries, even in New Engler with many difficulties. Num- land, where the most manful bers of those who, from their opposition has been made. Pleashabits of industry and economy, ure and study can have no unand the necessity of improving ion ; they cannot even coexist their advantages, would bid fair in the same person. By pleasto become the best scholars, are ure is intended that round of not unfrequently discouraged sensual gratification, and that from attempting to procure a

affectation of happiness, so compublic education, on account of mon among the empty, and the

licentious, which have conspired the first of the human race, to usurp so deceitful a name. if, indeed, we cannot, in a few The mind which has once ac- instances, now make that boast, quired a fondness for riotous under all our discouragements. mirth, and which has conde The circumstances which scended to degrade itself by un- make it necessarý that a stuworthy indulgence, cannot relish dent should leave his books, a confinement to faithful appli- and engage in active life, fcad cation, nor endure the stillness him into such habits as alınost of academic bowers.

of course preclude him from any Some inconveniences of no farther prosecution of his studies. small magnitude arise from the There are some such exceptions infancy of our country. Litera- as Dr. Johnson, that eminently iure bas here never been pursu- learned civilian, of whom Coned, as the employment of a necticut may well be proud. But whole life. That a young man it is much to be wondered at, if should addict himself entirely to the mind, which has been emscientific pursuits, regardless of ployed in drawing declarations, pecuniary concerns, would be and making out fee-bills, for esteemed a thing entirely new ; years, should be capable of exand many of his acquaintance panding so as to delight in the would be ready to cry out, that higher branches of learning. he was beside himself. Indeed, Those who are eminent in a profew who have any desire of learn fession, are usually crowded ing could possibly afford to live with professional business; and without some productive busi- those who are not, are obliged ness. Scarcely does the stu to submit to inferior drudgery. dent begin to make progress in In either case, the man seems the labours of the mind, before too much trammelled to think he is interrupted by the deficien- of excelling in scientifical purcy of his purse, and diverted suits. from his contemplated advances Besides, there is little encourin learning, by the near approach agement to literary performof the horrors of penury. The ances of our own countrymen, time is much to be desired, when after they are accomplished. individuals, who are fond of stu- Perhaps not a single meritorious dy and retirement, may ile pos work of genius, written by an sessed of such a competency, as

American, bas met with a to leave the getting of money to liberal patronage in the United others, and devote themselves to States ; though the vilest proscience entirely; or when pri- ductions which Europe disgorgVate munificence shall have es, have been purchased with made provision for the encour- avidiiy. While this is the case, agement and support of those, it cannot be strange that, rather who are disposed to be useful, than strive after excellence, without engaging in the bustle where there is so much reason of the world. Then may our

to despair of obtaining either country produce men not suf honour or support, young men fering in a comparison with should apply themselves to pur

suits of better prospect, in growth,

growth, while the mushroom which, though their talents may springs, and withers, in a day. be hidden, they can kecp them- Constant and persevering exselves from poverty and want. ertions in the cultivation of the

The spirit of the times may mind, as in that of the soil, selalso be seen in the slender sup dom fail to produce some corport which is given to instruc respondent effects ; while the tors of youth. It is not an uns desultory efforts of those, who common thing for music mas make haste to be eminent, are ters, mountebanks, and dancing without force, being made withmasters to receive triple the pe out any well digested plan. Yet it cuniary support that is given to is common in this country to ri. young gentlemen of the best

dicule that industry in literary hopes and most unblemished pursuits, by which every thing characters, who have spent all valuable is attained, and that attheir property in gaining their tention to common things, and education, and who have under common sense, by which men their care the children of the are principally benefited. A ablest, and every way the first striking instance of this, is the men of the land.

manner in which a very valuable An opinion has likewise crept member* of the community abroad, that whatever is not has been treated by some of his dazzling, is to be regarded as of fellow citizens. That the genlittle importance; an opinion tleman, to whom I refer, has rennot only groundless and false, dered much assistance to the but very unfavourable to useful youth of our country, no person and patient investigation. If we will have the injustice to deny ; search for men who have most & surely it reflects little honour on extended the boundaries of sci any person to stigmatize endeavence, and who have performed ours to make the education of such essential services, as to de- youth easy, as a pursuit unwor. serve the appellation of benefac- thy of the most exalted talents, tors of mankind, we shall not and the most benevolent heart. find them among those who It is by attending to the things made the most noise and uproar of ordinary life, that Count in their day, who glittered and Rumford has performed such dazzled for a time, and behaved acceptable services to the world. as though, like Atlas, they bore I shall mention but one more the heavens on their shoulders. cause unfriendly to learning, It is not an unsound maxim of though the catalogue might Horace,

easily be enlarged. It is the « Nil sine magno

influence of party politics. Vita labore dedit mortalibus."

Such is the unhappy state of

our country that the clamours of « Human life has granted no partisans excite more attention, thing to men without great in than the calls of utility, or even dustry." Those trees which of necessity.

There is now are to stand for ages, are slow and imperceptible in their

• Mr. Webster,

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