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answer is, “To glorify and enjoy him for ever.” This is undoubtedly true : but is it quite clear, especially to men of ordinary capacities? Do the generality of common people understand that expression,—“To glorify God ?" No; no more than they understand Greek. , And it is altogether above the capacity of children; to whom we can scarce ever speak plain enough. Now is not this the very principle that should be inculcated upon every human creature,-“You are made to be happy in God,” as soon as ever reason dawns ? Should not every parent, as soon as a child begins to talk, or to run alone, say something of this

“ See! what is that which shines so over your head ? That we call the sun.

See, how bright it is! Feel how it warms you! It makes the grass to spring, and every thing to grow. But God made the sun The sun could not shine, nor warm, nor do any good without him." In this plain and familiar way a wise parent might, many times in a day, say something of God; particularly insisting, "He made you ; and he made you to be happy in him; and nothing else can make you happy.” We cannot press this too soon. If you say, "Nay, but they cannot understand you when they are so young :" I answer, No; nor when they are fifty years old, unless God opens their understanding. And can he not do this at any age ?

11. Indeed this should be pressed on every human creature, young and old, the more earnestly and diligently, because so exceeding few, even of those that are called Christians, seem to know any thing about it. Many indeed think of being happy with God in heaven; but the being happy in God on earth never entered into their thoughts. The less so, because from the time they came into the world, they are surrounded with idols. Such, in turns, are all “ the things that are seen,' (whereas God is not seen,) which all promise a happiness independent of God. Indeed it is true, that

"Upright both in heart and will,

We by our God were made :
But we turn'd from good to ill,

And o'er the creatures strayed :
Multiplied our wandering thought,
Which first was fixed on God alone :
In ten thousand objects sought

The bliss we lost in one." 12. These idols, these rivals of God, are innumerable: but they may be nearly reduced to three parts. First, objects of sense; such as gratify one or more of our outward senses. These excite the first kind of " love of the world," which St. John terms,“ the desire of the flesh.” Secondly, objects of the imagination ; things that gratify our fancy, by their grandeur, beauty, or novelty. All these make us fair promises of happiness, and thereby prevent our seeking it in God. This the apostle terms, “ the desire of the eyes;" whereby, chiefly, the imagination is gratified. They are, thirdly, what St. John calls, the pride of life.” He seems to mean, honour, wealth, and whatever directly tends to engender pride.

13. But suppose we were guarded against all these, are there not other idols, which we have need to be apprehensive of; and idols, therefore, the more dangerous, because we suspect no danger from them? For is there any danger to be feared from our friends and relations; from the mutual endearments of husbands and wives, or of parents and children? Ought we not to bear a very tender affection to them? Ought we not to love them only less than God? Yea, and is there not a tender affection due to those whom God has made profitable to our souls? Are we not commanded to “ esteem them very highly in love for their works' sake ?" All this is unquestionably true: and this very thing makes the difficulty. Who is sufficient for this, to go far enough herein, and no farther? To love them enough, and not 100 much? Can we love a wise, a child, a friend, well enough, without loving the creature more than the Creator? Who is able to follow the caution which St. Paul gives to the Christians at Thessalonica ! i Thes. iv, 5.

14. I wish that weighty passage (so strangely disguised in our translation) were duly considered : “ Let every one of you know how to possess his vessel (his wife) in sanctification and honour.” So as neither to dishonour God nor himself; nor to obstruct, but farther holiness. St. Paul goes on, Mn Ev KOBEI ETid uuids, which we render, “ Not in the last of concupiscence,” (What is this ? it gives the English reader no conception at all. Iados means any violent or impetuous affection. ErsFupia is desire. By the two words the apostle undoubtedly means, vehement and impetuous affections,)—" as the Gentiles who know not God;" and so may naturally seek happiness in a creature.

15. If, by the grace of God, we have avoided or forsaken all these idols, there is still one more dangerous than all the rest ; that is, religion. It will easily be conceived, I mean false religion ; that is, any religion which does not imply, the giving the heart to God. Such is, first, a religion of opinions; or what is commonly called, orthodoxy. Into this snare fall thousands of those, who profess to hold “salvation by faith :" indeed all of those who, by faith, mean only a system of Arminian or Calvinian opinions. Such is, secondly, a religion of forms; of barely outward worship, how constantly soever performed; yea, though we attend the church service every day, and the Lord's supper every Sunday. Such is, thirdly, a religion of works; of seeking the favour of God, by doing good to men. Such is, lastly, a religion of atheism; that is, every religion whereof God is not laid for the foundation. In a word a religion wherein “God in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself,” is not the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last point.

16. True religion is right tempers towards God and man. It is, in two words, gratitude and benevolence: gratitude to our Creator and supreme Benefactor, and benevolence to our fellow creatures. In other words, it is the loving God with all our heart, and our neighbour as ourselves.

17. It is in consequence of our knowing God loves us, that we love him, and love our neighbour as ourselves. Gratitude towards our Creator cannot but produce benevolence to our fellow Creatures. The love of Christ constrains us, not only to be harmless, to do no ill to our neighbour, but to be useful, to be “ zealous of good works;" “ as we have time, to do good unto all men;" and to be patterns to all, of true, genuine morality; of justice, mercy, and truth. This is religion, and this is happiness; the happiness for which we were made. This begins when we begin to know God, by the teaching of his own Spirit. As soon as the Father of spirits reveals his Son in our hearts, and the Son

reveals his Father, the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts; then, and not till then, we are happy. We are happy, first, in the consciousness of his favour, which indeed is better than life itself; next, in the constant communion with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ; then, in all the heavenly tempers, which he hath wrought in us by his Spirit; again, in the testimony of his Spirit, that all our works please him; and, lastly, in the testimony of our own spirits, that "in simplicity and godly sincerity we have had our conversation in the world." Standing fast in this liberty from sin and sorrow, wherewith Christ hath made them free, real Christians " rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing, and in every thing give thanks." And their happiness still increases, as they“ grow up into the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ."

18. But how little is this religion experienced, or even thought of, in the Christian world! On the contrary, what reason have we to take up the lamentation of a dying saint; (Mr. Haliburton, of St. Andrew's, in Scotland ;) Oh sirs, I am afraid a kind of rational religion is more and more prevailing among us; a religion that has nothing of Christ belonging to it: nay, that has not only nothing of Christ, but nothing of God in it!" And indeed how generally does this prevail, not only among professed infidels, but also among those who call themselves Christians; who profess to believe the Bible to be the word of God! Thus our own countryman, Mr. Wollaston, in that elaborate work, The Religion of Nature Delineated," presents us with a complete system of religion, without any thing of God about it; without being beholden, in any degree, to either the Jewish or Christian revelations Thus Monsieur Burlomachi, of Geneva, in his curious treatise on "The Law of Nature," does not make any more use of the Bible than if he had never seen it. And thus the late professor Hutcheson, of Glasgow, (a stranger writer than either of the other,) is so far from grounding virtue on either the fear or the love of God, that he quite shuts God out of the question; not scrupling to declare, in express terms, that "a regard to God is inconsistent with virtue : inasmuch that if in doing a beneficent action, you expect God to reward it, the virtue of the action is lost: it is then not a virtuous, but a selfish action !"

19. Perhaps, indeed, there are not many who carry the matter to so great a length. But how great is the number of those, who, allowing religion to consist of two branches, our duty to God, and our duty to our neighbour, entirely forget the first part, and put the second part for the whole,- for the entire duty of man. Thus almost all men of letters, both in England, France, Germany, yea, and all the civilized countries of Europe, extol humanity to the skies, as the very essence of religion. To this the great triumvirate, Rousseau, Voltaire, and David Hume, have contributed all their labours, sparing no pains to establish a religion, which should stand on its own foundation, independent of any revelation whatever ; yea, not supposing even the being of a God. So leaving him, if he have any being, to himself, they have found out both a religion and a happiness, which have no relation at all to God, nor any dependance upon him.

20. It is no wonder that this religion should grow fashionable, and spread far and wide in the world. But call it humanity, virtue, morality, or what you please; it is neither better nor worse than atheism. Men Vol II


hereby wilfully and designedly put asunder what God has joined, the duties of the first and the second table. It is separating the love of our neighbour from the love of God. It is a plausible way of thrusting God out of the world he has made. They can do the business without him; and so either drop him entirely, not considering him at all; or suppose, that since

“ He gave things their beginning,

And set this whirligig a spinning,” he has not concerned himself with these trifles, but let every thing take its own course.

21. On the contrary, we have the fullest evidence that the eternal, omnipresent, almighty, all wise Spirit, as he created all things, so he continually superintends whatever he has created. He governs all, not only to the bounds of creation, but through the utmost extent of space; and not only through the short time that is measured by the earth and sun, but from everlasting to everlasting. We know, that as all nature, so all religion, and all happiness, depend on him; and we know that whoever teach to seek happiness without him, are monsters, and the pests of society.

22. But after all the vain attempts of learned or unlearned men, it will be found, as there is but one God, so there is but one happiness, and one religion. And both of these centre in God. Both by Scripture and by experience we know, that an unholy, and, therefore, an unhappy man, seeking rest but finding none, is sooner or later convinced, that sin is the ground of his misery, and cries out of the deep to him that is able to save, “God be merciful to me a sinner !” It is not long before he finds "redemption in the blood of Jesus, even the forgiveness of sins." Then “ the Father reveals his Son" in his heart, and he “calls Jesus Lord, by the Holy Ghost.” And then the love of God is “shed abroad in his heart, by the Holy Spirit which is given unto him." From this principle springs real

, disinterested benevolence to all mankind; making him humble, meek, gentle to all men, easy to be entreated, to be convinced of what is right, and persuaded to what is good ; inviolably patient, with a thankful acquiescence in every step of his adorable providence. This is religion, even the whole mind which was also in Christ Jesus. And has any man the insolence or the stupidity to deny, that this is happiness? Yea, that it

“ Yields more of happiness below,

Than victors in a triumph know?" 23. There can be no doubt but from this love to God and man, a suitable conversation will follow. His “communication,” that is, discourse, will be always in grace, seasoned with salt, and meet to minister grace to the hearers.” He will always "open his mouth with wisdom, and there will be in his tongue the law of kindness.” Hence his affectionate words will " distil as the dew, and as the rain upon the tender herb.” And men will know, “it is not he only that speaks, but the Spirit of the Father that speaketh in him.” His actions will spring from the same source with his words; even from the abundance of a loving heart. And while all these aim at the glory of God,

and tend to one point, whatever he does, he may truly say,

56 End of my every action thou,

In all things thee I see:
Accept my hallow'd labour now,

I do it as to thee!”

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24. He to whom this character belongs, and he alone, is a Christian. To him the one, eternal, omnipresent, all perfect Spirit, is the “alpha . and omega,

the first and the last.” Not his Creator only, but his sustainer, his preserver, his governor; yea, his Father, his Saviour, Sanctifier, and Comforter. This God is his God, and his all, in time and in eternity. It is the benevolence springing from this root, which is pure and undefiled religion. But if it be built on any other foundation, as it is of no avail in the sight of God, so it brings no real, solid, permanent happiness to man, but leaves him still a poor, dry, indigent, and dissatisfied creature.

25. Let all, therefore, that desire to please God, condescend to be taught of God, and take care to walk in that path which God himself hath appointed. Beware of taking half of this religion for the whole, but take both parts of it together. And see that you begin where God himself begins: “Thou shalt have no other god before me.” Is not this the first, our Lord himself being the Judge, as well as the great commandment? First, therefore, see that ye love God! next, your neighbour, every child of man. From this fountain let every temper, every affection, every passion flow. So shall that “mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.” Let all your thoughts, words, and actions, spring from this ! So shall you " inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the beginning of the world.”

Dublin, April 9, 1789.

SERMON CXX.-Causes of the Inefficacy of Christianity.

" Is there no balm in Gilead ; is there no physician there? Why then is not the health of the daughter of my people recovered ?" Jer. viii, 22.

1. This question, as here proposed by the prophet, relates only to a particular people, the children of Israel. But I would here consider it in a general sense, with relation to all mankind. I would seriously inquire, Why has Christianity done so little good in the world? Is it not the balm, the outward means, which the great Physician has given to men, to restore their spiritual health? Why then is it not restored? You say, because of the deep and universal corruption of human nature, Most true. But here is the very difficulty. Was it not intended by our all wise and almighty Creator, to be the remedy for that corruption ? A universal remedy, for a universal evil ? But it has not answered this intention : it never did : it does not answer it at this day. The disease still remains in its full strength: wickedness of every kind; vice, inward and outward, in all its forms, still overspreads the face of the earth.

2. Oh Lord God, “righteous art thou! Yet let us plead with thee.” How is this? Hast thou forgotten the world thou hast made? Which thou hast created for thy own glory? Canst thou despise the work of thy own hands, the purchase of thy Son's blood ? Thou hast given medicine to heal our sickness; yet our sickness is not healed. Still darkness covers the earth, and thick darkness the people, Yea,

"Darkness such as devils feel,
Issuing from the pit of hell."

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